Abstract

The trend of stratospheric water vapor as a function of latitude is estimated by the MIPAS measurements by means of a new method that uses the measurement space solution. The method uses all the information provided by the observations avoiding the artifacts introduced by the a priori information and by the interpolation to different vertical grids. The analysis provides very precise values of the trends that, however, are limited by a relatively large systematic error induced by the radiometric calibration error of the instrument. The results show in the five years from 2005 to 2009 a dependence on latitude of the stratospheric (from 37 to 53 km) water vapor trend with a positive value of (0.41 ± 0.16)%yr−1 in the northern hemisphere and less than 0.16%yr−1 in the southern hemisphere.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (3)

S. Salomon, K. H. Rosenlof, R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, S. M. Davis, T. J. Sanford, and G. K. Plattner, “Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming,” Science , 327, 1219–1223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. 111, 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Ceccherini, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “Optimal use of the information provided by indirect measurements of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Opt. Express 17, 4944–4958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Scherer, H. Vomel, S. Fueglistaler, S. J. Oltmans, and J. Staehelin, “Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1391–1402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Remedios, R. J. Leigh, A. M. Waterfall, D. P. Moore, H. Sembhi, I. Parkes, J. Greenhough, M. P. Chipperfield, and D. Hauglustaine, “MIPAS reference atmospheres and comparisons to V4.61/V4.62 MIPAS level 2 geophysical data sets,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7, 9973–10017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

W. J. Randel, F. Wu, S. J. Oltmans, K. Rosenlof, and G. E. Nedoluha, “Interannual changes of stratospheric water vapor and correlations with tropical tropopause temperatures,” J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2133–2148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, E. Pascale, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, and B. M. Dinelli, “Comparison of measurements made with two different instruments of the same atmospheric vertical profile,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6465–6473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Nedoluha, R. M. Bevilacqua, R. M. Gomez, B. C. Hicks, J. M. Russell, and B. J. Connor, “An evaluation of trends in middle atmospheric water vapor as measured by HALOE, WVMS, and POAM,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4391–4400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. A. Geller, X. L. Zhou, and M. H. Zhang, “Simulations of the interannual variability stratospheric water vapor,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 1076–1085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, and C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3665–3673 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

B. Carli, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, and B. M. Dinelli, “Discrete representation and resampling in limb-sounding measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1261–1268 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Seidel, R. J. Ross, J. K. Angell, and G. C. Reid, “Climatological characteristics of the tropical tropopause as revealed by radiosondes,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7857–7878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhou, M. A. Geller, and M. H. Zhang, “Cooling trend of the tropical cold point tropopause temperatures and its implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1511–1522 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

I.M. Held and B.J. Soden, “Water vapor feedback and global warming,” Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 25, 441–475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. v. Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Hpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oltmans, H. Vomel, D. J. Hofmann, K. H. Rosenlof, and D. Kley, “The increase in stratospheric water vapor from balloon borne, frostpoint hygrometer measurements at Washington, DC, and Boulder, Colorado,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3453–3456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. T. Kiehl and K. E. Trenberth, “Earths annual global mean energy budget,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 197–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, and P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10777–10797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Angell, J. K.

D. J. Seidel, R. J. Ross, J. K. Angell, and G. C. Reid, “Climatological characteristics of the tropical tropopause as revealed by radiosondes,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7857–7878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Belotti, C.

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, R. M.

G. E. Nedoluha, R. M. Bevilacqua, R. M. Gomez, B. C. Hicks, J. M. Russell, and B. J. Connor, “An evaluation of trends in middle atmospheric water vapor as measured by HALOE, WVMS, and POAM,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4391–4400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blom, C.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bourassa, A.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bovensmann, H.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brohede, S.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, A.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. 111, 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “Optimal use of the information provided by indirect measurements of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Opt. Express 17, 4944–4958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, E. Pascale, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, and B. M. Dinelli, “Comparison of measurements made with two different instruments of the same atmospheric vertical profile,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6465–6473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Carli, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, and B. M. Dinelli, “Discrete representation and resampling in limb-sounding measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1261–1268 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. v. Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Hpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carlotti, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. v. Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Hpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ceccherini, S.

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. 111, 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “Optimal use of the information provided by indirect measurements of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Opt. Express 17, 4944–4958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, “Analytical determination of the regularization parameter in the retrieval of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2554–2556 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, E. Pascale, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, and B. M. Dinelli, “Comparison of measurements made with two different instruments of the same atmospheric vertical profile,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6465–6473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiou, E. W.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chipperfield, M. P.

J. J. Remedios, R. J. Leigh, A. M. Waterfall, D. P. Moore, H. Sembhi, I. Parkes, J. Greenhough, M. P. Chipperfield, and D. Hauglustaine, “MIPAS reference atmospheres and comparisons to V4.61/V4.62 MIPAS level 2 geophysical data sets,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7, 9973–10017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cicerone, R. J.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, and P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10777–10797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clarmann, T. v.

Clarmann, Tv

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Connor, B. J.

G. E. Nedoluha, R. M. Bevilacqua, R. M. Gomez, B. C. Hicks, J. M. Russell, and B. J. Connor, “An evaluation of trends in middle atmospheric water vapor as measured by HALOE, WVMS, and POAM,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4391–4400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cortesi, U.

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. 111, 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, and P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10777–10797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, J. S.

S. Salomon, K. H. Rosenlof, R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, S. M. Davis, T. J. Sanford, and G. K. Plattner, “Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming,” Science , 327, 1219–1223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. M.

S. Salomon, K. H. Rosenlof, R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, S. M. Davis, T. J. Sanford, and G. K. Plattner, “Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming,” Science , 327, 1219–1223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Degenstein, D.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Del Bianco, S.

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. 111, 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delbouille, L.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dinelli, B. M.

Drayson, S. R.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, and P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10777–10797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dudhia, A.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, and C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3665–3673 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. v. Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Hpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ehhalt, D.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Endemann, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, P.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. v. Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Hpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, J. E.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, and P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10777–10797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fueglistaler, S.

M. Scherer, H. Vomel, S. Fueglistaler, S. J. Oltmans, and J. Staehelin, “Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1391–1402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Funke, B.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geller, M. A.

M. A. Geller, X. L. Zhou, and M. H. Zhang, “Simulations of the interannual variability stratospheric water vapor,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 1076–1085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhou, M. A. Geller, and M. H. Zhang, “Cooling trend of the tropical cold point tropopause temperatures and its implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1511–1522 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gessner, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, R. M.

G. E. Nedoluha, R. M. Bevilacqua, R. M. Gomez, B. C. Hicks, J. M. Russell, and B. J. Connor, “An evaluation of trends in middle atmospheric water vapor as measured by HALOE, WVMS, and POAM,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4391–4400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordley, L. L.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, and P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10777–10797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Greenhough, J.

J. J. Remedios, R. J. Leigh, A. M. Waterfall, D. P. Moore, H. Sembhi, I. Parkes, J. Greenhough, M. P. Chipperfield, and D. Hauglustaine, “MIPAS reference atmospheres and comparisons to V4.61/V4.62 MIPAS level 2 geophysical data sets,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7, 9973–10017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haley, C.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harries, J. E.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, and P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10777–10797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hauglustaine, D.

J. J. Remedios, R. J. Leigh, A. M. Waterfall, D. P. Moore, H. Sembhi, I. Parkes, J. Greenhough, M. P. Chipperfield, and D. Hauglustaine, “MIPAS reference atmospheres and comparisons to V4.61/V4.62 MIPAS level 2 geophysical data sets,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7, 9973–10017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Held, I.M.

I.M. Held and B.J. Soden, “Water vapor feedback and global warming,” Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 25, 441–475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hesketh, W. D.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, and P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10777–10797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hicks, B. C.

G. E. Nedoluha, R. M. Bevilacqua, R. M. Gomez, B. C. Hicks, J. M. Russell, and B. J. Connor, “An evaluation of trends in middle atmospheric water vapor as measured by HALOE, WVMS, and POAM,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4391–4400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

S. J. Oltmans, H. Vomel, D. J. Hofmann, K. H. Rosenlof, and D. Kley, “The increase in stratospheric water vapor from balloon borne, frostpoint hygrometer measurements at Washington, DC, and Boulder, Colorado,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3453–3456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hpfner, M.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. v. Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Hpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jay, V. L.

Johnson, D. G.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. K.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiehl, J. T.

J. T. Kiehl and K. E. Trenberth, “Earths annual global mean energy budget,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 197–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kleinert, A.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kley, D.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oltmans, H. Vomel, D. J. Hofmann, K. H. Rosenlof, and D. Kley, “The increase in stratospheric water vapor from balloon borne, frostpoint hygrometer measurements at Washington, DC, and Boulder, Colorado,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3453–3456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Kley, J. M. Russell, and C. Phillips, “SPARC Assessment of Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Water Vapour,” WCRP Report No. 113, WMO/TD Report No. 1043, World Climate Research Programme, Geneva, 325 pp. (2000).

Koopman, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langen, J.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, R. J.

J. J. Remedios, R. J. Leigh, A. M. Waterfall, D. P. Moore, H. Sembhi, I. Parkes, J. Greenhough, M. P. Chipperfield, and D. Hauglustaine, “MIPAS reference atmospheres and comparisons to V4.61/V4.62 MIPAS level 2 geophysical data sets,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7, 9973–10017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lpez-Puertas, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Michelsen, H. A.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moore, D. P.

J. J. Remedios, R. J. Leigh, A. M. Waterfall, D. P. Moore, H. Sembhi, I. Parkes, J. Greenhough, M. P. Chipperfield, and D. Hauglustaine, “MIPAS reference atmospheres and comparisons to V4.61/V4.62 MIPAS level 2 geophysical data sets,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7, 9973–10017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morris, P. E.

Mosner, P.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murtagh, D. P.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nedoluha, G. E.

W. J. Randel, F. Wu, S. J. Oltmans, K. Rosenlof, and G. E. Nedoluha, “Interannual changes of stratospheric water vapor and correlations with tropical tropopause temperatures,” J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2133–2148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Nedoluha, R. M. Bevilacqua, R. M. Gomez, B. C. Hicks, J. M. Russell, and B. J. Connor, “An evaluation of trends in middle atmospheric water vapor as measured by HALOE, WVMS, and POAM,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4391–4400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nett, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oelhaf, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oltmans, S. J.

M. Scherer, H. Vomel, S. Fueglistaler, S. J. Oltmans, and J. Staehelin, “Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1391–1402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Randel, F. Wu, S. J. Oltmans, K. Rosenlof, and G. E. Nedoluha, “Interannual changes of stratospheric water vapor and correlations with tropical tropopause temperatures,” J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2133–2148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oltmans, H. Vomel, D. J. Hofmann, K. H. Rosenlof, and D. Kley, “The increase in stratospheric water vapor from balloon borne, frostpoint hygrometer measurements at Washington, DC, and Boulder, Colorado,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3453–3456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, and P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10777–10797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Parkes, I.

J. J. Remedios, R. J. Leigh, A. M. Waterfall, D. P. Moore, H. Sembhi, I. Parkes, J. Greenhough, M. P. Chipperfield, and D. Hauglustaine, “MIPAS reference atmospheres and comparisons to V4.61/V4.62 MIPAS level 2 geophysical data sets,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7, 9973–10017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pascale, E.

Payne, V.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perron, G.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, C.

D. Kley, J. M. Russell, and C. Phillips, “SPARC Assessment of Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Water Vapour,” WCRP Report No. 113, WMO/TD Report No. 1043, World Climate Research Programme, Geneva, 325 pp. (2000).

Piccolo, C.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plattner, G. K.

S. Salomon, K. H. Rosenlof, R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, S. M. Davis, T. J. Sanford, and G. K. Plattner, “Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming,” Science , 327, 1219–1223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Portmann, R. W.

S. Salomon, K. H. Rosenlof, R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, S. M. Davis, T. J. Sanford, and G. K. Plattner, “Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming,” Science , 327, 1219–1223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prosperi, M.

Randel, W. J.

W. J. Randel, F. Wu, S. J. Oltmans, K. Rosenlof, and G. E. Nedoluha, “Interannual changes of stratospheric water vapor and correlations with tropical tropopause temperatures,” J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2133–2148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raspollini, P.

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. 111, 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “Optimal use of the information provided by indirect measurements of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Opt. Express 17, 4944–4958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, E. Pascale, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, and B. M. Dinelli, “Comparison of measurements made with two different instruments of the same atmospheric vertical profile,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6465–6473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Carli, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, and B. M. Dinelli, “Discrete representation and resampling in limb-sounding measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1261–1268 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. v. Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Hpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reid, G. C.

D. J. Seidel, R. J. Ross, J. K. Angell, and G. C. Reid, “Climatological characteristics of the tropical tropopause as revealed by radiosondes,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7857–7878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J. J.

J. J. Remedios, R. J. Leigh, A. M. Waterfall, D. P. Moore, H. Sembhi, I. Parkes, J. Greenhough, M. P. Chipperfield, and D. Hauglustaine, “MIPAS reference atmospheres and comparisons to V4.61/V4.62 MIPAS level 2 geophysical data sets,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7, 9973–10017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Remsberg, E. E.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ridolfi, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, and B. M. Dinelli, “Discrete representation and resampling in limb-sounding measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1261–1268 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. v. Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Hpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, and C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3665–3673 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, 2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosenlof, K.

W. J. Randel, F. Wu, S. J. Oltmans, K. Rosenlof, and G. E. Nedoluha, “Interannual changes of stratospheric water vapor and correlations with tropical tropopause temperatures,” J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2133–2148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosenlof, K. H.

S. Salomon, K. H. Rosenlof, R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, S. M. Davis, T. J. Sanford, and G. K. Plattner, “Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming,” Science , 327, 1219–1223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oltmans, H. Vomel, D. J. Hofmann, K. H. Rosenlof, and D. Kley, “The increase in stratospheric water vapor from balloon borne, frostpoint hygrometer measurements at Washington, DC, and Boulder, Colorado,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3453–3456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ross, R. J.

D. J. Seidel, R. J. Ross, J. K. Angell, and G. C. Reid, “Climatological characteristics of the tropical tropopause as revealed by radiosondes,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7857–7878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rozanov, A.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

G. E. Nedoluha, R. M. Bevilacqua, R. M. Gomez, B. C. Hicks, J. M. Russell, and B. J. Connor, “An evaluation of trends in middle atmospheric water vapor as measured by HALOE, WVMS, and POAM,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4391–4400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, and P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10777–10797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Kley, J. M. Russell, and C. Phillips, “SPARC Assessment of Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Water Vapour,” WCRP Report No. 113, WMO/TD Report No. 1043, World Climate Research Programme, Geneva, 325 pp. (2000).

Salomon, S.

S. Salomon, K. H. Rosenlof, R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, S. M. Davis, T. J. Sanford, and G. K. Plattner, “Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming,” Science , 327, 1219–1223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, T. J.

S. Salomon, K. H. Rosenlof, R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, S. M. Davis, T. J. Sanford, and G. K. Plattner, “Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming,” Science , 327, 1219–1223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, M.

M. Scherer, H. Vomel, S. Fueglistaler, S. J. Oltmans, and J. Staehelin, “Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1391–1402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, D. J.

D. J. Seidel, R. J. Ross, J. K. Angell, and G. C. Reid, “Climatological characteristics of the tropical tropopause as revealed by radiosondes,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7857–7878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sembhi, H.

J. J. Remedios, R. J. Leigh, A. M. Waterfall, D. P. Moore, H. Sembhi, I. Parkes, J. Greenhough, M. P. Chipperfield, and D. Hauglustaine, “MIPAS reference atmospheres and comparisons to V4.61/V4.62 MIPAS level 2 geophysical data sets,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7, 9973–10017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soden, B.J.

I.M. Held and B.J. Soden, “Water vapor feedback and global warming,” Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 25, 441–475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sonkaew, T.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spang, R.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hpfner, M. Lpez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Staehelin, J.

M. Scherer, H. Vomel, S. Fueglistaler, S. J. Oltmans, and J. Staehelin, “Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1391–1402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. v. Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Hpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley, J. M. Russell, E. W. Chiou, W. P. Chu, D. G. Johnson, K. K. Kelly, H. A. Michelsen, G. E. Nedoluha, E. E. Remsberg, G. C. Toon, and M. P. McCormick, “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1195–1198 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trenberth, K. E.

J. T. Kiehl and K. E. Trenberth, “Earths annual global mean energy budget,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 197–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tuck, A. F.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, and P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10777–10797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Urban, J.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vomel, H.

M. Scherer, H. Vomel, S. Fueglistaler, S. J. Oltmans, and J. Staehelin, “Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1391–1402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oltmans, H. Vomel, D. J. Hofmann, K. H. Rosenlof, and D. Kley, “The increase in stratospheric water vapor from balloon borne, frostpoint hygrometer measurements at Washington, DC, and Boulder, Colorado,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3453–3456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von Savigny, C.

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. Burrows, “Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapor time series studied with satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6055–6075 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Waterfall, A. M.

J. J. Remedios, R. J. Leigh, A. M. Waterfall, D. P. Moore, H. Sembhi, I. Parkes, J. Greenhough, M. P. Chipperfield, and D. Hauglustaine, “MIPAS reference atmospheres and comparisons to V4.61/V4.62 MIPAS level 2 geophysical data sets,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7, 9973–10017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wells, R. J.

Wu, F.

W. J. Randel, F. Wu, S. J. Oltmans, K. Rosenlof, and G. E. Nedoluha, “Interannual changes of stratospheric water vapor and correlations with tropical tropopause temperatures,” J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2133–2148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, Tv Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lpez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M. H.

M. A. Geller, X. L. Zhou, and M. H. Zhang, “Simulations of the interannual variability stratospheric water vapor,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 1076–1085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhou, M. A. Geller, and M. H. Zhang, “Cooling trend of the tropical cold point tropopause temperatures and its implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1511–1522 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. L.

M. A. Geller, X. L. Zhou, and M. H. Zhang, “Simulations of the interannual variability stratospheric water vapor,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 1076–1085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhou, M. A. Geller, and M. H. Zhang, “Cooling trend of the tropical cold point tropopause temperatures and its implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1511–1522 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. (1)

I.M. Held and B.J. Soden, “Water vapor feedback and global warming,” Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 25, 441–475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (6)

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vector w as a function of pressure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histogram of the percentage incompleteness errors obtained from the 265448 analyzed measurements with a bin width of 0.05%. The mean and the standard deviation of the distribution are reported.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Standard deviations σc (lat,t) as a function of time for different latitude bands. In the x-axis 1 corresponds to January 2005 and 60 to December 2009. Missing data points correspond to periods for which either nominal MIPAS measurements are not available or the measurements are filtered out due to large errors (see subsection 3.2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Standard deviations σc (lat,t) as a function of time for different latitude bands and globally. In the x-axis 1 corresponds to January 2005 and 60 to December 2009. Missing data points correspond to periods for which either nominal MIPAS measurements are not available or the measurements are filtered out due to large errors (see subsection 3.2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Constant part plus seasonal variability for different latitude bands. In the x-axis 1 corresponds to January 2005 and 60 to December 2009.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Constant part plus seasonal variability for different latitude bands and globally. In the x-axis 1 corresponds to January 2005 and 60 to December 2009.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Trend a(lat)t in percentage for different latitude bands with the best linear fit (red line). In the x-axis 1 corresponds to January 2005 and 60 to December 2009. Missing data points correspond to periods for which either nominal MIPAS measurements are not available or the measurements are filtered out due to large errors (see subsection 3.2).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Trend a(lat)t in percentage for different latitude bands and globally with the best linear fit (red line). In the x-axis 1 corresponds to January 2005 and 60 to December 2009. Missing data points correspond to periods for which either nominal MIPAS measurements are not available or the measurements are filtered out due to large errors (see subsection 3.2).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fitted annual trend 12a(lat) in percentage as a function of latitude (black solid line) with the corresponding errors. Results of the sensitivity test performed simulating a drift of the gain error for June (blue solid line) and December (red solid line) 2009. The bias due to the instrumental errors is represented by the gray area centered around 0.76%yr−1, the mean value of the red and blue lines.

Equations (20)

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c ( t ) = w T x ( t ) ,
i = 1 n w i = 1.
x ^ ( t ) = x ^ 0 ( t ) + A [ x ( t ) x 0 ( t ) ] + ɛ ( t ) ,
c ^ ( t ) = w T H x ^ ( t ) = w T HAx ( t ) + w T ( I HA ) x 0 ( t ) + w T [ H x ^ 0 ( t ) x 0 ( t ) ] + w T H ɛ ( t ) .
c ^ ( t ) c ( t ) = w T ( H A I ) [ x ( t ) x 0 ( t ) ] + w T [ H x ^ 0 ( t ) x 0 ( t ) ] + w T H ɛ ( t ) .
c ^ ( t ) = v T x ^ ( t ) .
c ^ ( t ) c ( t ) = v T A w T ) [ x ( t ) x 0 ( t ) ] + v T x ^ 0 ( t ) w T x 0 ( t ) + v T ɛ ( t ) .
w = w A + w A .
| ( A T v w ) | 2 = ( A T v w A w A ) T ( A T v w A w A ) = | A T v w A | 2 + | w A | 2 .
| ( A T v min w ) | = | w A | .
A = GK ,
x ( t ) = x K ( t ) + x K ( t )
x K ( t ) = Va ( t ) ,
x K ( t ) = Wb ( t ) ,
a ( t ) = V T x ( t ) ,
b ( t ) = W T x ( t ) .
c ( t ) = ( w K + w K ) T ( x K ( t ) + x K ( t ) ) = w K T x K ( t ) + w K T x K ( t ) .
w i = N exp [ ( log ( p i ) log ( p ¯ ) ) 2 2 σ 2 ] ,
c ¯ ( l a t , t ) = k ( l a t ) + s ( l a t , t ) + a ( l a t ) t ,
1 2 [ sin ( φ max ) sin ( φ min ) ] ,

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