Abstract

The spectral response of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) heterojunction film is between 350 nm and 650 nm, meaning that a lot of the sunlight is lost at ultraviolet and infrared regions. We fabricated solar cells by the attachment of a fluorescence layer which absorbs UV light, and emit visible light which will be re-used by P3HT, and thus the absorption spectrum is expanded. Since N,N’-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (TPD) has high reflectance in the visible range, the usage of UV light will not manifest; when LiF is added as an antireflection layer, PCE was enhanced from 2.50% to 2.68%.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, and H. H. Hörhold, “Travelling-wave lasing of TPD solutions and neat films,” Synth. Met. 113(3), 281–287 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Tsuboi, A. K. Bansal, and A. Penzkofer, “Fluorescence and phosphorescence behavior of TPD doped and TPD neat films,” Thin Solid Films 518(2), 835–838 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guo, Y. Liang, J. Szarko, B. Lee, H. J. Son, B. S. Rolczynski, L. Yu, and L. X. Chen, “Structure, dynamics, and power conversion efficiency correlations in a new low bandgap polymer: PCBM solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(2), 742–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Boland, K. Lee, J. Dean, and G. Namkoong, “Design of organic tandem solar cells using low- and high-bandgap polymer:fullerene composites,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2170–2175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Koppe, H.-J. Egelhaaf, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, P. Schilinsky, and C. N. Hoth, “Near IR sensitization of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: towards optimization of the spectral response of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(2), 338–346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada, L. Nguyen Anh, and T. Kambayashi, “Escaping losses of diffuse light emitted by luminescent dyes doped in micro/nanostructured solar cell systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 413–419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Park and M. Y. Han, “Photovoltaic characteristics of polymer solar cells fabricated by pre-metered coating process,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13830–13840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuboi, A. K. Bansal, and A. Penzkofer, “Fluorescence and phosphorescence behavior of TPD doped and TPD neat films,” Thin Solid Films 518(2), 835–838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Burkhard, E. T. Hoke, S. R. Scully, and M. D. McGehee, “Incomplete exciton harvesting from fullerenes in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4037–4041 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, R. Mastria, K. Li, A. Fiore, Y. Wang, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Improved photovoltaic performance of bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic cells by triplet materials and tetrapod-shaped colloidal nanocrystals doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Soci, I.-W. Hwang, D. Moses, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. J. Brabec, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoconductivity of a low-bandgap conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Maglione, C. Minarini, R. Miscioscia, G. Nenna, E. Romanelli, and P. Tassini, “Efficiency and aging comparison between N,N’-Bis (3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) and N,N’-Di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N’-diphenyl]-1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine (NPD) based OLED devices,” Macromol. Symp. 247(1), 311–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells-towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Markvart, “Detailed balance method for ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 026101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Tsuboi, H. Murayama, and A. Penzkofer, “Energy transfer in a thin film of TPD fluorescent molecules doped with PtOEP and Ir(ppy)3 phosphorescent molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 93–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

K. Okumoto and Y. Shirota, “Development of high-performance blue-violet-emitting organic electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(9), 1231–1233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini and R. M. Montereali, “New perspectives of coloured LiF for optoelectronic devices,” Opt. Mater. 16(1-2), 53–61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, and H. H. Hörhold, “Travelling-wave lasing of TPD solutions and neat films,” Synth. Met. 113(3), 281–287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldacchini, G.

G. Baldacchini and R. M. Montereali, “New perspectives of coloured LiF for optoelectronic devices,” Opt. Mater. 16(1-2), 53–61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bansal, A. K.

T. Tsuboi, A. K. Bansal, and A. Penzkofer, “Fluorescence and phosphorescence behavior of TPD doped and TPD neat films,” Thin Solid Films 518(2), 835–838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnham, K. W.

Beaupre, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bende, E. E.

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boland, P.

P. Boland, K. Lee, J. Dean, and G. Namkoong, “Design of organic tandem solar cells using low- and high-bandgap polymer:fullerene composites,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2170–2175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bose, R.

Brabec, C. J.

M. Koppe, H.-J. Egelhaaf, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, P. Schilinsky, and C. N. Hoth, “Near IR sensitization of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: towards optimization of the spectral response of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(2), 338–346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Soci, I.-W. Hwang, D. Moses, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. J. Brabec, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoconductivity of a low-bandgap conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells-towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Büchtemann, A.

Budel, T.

Burgers, A. R.

Burkhard, G. F.

G. F. Burkhard, E. T. Hoke, S. R. Scully, and M. D. McGehee, “Incomplete exciton harvesting from fullerenes in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4037–4041 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatten, A. J.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. X.

J. Guo, Y. Liang, J. Szarko, B. Lee, H. J. Son, B. S. Rolczynski, L. Yu, and L. X. Chen, “Structure, dynamics, and power conversion efficiency correlations in a new low bandgap polymer: PCBM solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(2), 742–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

Y. Li, R. Mastria, K. Li, A. Fiore, Y. Wang, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Improved photovoltaic performance of bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic cells by triplet materials and tetrapod-shaped colloidal nanocrystals doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N. E.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dante, M.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dean, J.

P. Boland, K. Lee, J. Dean, and G. Namkoong, “Design of organic tandem solar cells using low- and high-bandgap polymer:fullerene composites,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2170–2175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Denk, P.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells-towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

M. Koppe, H.-J. Egelhaaf, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, P. Schilinsky, and C. N. Hoth, “Near IR sensitization of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: towards optimization of the spectral response of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(2), 338–346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Egelhaaf, H.-J.

M. Koppe, H.-J. Egelhaaf, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, P. Schilinsky, and C. N. Hoth, “Near IR sensitization of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: towards optimization of the spectral response of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(2), 338–346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, D. J.

Fiore, A.

Y. Li, R. Mastria, K. Li, A. Fiore, Y. Wang, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Improved photovoltaic performance of bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic cells by triplet materials and tetrapod-shaped colloidal nanocrystals doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gaudiana, R.

C. Soci, I.-W. Hwang, D. Moses, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. J. Brabec, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoconductivity of a low-bandgap conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

Y. Li, R. Mastria, K. Li, A. Fiore, Y. Wang, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Improved photovoltaic performance of bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic cells by triplet materials and tetrapod-shaped colloidal nanocrystals doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

J. Guo, Y. Liang, J. Szarko, B. Lee, H. J. Son, B. S. Rolczynski, L. Yu, and L. X. Chen, “Structure, dynamics, and power conversion efficiency correlations in a new low bandgap polymer: PCBM solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(2), 742–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, M. Y.

Heeger, A. J.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Soci, I.-W. Hwang, D. Moses, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. J. Brabec, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoconductivity of a low-bandgap conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells-towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoke, E. T.

G. F. Burkhard, E. T. Hoke, S. R. Scully, and M. D. McGehee, “Incomplete exciton harvesting from fullerenes in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4037–4041 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzer, W.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, and H. H. Hörhold, “Travelling-wave lasing of TPD solutions and neat films,” Synth. Met. 113(3), 281–287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hörhold, H. H.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, and H. H. Hörhold, “Travelling-wave lasing of TPD solutions and neat films,” Synth. Met. 113(3), 281–287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoth, C. N.

M. Koppe, H.-J. Egelhaaf, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, P. Schilinsky, and C. N. Hoth, “Near IR sensitization of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: towards optimization of the spectral response of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(2), 338–346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I.-W.

C. Soci, I.-W. Hwang, D. Moses, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. J. Brabec, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoconductivity of a low-bandgap conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kambayashi, T.

N. Yamada, L. Nguyen Anh, and T. Kambayashi, “Escaping losses of diffuse light emitted by luminescent dyes doped in micro/nanostructured solar cell systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 413–419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, M.

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koole, R.

Koppe, M.

M. Koppe, H.-J. Egelhaaf, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, P. Schilinsky, and C. N. Hoth, “Near IR sensitization of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: towards optimization of the spectral response of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(2), 338–346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells-towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, M.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

J. Guo, Y. Liang, J. Szarko, B. Lee, H. J. Son, B. S. Rolczynski, L. Yu, and L. X. Chen, “Structure, dynamics, and power conversion efficiency correlations in a new low bandgap polymer: PCBM solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(2), 742–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

P. Boland, K. Lee, J. Dean, and G. Namkoong, “Design of organic tandem solar cells using low- and high-bandgap polymer:fullerene composites,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2170–2175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

Y. Li, R. Mastria, K. Li, A. Fiore, Y. Wang, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Improved photovoltaic performance of bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic cells by triplet materials and tetrapod-shaped colloidal nanocrystals doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, R. Mastria, K. Li, A. Fiore, Y. Wang, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Improved photovoltaic performance of bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic cells by triplet materials and tetrapod-shaped colloidal nanocrystals doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

J. Guo, Y. Liang, J. Szarko, B. Lee, H. J. Son, B. S. Rolczynski, L. Yu, and L. X. Chen, “Structure, dynamics, and power conversion efficiency correlations in a new low bandgap polymer: PCBM solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(2), 742–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maglione, M. G.

M. G. Maglione, C. Minarini, R. Miscioscia, G. Nenna, E. Romanelli, and P. Tassini, “Efficiency and aging comparison between N,N’-Bis (3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) and N,N’-Di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N’-diphenyl]-1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine (NPD) based OLED devices,” Macromol. Symp. 247(1), 311–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manna, L.

Y. Li, R. Mastria, K. Li, A. Fiore, Y. Wang, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Improved photovoltaic performance of bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic cells by triplet materials and tetrapod-shaped colloidal nanocrystals doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markvart, T.

T. Markvart, “Detailed balance method for ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 026101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mastria, R.

Y. Li, R. Mastria, K. Li, A. Fiore, Y. Wang, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Improved photovoltaic performance of bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic cells by triplet materials and tetrapod-shaped colloidal nanocrystals doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mc.Cormack, S. J.

McGehee, M. D.

G. F. Burkhard, E. T. Hoke, S. R. Scully, and M. D. McGehee, “Incomplete exciton harvesting from fullerenes in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4037–4041 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijerink, A.

Meyer, A.

Meyer, T.

Minarini, C.

M. G. Maglione, C. Minarini, R. Miscioscia, G. Nenna, E. Romanelli, and P. Tassini, “Efficiency and aging comparison between N,N’-Bis (3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) and N,N’-Di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N’-diphenyl]-1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine (NPD) based OLED devices,” Macromol. Symp. 247(1), 311–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miscioscia, R.

M. G. Maglione, C. Minarini, R. Miscioscia, G. Nenna, E. Romanelli, and P. Tassini, “Efficiency and aging comparison between N,N’-Bis (3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) and N,N’-Di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N’-diphenyl]-1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine (NPD) based OLED devices,” Macromol. Symp. 247(1), 311–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Montereali, R. M.

G. Baldacchini and R. M. Montereali, “New perspectives of coloured LiF for optoelectronic devices,” Opt. Mater. 16(1-2), 53–61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Soci, I.-W. Hwang, D. Moses, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. J. Brabec, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoconductivity of a low-bandgap conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mühlbacher, D.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells-towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, H.

T. Tsuboi, H. Murayama, and A. Penzkofer, “Energy transfer in a thin film of TPD fluorescent molecules doped with PtOEP and Ir(ppy)3 phosphorescent molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 93–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Namkoong, G.

P. Boland, K. Lee, J. Dean, and G. Namkoong, “Design of organic tandem solar cells using low- and high-bandgap polymer:fullerene composites,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2170–2175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nenna, G.

M. G. Maglione, C. Minarini, R. Miscioscia, G. Nenna, E. Romanelli, and P. Tassini, “Efficiency and aging comparison between N,N’-Bis (3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) and N,N’-Di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N’-diphenyl]-1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine (NPD) based OLED devices,” Macromol. Symp. 247(1), 311–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T. Q.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen Anh, L.

N. Yamada, L. Nguyen Anh, and T. Kambayashi, “Escaping losses of diffuse light emitted by luminescent dyes doped in micro/nanostructured solar cell systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 413–419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okumoto, K.

K. Okumoto and Y. Shirota, “Development of high-performance blue-violet-emitting organic electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(9), 1231–1233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Penzkofer, A.

T. Tsuboi, A. K. Bansal, and A. Penzkofer, “Fluorescence and phosphorescence behavior of TPD doped and TPD neat films,” Thin Solid Films 518(2), 835–838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuboi, H. Murayama, and A. Penzkofer, “Energy transfer in a thin film of TPD fluorescent molecules doped with PtOEP and Ir(ppy)3 phosphorescent molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 93–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, and H. H. Hörhold, “Travelling-wave lasing of TPD solutions and neat films,” Synth. Met. 113(3), 281–287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quilitz, J.

Richards, B. S.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rolczynski, B. S.

J. Guo, Y. Liang, J. Szarko, B. Lee, H. J. Son, B. S. Rolczynski, L. Yu, and L. X. Chen, “Structure, dynamics, and power conversion efficiency correlations in a new low bandgap polymer: PCBM solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(2), 742–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romanelli, E.

M. G. Maglione, C. Minarini, R. Miscioscia, G. Nenna, E. Romanelli, and P. Tassini, “Efficiency and aging comparison between N,N’-Bis (3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) and N,N’-Di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N’-diphenyl]-1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine (NPD) based OLED devices,” Macromol. Symp. 247(1), 311–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scharber, M. C.

M. Koppe, H.-J. Egelhaaf, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, P. Schilinsky, and C. N. Hoth, “Near IR sensitization of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: towards optimization of the spectral response of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(2), 338–346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells-towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schilinsky, P.

M. Koppe, H.-J. Egelhaaf, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, P. Schilinsky, and C. N. Hoth, “Near IR sensitization of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: towards optimization of the spectral response of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(2), 338–346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scully, S. R.

G. F. Burkhard, E. T. Hoke, S. R. Scully, and M. D. McGehee, “Incomplete exciton harvesting from fullerenes in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4037–4041 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalav, A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shirota, Y.

K. Okumoto and Y. Shirota, “Development of high-performance blue-violet-emitting organic electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(9), 1231–1233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slooff, L. H.

Soci, C.

C. Soci, I.-W. Hwang, D. Moses, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. J. Brabec, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoconductivity of a low-bandgap conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Son, H. J.

J. Guo, Y. Liang, J. Szarko, B. Lee, H. J. Son, B. S. Rolczynski, L. Yu, and L. X. Chen, “Structure, dynamics, and power conversion efficiency correlations in a new low bandgap polymer: PCBM solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(2), 742–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szarko, J.

J. Guo, Y. Liang, J. Szarko, B. Lee, H. J. Son, B. S. Rolczynski, L. Yu, and L. X. Chen, “Structure, dynamics, and power conversion efficiency correlations in a new low bandgap polymer: PCBM solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(2), 742–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tassini, P.

M. G. Maglione, C. Minarini, R. Miscioscia, G. Nenna, E. Romanelli, and P. Tassini, “Efficiency and aging comparison between N,N’-Bis (3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) and N,N’-Di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N’-diphenyl]-1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine (NPD) based OLED devices,” Macromol. Symp. 247(1), 311–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuboi, T.

T. Tsuboi, A. K. Bansal, and A. Penzkofer, “Fluorescence and phosphorescence behavior of TPD doped and TPD neat films,” Thin Solid Films 518(2), 835–838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuboi, H. Murayama, and A. Penzkofer, “Energy transfer in a thin film of TPD fluorescent molecules doped with PtOEP and Ir(ppy)3 phosphorescent molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 93–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Klink, G. P.

van Koten, G.

Van Sark, W. G.

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

Wadman, S. H.

Waldauf, C.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells-towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waller, D.

C. Soci, I.-W. Hwang, D. Moses, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. J. Brabec, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoconductivity of a low-bandgap conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Li, R. Mastria, K. Li, A. Fiore, Y. Wang, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Improved photovoltaic performance of bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic cells by triplet materials and tetrapod-shaped colloidal nanocrystals doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

N. Yamada, L. Nguyen Anh, and T. Kambayashi, “Escaping losses of diffuse light emitted by luminescent dyes doped in micro/nanostructured solar cell systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 413–419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

J. Guo, Y. Liang, J. Szarko, B. Lee, H. J. Son, B. S. Rolczynski, L. Yu, and L. X. Chen, “Structure, dynamics, and power conversion efficiency correlations in a new low bandgap polymer: PCBM solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(2), 742–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

C. Soci, I.-W. Hwang, D. Moses, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. J. Brabec, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoconductivity of a low-bandgap conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

C. Soci, I.-W. Hwang, D. Moses, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. J. Brabec, and A. J. Heeger, “Photoconductivity of a low-bandgap conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(4), 632–636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Koppe, H.-J. Egelhaaf, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, P. Schilinsky, and C. N. Hoth, “Near IR sensitization of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: towards optimization of the spectral response of organic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(2), 338–346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells-towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Tsuboi, H. Murayama, and A. Penzkofer, “Energy transfer in a thin film of TPD fluorescent molecules doped with PtOEP and Ir(ppy)3 phosphorescent molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 93–99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Li, R. Mastria, K. Li, A. Fiore, Y. Wang, R. Cingolani, L. Manna, and G. Gigli, “Improved photovoltaic performance of bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic cells by triplet materials and tetrapod-shaped colloidal nanocrystals doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Okumoto and Y. Shirota, “Development of high-performance blue-violet-emitting organic electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(9), 1231–1233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Markvart, “Detailed balance method for ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 026101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. Guo, Y. Liang, J. Szarko, B. Lee, H. J. Son, B. S. Rolczynski, L. Yu, and L. X. Chen, “Structure, dynamics, and power conversion efficiency correlations in a new low bandgap polymer: PCBM solar cell,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(2), 742–748 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Symp. (1)

M. G. Maglione, C. Minarini, R. Miscioscia, G. Nenna, E. Romanelli, and P. Tassini, “Efficiency and aging comparison between N,N’-Bis (3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) and N,N’-Di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N’-diphenyl]-1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine (NPD) based OLED devices,” Macromol. Symp. 247(1), 311–317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

G. F. Burkhard, E. T. Hoke, S. R. Scully, and M. D. McGehee, “Incomplete exciton harvesting from fullerenes in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4037–4041 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

G. Baldacchini and R. M. Montereali, “New perspectives of coloured LiF for optoelectronic devices,” Opt. Mater. 16(1-2), 53–61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T. Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

P. Boland, K. Lee, J. Dean, and G. Namkoong, “Design of organic tandem solar cells using low- and high-bandgap polymer:fullerene composites,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2170–2175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada, L. Nguyen Anh, and T. Kambayashi, “Escaping losses of diffuse light emitted by luminescent dyes doped in micro/nanostructured solar cell systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 413–419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, and H. H. Hörhold, “Travelling-wave lasing of TPD solutions and neat films,” Synth. Met. 113(3), 281–287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Tsuboi, A. K. Bansal, and A. Penzkofer, “Fluorescence and phosphorescence behavior of TPD doped and TPD neat films,” Thin Solid Films 518(2), 835–838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The structure and principle scheme of the fluorescence-enhanced organic solar cells.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized absorption spectrum of P3HT (red dash dot line), TPD (violet solid line), PCBM (green dot line) and photoluminescence spectrum of TPD (blue dash line); Inset: Structural formula of TPD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical calculation of reflection coefficient dependent on the thickness of TPD and LiF. |r| increased as the color changed from dark blue to red.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

|r| dependent on wavelength and thickness of TPD; LiF is set to be 90 nm. |r| increased as the color changed from dark blue to red. The blue region shows that 150 nm TPD/90 nm LiF keeps |r| small from 400 nm to 600 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

J-V characteristics of standard OPVs (black solid line), OPVs with TPD backward (red dash line) and OPVs with TPD/LiF backward (blue dot line) when illuminated at 100 mW/cm2 air mass 1.5 global (AM1.5 G) simulated sun light; Inset: the schematic structure of the devices.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The reflectance of standard OPVs (black solid line), OPVs with TPD backward (red dash line) and OPVS with TPD/LiF backward (blue dot line).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The transmittance of TPD (red dash line), TPD/LiF (blue dot line), LiF (green dash dot line), and noting at the back of ITO/glass (black solid line), the data was tested with quartz glass as blank.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a. EQE of standard OPVs (black square), and OPVs with TPD backward (red circle); b. standard OPVs (black square) and OPVs with TPD/LiF backward (blue up-triangle) in short wavelength. Inset: EQE of OPVs in long wavelength which was measured with EQE measurement system.

Equations (1)

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r = ( k z 0 i ) ( cos ( d 1 · k z 1 ) sin ( d 1 · k z 1 ) k z 1 k z 1 · sin ( d 1 · k z 1 ) cos ( d 1 · k z 1 ) ) ( cos ( d 2 · k z 2 ) sin ( d 2 · k z 2 ) k z 1 k z 2 · sin ( d 2 · k z 2 ) cos ( d 2 · k z 2 ) ) ( 1 i k z 3 ) ( k z 0 i ) ( cos ( d 1 · k z 1 ) sin ( d 1 · k z 1 ) k z 1 k z 1 · sin ( d 1 · k z 1 ) cos ( d 1 · k z 1 ) ) ( cos ( d 2 · k z 2 ) sin ( d 2 · k z 2 ) k z 1 k z 2 · sin ( d 2 · k z 2 ) cos ( d 2 · k z 2 ) ) ( 1 i k z 3 ) ​     ,

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