Abstract

We have examined the performance of a see-through photovoltaics module that uses a low-concentration prism concentrator by undertaking ray-tracing analysis and an on-site experiment. The incident angle dependency of the prism concentrator makes it possible to concentrate direct solar radiation onto solar cells and transmit diffuse solar radiation. Fewer solar cells can then be used without sacrificing the conversion efficiency or lighting performance. The module generates approximately 1.15 more electricity than a conventional module while operating with 63% less solar cell area. We also introduce a design method for the concentrator geometry that adjusts the incident angle dependency for different latitude and tilt angles.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. D. H. W. Li, T. N. T. Lam, and K. L. Cheung, “Energy and cost studies of semi-transparent photovoltaic skylight,” Energy Convers. Manage. 50(8), 1981–1990 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. E. Park, G. H. Kang, H. I. Kim, G. J. Yu, and J. T. Kim, “Analysis of thermal and electrical performance of semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) module,” Energy 35(6), 2681–2687 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Grätzel, “The advent of mesoscopic injection solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(5), 429–442 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Hamakawa, Thin-Film Solar Cells: Next Generation Photovoltaics and Its Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2004)
  7. T. T. Chow, K. F. Fong, W. He, Z. Lin, and A. L. S. Chan, “Performance evaluation of a PV ventilated window applying to office building of Hong Kong,” Energy Build. 39(6), 643–650 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Miyazaki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows,” Renew. Energy 30(3), 281–304 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. R. Mills and J. E. Giutronich, “Ideal prism solar concentrators,” Sol. Energy 21(5), 423–430 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Winston, J. Minano, and P. Benitez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier Academic Press, 2005).
  11. T. Maruyama and S. Osako, “Wedge-shaped light concentrator using total internal reflection,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57(1), 75–83 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Uematsu, Y. Yazawa, Y. Miyamura, S. Muramatsu, H. Ohtsuka, K. Tsutsui, and T. Warabisako, “Static concentrator photovoltaic module with prism array,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 415–423 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Walze, P. Nitz, J. Ell, A. Georg, A. Gombert, and W. Hossfeld, “Combination of microstructures and optically functional coatings for solar control glazing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89(2-3), 233–248 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Yamada and T. Nishikawa, “Evolutionary algorithm for optimization of nonimaging Fresnel lens geometry,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 2), A126–A132 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

K. E. Park, G. H. Kang, H. I. Kim, G. J. Yu, and J. T. Kim, “Analysis of thermal and electrical performance of semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) module,” Energy 35(6), 2681–2687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada and T. Nishikawa, “Evolutionary algorithm for optimization of nonimaging Fresnel lens geometry,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 2), A126–A132 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

D. H. W. Li, T. N. T. Lam, and K. L. Cheung, “Energy and cost studies of semi-transparent photovoltaic skylight,” Energy Convers. Manage. 50(8), 1981–1990 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. T. Chow, K. F. Fong, W. He, Z. Lin, and A. L. S. Chan, “Performance evaluation of a PV ventilated window applying to office building of Hong Kong,” Energy Build. 39(6), 643–650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Grätzel, “The advent of mesoscopic injection solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(5), 429–442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Miyazaki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows,” Renew. Energy 30(3), 281–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Walze, P. Nitz, J. Ell, A. Georg, A. Gombert, and W. Hossfeld, “Combination of microstructures and optically functional coatings for solar control glazing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89(2-3), 233–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Uematsu, Y. Yazawa, Y. Miyamura, S. Muramatsu, H. Ohtsuka, K. Tsutsui, and T. Warabisako, “Static concentrator photovoltaic module with prism array,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 415–423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Maruyama and S. Osako, “Wedge-shaped light concentrator using total internal reflection,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57(1), 75–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. R. Mills and J. E. Giutronich, “Ideal prism solar concentrators,” Sol. Energy 21(5), 423–430 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Akisawa, A.

T. Miyazaki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows,” Renew. Energy 30(3), 281–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biancardo, M.

M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, A. L. S.

T. T. Chow, K. F. Fong, W. He, Z. Lin, and A. L. S. Chan, “Performance evaluation of a PV ventilated window applying to office building of Hong Kong,” Energy Build. 39(6), 643–650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. L.

D. H. W. Li, T. N. T. Lam, and K. L. Cheung, “Energy and cost studies of semi-transparent photovoltaic skylight,” Energy Convers. Manage. 50(8), 1981–1990 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chow, T. T.

T. T. Chow, K. F. Fong, W. He, Z. Lin, and A. L. S. Chan, “Performance evaluation of a PV ventilated window applying to office building of Hong Kong,” Energy Build. 39(6), 643–650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ell, J.

G. Walze, P. Nitz, J. Ell, A. Georg, A. Gombert, and W. Hossfeld, “Combination of microstructures and optically functional coatings for solar control glazing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89(2-3), 233–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fong, K. F.

T. T. Chow, K. F. Fong, W. He, Z. Lin, and A. L. S. Chan, “Performance evaluation of a PV ventilated window applying to office building of Hong Kong,” Energy Build. 39(6), 643–650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Georg, A.

G. Walze, P. Nitz, J. Ell, A. Georg, A. Gombert, and W. Hossfeld, “Combination of microstructures and optically functional coatings for solar control glazing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89(2-3), 233–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giutronich, J. E.

D. R. Mills and J. E. Giutronich, “Ideal prism solar concentrators,” Sol. Energy 21(5), 423–430 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

G. Walze, P. Nitz, J. Ell, A. Georg, A. Gombert, and W. Hossfeld, “Combination of microstructures and optically functional coatings for solar control glazing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89(2-3), 233–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grätzel, M.

M. Grätzel, “The advent of mesoscopic injection solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(5), 429–442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, W.

T. T. Chow, K. F. Fong, W. He, Z. Lin, and A. L. S. Chan, “Performance evaluation of a PV ventilated window applying to office building of Hong Kong,” Energy Build. 39(6), 643–650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hossfeld, W.

G. Walze, P. Nitz, J. Ell, A. Georg, A. Gombert, and W. Hossfeld, “Combination of microstructures and optically functional coatings for solar control glazing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89(2-3), 233–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imoto, S.

M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inagawa, I.

M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kang, G. H.

K. E. Park, G. H. Kang, H. I. Kim, G. J. Yu, and J. T. Kim, “Analysis of thermal and electrical performance of semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) module,” Energy 35(6), 2681–2687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwagi, T.

T. Miyazaki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows,” Renew. Energy 30(3), 281–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. I.

K. E. Park, G. H. Kang, H. I. Kim, G. J. Yu, and J. T. Kim, “Analysis of thermal and electrical performance of semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) module,” Energy 35(6), 2681–2687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. T.

K. E. Park, G. H. Kang, H. I. Kim, G. J. Yu, and J. T. Kim, “Analysis of thermal and electrical performance of semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) module,” Energy 35(6), 2681–2687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kogo, N.

M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kouzuma, S.

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, N.

M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuratani, N.

M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuwano, Y.

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lam, T. N. T.

D. H. W. Li, T. N. T. Lam, and K. L. Cheung, “Energy and cost studies of semi-transparent photovoltaic skylight,” Energy Convers. Manage. 50(8), 1981–1990 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. H. W.

D. H. W. Li, T. N. T. Lam, and K. L. Cheung, “Energy and cost studies of semi-transparent photovoltaic skylight,” Energy Convers. Manage. 50(8), 1981–1990 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

T. T. Chow, K. F. Fong, W. He, Z. Lin, and A. L. S. Chan, “Performance evaluation of a PV ventilated window applying to office building of Hong Kong,” Energy Build. 39(6), 643–650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, T.

T. Maruyama and S. Osako, “Wedge-shaped light concentrator using total internal reflection,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57(1), 75–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mills, D. R.

D. R. Mills and J. E. Giutronich, “Ideal prism solar concentrators,” Sol. Energy 21(5), 423–430 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miyamura, Y.

T. Uematsu, Y. Yazawa, Y. Miyamura, S. Muramatsu, H. Ohtsuka, K. Tsutsui, and T. Warabisako, “Static concentrator photovoltaic module with prism array,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 415–423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, T.

T. Miyazaki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows,” Renew. Energy 30(3), 281–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morizane, M.

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Muramatsu, S.

T. Uematsu, Y. Yazawa, Y. Miyamura, S. Muramatsu, H. Ohtsuka, K. Tsutsui, and T. Warabisako, “Static concentrator photovoltaic module with prism array,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 415–423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murata, K.

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, N.

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, S.

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, J.

M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, T.

Nishiwaki, H.

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nitz, P.

G. Walze, P. Nitz, J. Ell, A. Georg, A. Gombert, and W. Hossfeld, “Combination of microstructures and optically functional coatings for solar control glazing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89(2-3), 233–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, M.

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, H.

T. Uematsu, Y. Yazawa, Y. Miyamura, S. Muramatsu, H. Ohtsuka, K. Tsutsui, and T. Warabisako, “Static concentrator photovoltaic module with prism array,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 415–423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Osako, S.

T. Maruyama and S. Osako, “Wedge-shaped light concentrator using total internal reflection,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57(1), 75–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. E.

K. E. Park, G. H. Kang, H. I. Kim, G. J. Yu, and J. T. Kim, “Analysis of thermal and electrical performance of semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) module,” Energy 35(6), 2681–2687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taira, K.

M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takeoka, A.

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, K.

T. Uematsu, Y. Yazawa, Y. Miyamura, S. Muramatsu, H. Ohtsuka, K. Tsutsui, and T. Warabisako, “Static concentrator photovoltaic module with prism array,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 415–423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Uematsu, T.

T. Uematsu, Y. Yazawa, Y. Miyamura, S. Muramatsu, H. Ohtsuka, K. Tsutsui, and T. Warabisako, “Static concentrator photovoltaic module with prism array,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 415–423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walze, G.

G. Walze, P. Nitz, J. Ell, A. Georg, A. Gombert, and W. Hossfeld, “Combination of microstructures and optically functional coatings for solar control glazing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89(2-3), 233–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Warabisako, T.

T. Uematsu, Y. Yazawa, Y. Miyamura, S. Muramatsu, H. Ohtsuka, K. Tsutsui, and T. Warabisako, “Static concentrator photovoltaic module with prism array,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 415–423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

Yazawa, Y.

T. Uematsu, Y. Yazawa, Y. Miyamura, S. Muramatsu, H. Ohtsuka, K. Tsutsui, and T. Warabisako, “Static concentrator photovoltaic module with prism array,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 415–423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G. J.

K. E. Park, G. H. Kang, H. I. Kim, G. J. Yu, and J. T. Kim, “Analysis of thermal and electrical performance of semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) module,” Energy 35(6), 2681–2687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Energy

K. E. Park, G. H. Kang, H. I. Kim, G. J. Yu, and J. T. Kim, “Analysis of thermal and electrical performance of semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) module,” Energy 35(6), 2681–2687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Energy Build.

T. T. Chow, K. F. Fong, W. He, Z. Lin, and A. L. S. Chan, “Performance evaluation of a PV ventilated window applying to office building of Hong Kong,” Energy Build. 39(6), 643–650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Energy Convers. Manage.

D. H. W. Li, T. N. T. Lam, and K. L. Cheung, “Energy and cost studies of semi-transparent photovoltaic skylight,” Energy Convers. Manage. 50(8), 1981–1990 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

M. Grätzel, “The advent of mesoscopic injection solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(5), 429–442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Energy

T. Miyazaki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows,” Renew. Energy 30(3), 281–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

D. R. Mills and J. E. Giutronich, “Ideal prism solar concentrators,” Sol. Energy 21(5), 423–430 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Biancardo, K. Taira, N. Kogo, H. Kikuchi, N. Kumagai, N. Kuratani, I. Inagawa, S. Imoto, and J. Nakata, “Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 81(6), 711–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

A. Takeoka, S. Kouzuma, H. Tanaka, H. Inoue, K. Murata, M. Morizane, N. Nakamura, H. Nishiwaki, M. Ohnishi, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Development and application of see-through a-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 29(3), 243–252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Maruyama and S. Osako, “Wedge-shaped light concentrator using total internal reflection,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57(1), 75–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Uematsu, Y. Yazawa, Y. Miyamura, S. Muramatsu, H. Ohtsuka, K. Tsutsui, and T. Warabisako, “Static concentrator photovoltaic module with prism array,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67(1-4), 415–423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Walze, P. Nitz, J. Ell, A. Georg, A. Gombert, and W. Hossfeld, “Combination of microstructures and optically functional coatings for solar control glazing,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89(2-3), 233–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Hamakawa, Thin-Film Solar Cells: Next Generation Photovoltaics and Its Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2004)

R. Winston, J. Minano, and P. Benitez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier Academic Press, 2005).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of see-through prism CPV module. (a) Cross-section of the module and working principle. (b) Coordinate system for the ray-tracing analysis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distribution of angular optical efficiency of concentration to solar cell. Black lines represent an example sun path when the module is affixed on a vertical surface in Nagaoka city, Japan (lat.: 37.44°N, long.: 138.85°E). Solid line: module facing south; dashed line: module facing east.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of the fabricated see-through prism CPV module. (a) Small incident angle view. (b) Large incident angle view. (c) Sample view.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Apparatus for outdoor experiment. (a) Schematic diagram of the system. (b) Photograph of the system. The tilt angle of the PV modules is 90°, facing south. Location: Nagaoka city, Japan.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the outdoor experiment on June 6, 2010. (a) Daily variations in generated power per solar cell area. (b) Daily variations in generated power per module aperture area. Simulated variations are shown in red and blue. (c) Measured daily variation of global and direct radiation onto module aperture.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated daily summer performance of the (a) see-through prism CPV module and (b) conventional see-through Flat PV module in Tokyo, Japan. The modules face south at 90° tilt. The total amount of transmission (lighting) of the prism CPV is equivalent to that of the Flat PV.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated yearly performance comparison between the see-through prism CPV module and conventional see-through Flat PV module facing (a) south, (b) southeast, and (c) east in Tokyo, Japan. The modules are mounted vertically. The total amount of transmission (lighting) of the prism CPV is equivalent to that of the Flat PV.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Incident angle dependency. (a) Simple prism geometry. (b) Example of an evolutionary algorithm generated prism geometry.

Equations (1)

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θ i n >  sin 1 { n sin ( θ c r θ A ) } ,

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