Abstract

We present an antireflection structure consisted of irregular nanopillars to increase light extraction efficiency of flexible organic light-emitting devices. The nanopillars were made by imprinting the anodized aluminum oxide on polycarbonate substrates. The thermal viscosity effect formed the nanopillars with tapered shapes. Such nanopillars show excellent antireflection properties for a wide range of incident angles and wavelengths. The normal transmittance was improved from 85.5% to 95.9% for 150-nm-height nanopillars. The transmittance was greatly improved from 52.8% to 89.1% at 60° incident angle. With this antireflection structure, the device efficiency was improved 69% as compared to devices with flat substrates. Due to wide-angle antireflection, the image contrast ratio was also significantly improved .

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. C. F. Madigan, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Light extraction from OLED suing volumetric light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 268–276 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Shiang and A. R. Duggal, “Application of radiative transport theory to light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2880 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “mproved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C. J. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micro- pyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micro. Micro. 10, 395 (2000).
  9. B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. Song, C. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Dis. Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. S. Hung and J. Mandathil, “Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 13(23), 1787–1790 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3853 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. L. Wang, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446(1), 143–146 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. M. Grandin, H. Aziz, S. Gardner, C. Jennings, A. J. Paine, P. R. Norton, and Z. D. Popovic, “Light Absorption Phenomena in Novel Low Reflectance Cathodes for Organic Light Emitting Devices Utilizing Metal-Organic Mixtures,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 2021–2024 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. H. Li, H. Liem, C. W. Chen, E. H. Wu, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143514 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. D. Feng, R. Khangura, and Z. H. Lu, “Metal–organic–metal cathode for high-contrast organic light-emitting diodes ” Z. H. Lu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 497 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1207 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Saxena, D. S. Mehta, V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, G. Chauhan, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Implementation of anti-reflection coating to enhance light out-coupling in organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lumin. 128(3), 525–530 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).
  25. P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, ““Reduction of Lens Reflexion by the “Moth Eye” Principle,” Nature 244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

K. Saxena, D. S. Mehta, V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, G. Chauhan, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Implementation of anti-reflection coating to enhance light out-coupling in organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lumin. 128(3), 525–530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

2006 (1)

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Dis. Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Li, H. Liem, C. W. Chen, E. H. Wu, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (7)

F. L. Wang, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446(1), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Light extraction from OLED suing volumetric light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 268–276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Shiang and A. R. Duggal, “Application of radiative transport theory to light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Feng, R. Khangura, and Z. H. Lu, “Metal–organic–metal cathode for high-contrast organic light-emitting diodes ” Z. H. Lu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. Song, C. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Grandin, H. Aziz, S. Gardner, C. Jennings, A. J. Paine, P. R. Norton, and Z. D. Popovic, “Light Absorption Phenomena in Novel Low Reflectance Cathodes for Organic Light Emitting Devices Utilizing Metal-Organic Mixtures,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 2021–2024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “mproved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hung and J. Mandathil, “Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 13(23), 1787–1790 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

C. F. Madigan, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C. J. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micro- pyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micro. Micro. 10, 395 (2000).

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, ““Reduction of Lens Reflexion by the “Moth Eye” Principle,” Nature 244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, H.

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Grandin, H. Aziz, S. Gardner, C. Jennings, A. J. Paine, P. R. Norton, and Z. D. Popovic, “Light Absorption Phenomena in Novel Low Reflectance Cathodes for Organic Light Emitting Devices Utilizing Metal-Organic Mixtures,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 2021–2024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chauhan, G.

K. Saxena, D. S. Mehta, V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, G. Chauhan, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Implementation of anti-reflection coating to enhance light out-coupling in organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lumin. 128(3), 525–530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

S. H. Li, H. Liem, C. W. Chen, E. H. Wu, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Dis. Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. J.

L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C. J. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micro- pyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micro. Micro. 10, 395 (2000).

Cho, C.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. Song, C. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clapham, P. B.

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, ““Reduction of Lens Reflexion by the “Moth Eye” Principle,” Nature 244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. Song, C. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A.

J. J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Light extraction from OLED suing volumetric light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 268–276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A. R.

J. J. Shiang and A. R. Duggal, “Application of radiative transport theory to light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faircloth, T.

J. J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Light extraction from OLED suing volumetric light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 268–276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faircloth, T. J.

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X. D.

X. D. Feng, R. Khangura, and Z. H. Lu, “Metal–organic–metal cathode for high-contrast organic light-emitting diodes ” Z. H. Lu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “mproved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fung, M. K.

F. L. Wang, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446(1), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, S.

H. M. Grandin, H. Aziz, S. Gardner, C. Jennings, A. J. Paine, P. R. Norton, and Z. D. Popovic, “Light Absorption Phenomena in Novel Low Reflectance Cathodes for Organic Light Emitting Devices Utilizing Metal-Organic Mixtures,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 2021–2024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grandin, H. M.

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Grandin, H. Aziz, S. Gardner, C. Jennings, A. J. Paine, P. R. Norton, and Z. D. Popovic, “Light Absorption Phenomena in Novel Low Reflectance Cathodes for Organic Light Emitting Devices Utilizing Metal-Organic Mixtures,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 2021–2024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. W. P.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, L. S.

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hung and J. Mandathil, “Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 13(23), 1787–1790 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hutley, M. C.

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, ““Reduction of Lens Reflexion by the “Moth Eye” Principle,” Nature 244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, C.

H. M. Grandin, H. Aziz, S. Gardner, C. Jennings, A. J. Paine, P. R. Norton, and Z. D. Popovic, “Light Absorption Phenomena in Novel Low Reflectance Cathodes for Organic Light Emitting Devices Utilizing Metal-Organic Mixtures,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 2021–2024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. Song, C. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

F. L. Wang, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446(1), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamalasanan, M. N.

K. Saxena, D. S. Mehta, V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, G. Chauhan, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Implementation of anti-reflection coating to enhance light out-coupling in organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lumin. 128(3), 525–530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khangura, R.

X. D. Feng, R. Khangura, and Z. H. Lu, “Metal–organic–metal cathode for high-contrast organic light-emitting diodes ” Z. H. Lu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Kim, S.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. Song, C. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. Song, C. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krasnov, A. N.

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. C.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Wang, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446(1), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Wang, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446(1), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. Song, C. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. Song, C. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. H.

S. H. Li, H. Liem, C. W. Chen, E. H. Wu, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liem, H.

S. H. Li, H. Liem, C. W. Chen, E. H. Wu, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liew, Y. F.

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Dis. Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C. J. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micro- pyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micro. Micro. 10, 395 (2000).

Lin, S.-Y.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Lu, M. H.

C. F. Madigan, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.-H.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

X. D. Feng, R. Khangura, and Z. H. Lu, “Metal–organic–metal cathode for high-contrast organic light-emitting diodes ” Z. H. Lu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J. M.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

C. F. Madigan, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mandathil, J.

L. S. Hung and J. Mandathil, “Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 13(23), 1787–1790 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matterson, B. J.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, B. B.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, D. S. Mehta, V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, G. Chauhan, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Implementation of anti-reflection coating to enhance light out-coupling in organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lumin. 128(3), 525–530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “mproved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Norton, P. R.

H. M. Grandin, H. Aziz, S. Gardner, C. Jennings, A. J. Paine, P. R. Norton, and Z. D. Popovic, “Light Absorption Phenomena in Novel Low Reflectance Cathodes for Organic Light Emitting Devices Utilizing Metal-Organic Mixtures,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 2021–2024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paine, A. J.

H. M. Grandin, H. Aziz, S. Gardner, C. Jennings, A. J. Paine, P. R. Norton, and Z. D. Popovic, “Light Absorption Phenomena in Novel Low Reflectance Cathodes for Organic Light Emitting Devices Utilizing Metal-Organic Mixtures,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 2021–2024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peters, D. W.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popovic, Z. D.

H. M. Grandin, H. Aziz, S. Gardner, C. Jennings, A. J. Paine, P. R. Norton, and Z. D. Popovic, “Light Absorption Phenomena in Novel Low Reflectance Cathodes for Organic Light Emitting Devices Utilizing Metal-Organic Mixtures,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 2021–2024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rai, V. K.

K. Saxena, D. S. Mehta, V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, G. Chauhan, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Implementation of anti-reflection coating to enhance light out-coupling in organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lumin. 128(3), 525–530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruby, D. S.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saafir, A. K.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Safonov, A. F.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salt, M. G.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, D. S. Mehta, V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, G. Chauhan, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Implementation of anti-reflection coating to enhance light out-coupling in organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lumin. 128(3), 525–530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Shia, T. K.

L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C. J. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micro- pyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micro. Micro. 10, 395 (2000).

Shiang, J. J.

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Shiang and A. R. Duggal, “Application of radiative transport theory to light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Light extraction from OLED suing volumetric light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 268–276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Song, Y.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. Song, C. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

K. Saxena, D. S. Mehta, V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, G. Chauhan, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Implementation of anti-reflection coating to enhance light out-coupling in organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lumin. 128(3), 525–530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sumioka, K.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. Y.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. L.

F. L. Wang, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446(1), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Dis. Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E. H.

S. H. Li, H. Liem, C. W. Chen, E. H. Wu, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Xie, W. F.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

S. H. Li, H. Liem, C. W. Chen, E. H. Wu, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. J.

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Dis. Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

S. H. Li, H. Liem, C. W. Chen, E. H. Wu, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ziebarth, J. M.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (4)

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. Song, C. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Grandin, H. Aziz, S. Gardner, C. Jennings, A. J. Paine, P. R. Norton, and Z. D. Popovic, “Light Absorption Phenomena in Novel Low Reflectance Cathodes for Organic Light Emitting Devices Utilizing Metal-Organic Mixtures,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 2021–2024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hung and J. Mandathil, “Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 13(23), 1787–1790 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Aziz, Y. F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Li, H. Liem, C. W. Chen, E. H. Wu, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Stacked metal cathode for high-contrast-ratio polymeric light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Feng, R. Khangura, and Z. H. Lu, “Metal–organic–metal cathode for high-contrast organic light-emitting diodes ” Z. H. Lu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. J. Shiang and A. R. Duggal, “Application of radiative transport theory to light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “mproved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Dis. Tech. (1)

C. C. Wu, C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Dis. Tech. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

K. Saxena, D. S. Mehta, V. K. Rai, R. Srivastava, G. Chauhan, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Implementation of anti-reflection coating to enhance light out-coupling in organic light-emitting devices,” J. Lumin. 128(3), 525–530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Micro. Micro. (1)

L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C. J. Chiu, “Silicon-processed plastic micro- pyramids for brightness enhancement applications,” J. Micro. Micro. 10, 395 (2000).

Nano Lett. (1)

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Nature (1)

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, ““Reduction of Lens Reflexion by the “Moth Eye” Principle,” Nature 244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. J. Shiang, T. Faircloth, and A. Duggal, “Light extraction from OLED suing volumetric light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 268–276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

F. L. Wang, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446(1), 143–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of thermal nanoimprint process with AAO template (left), and the fabrication system (right)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thermal nanoimprint results with AAO template of dimension 100 nm (a) and 200nm.(b) at different imprinting temperature and working pressure. (c) The AFM images of nanopillars made at 150°C, 20 kgw/cm2 (left) and 160°C and 25 kgw/cm2 (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Thermal nanoimprint process with AAO template, (b) the device structure, and (c) the SEM graphs of AAO template and patterned PC thin film, and the picture of the flexible device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Reflectance spectra of AR nanopillars and referenced flat substrate. (b) Average transmittance in visible spectrum (390 nm ~750 nm) at different incident angles

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Enhancement ratio (a) and emission spectra (b) of devices with the antireflection substrate (dimension: 200 nm, average height: 153.81 nm) compared to the flat substrate

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Picture of a paper covered with the PC film under bright light source and the diagram of the experimental setup

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