Abstract

Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with relatively high transparency and low absorption are prepared by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method and their effect on the device performance of a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cells is theoretically investigated by applying the experimentally measured physical data of the fabricated films to the simulation parameters. The GLAD of ITO produces inclined porous columnar nanostructures due to the atomic shadowing effect. With increasing the incident flux angle, the columns are increasingly inclined, thus resulting in the improved transmission property as well as the decrease of the refractive index and extinction coefficient because of enhanced porosity within the film. Furthermore, the antireflection characteristics are improved over a wide wavelength range of 300-1100 nm. For a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cell structure incorporated with the 0° ITO/80° ITO bi-layer structure, the conversion efficiency (η) of 13.6% is obtained from simulation under AM1.5g illumination, indicating an efficiency improvement compared to the device with the 0° ITO/0° ITO bi-layer structure (i.e. η = 12.58%).

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2010

K. M. Krause, M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. A. Rider, N. G. Wakefield, J. C. Sit, J. M. Buriak, M. Thommes, and M. J. Brett, “Surface area characterization of obliquely deposited metal oxide nanostructured thin films,” Langmuir 26(6), 4368–4376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudrit and C. Algora, “Theoretical optimization of GaInP/GaAs dual-junction solar cell: Toward a 36% efficiency at 1000 suns,” Phys. Status Solidi 207(2), 474–478 (2010) (a).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chang, M. Tang, R. Y. He, W. C. Wang, Z. Pei, and C. Y. Kung, “TCAD simulation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon/microcrystalline-silicon/hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium PIN solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S250–S254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiao, G. Dong, J. Shao, H. He, and Z. Fan, “Optical and electrical properties of SnO2:Sb thin films deposited by oblique angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(6), 1636–1640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. W. Leem, Y. T. Lee, and J. S. Yu, “Optimum design of InGaP/GaAs dual-junction solar cells with different tunnel diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(8), 605–612 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, S. Dai, S. Chen, C. Zhang, Y. Sui, S. Xiao, and L. Hu, “Theoretical modeling of the series resistance effect on dye-sensitized solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sato, K. Yanagisawa, N. Oka, S. I. Nakamura, and Y. Shigesato, “Sputter deposition of Al-doped ZnO films with various incident angles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 27(5), 1166–1171 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, and Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Y. Lien, B. R. Wu, J. C. Liu, and D. S. Wuu, “Fabrication and characteristics of n-Si/c-Si/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using hot-wire CVD,” Thin Solid Films 516(5), 747–750 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Myong, K. Sriprapha, S. Miyajima, M. Konagai, and A. Yamada, “High efficiency protocrystalline silicon/microcrystalline silicon tandem cell with zinc oxide intermediate layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Çetinörgü, S. Goldsmith, and R. L. Boxman, “Air annealing effects on the optical properties of ZnO–SnO2 thin films deposited by a filtered vacuum arc deposition system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(3), 364–369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Steele, J. P. Gospodyn, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Impact of morphology on high-speed humidity sensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 6(1), 24–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. X. Ye, T. Karabacak, R. C. Picu, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Uniform Si nanostructures grown by oblique angle deposition with substrate swing rotation,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1717–1723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Michael and A. Bates, “The design and optimization of advanced multijunction solar cells using the Silvaco ATLAS software package,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1-4), 785–794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with ITO p-contact layers prepared by RF sputtering,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), L21–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. S. Chae, “A modified transparent conducting oxide for flat panel displays only,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 3A), 1282–1286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Suzuki, T. Ito, and Y. Taga, “Photocatalysis of sculptured thin films of TiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3968–3970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: Effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. George and C. S. Menon, “Electrical and optical properties of electron beam evaporated ITO thin films,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 132(1), 45–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. May and J. Strümpfel, “ITO coating by reactive magnetron sputtering–comparison of properties from DC and MF processing,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 48–52 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, S. Y. Choi, C. G. Park, and H. W. Jin, “Transparent conductive ITO thin films through the sol-gel process using metal salts,” Thin Solid Films 347(1-2), 155–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Sang, K. Dairiki, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with ZnO as front contact,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 9A), 4983–4988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

E. Benamar, M. Rami, C. Messaoudi, D. Sayah, and A. Ennaoui, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 56(2), 125–139 (1998).

1995

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13(3), 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226(2), 196–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

T. Maruyama and K. Tabata, “Indium tin oxide thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition from metal acetates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2, No. 2), L355–L357 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. G. Moharam, “Coupled-wave analysis of two-dimensional gratings,” Proc. SPIE 883, 8–11 (1988).

1982

S. Nitta, S. Itoh, M. Tanaka, T. Endo, and A. Hatano, “Optical properties of a-Si:H and a-SixCl1-x:H films prepared by glow-discharge deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. 8(1-3), 249–257 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1969

M. I. Mendelson, “Average grain size in polycrystalline ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52(8), 443–446 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, “Microfractography of thin films,” Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87–91 (1966).

1886

A. Kundt, “Ueber doppelbrechung des lichtes in metallschichten, welche durch zerstäuben einer kathode hergestellt sind,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 263(1), 59–71 (1886).
[CrossRef]

Algora, C.

M. Baudrit and C. Algora, “Theoretical optimization of GaInP/GaAs dual-junction solar cell: Toward a 36% efficiency at 1000 suns,” Phys. Status Solidi 207(2), 474–478 (2010) (a).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Bates, A.

S. Michael and A. Bates, “The design and optimization of advanced multijunction solar cells using the Silvaco ATLAS software package,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1-4), 785–794 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baudrit, M.

M. Baudrit and C. Algora, “Theoretical optimization of GaInP/GaAs dual-junction solar cell: Toward a 36% efficiency at 1000 suns,” Phys. Status Solidi 207(2), 474–478 (2010) (a).
[CrossRef]

Benamar, E.

E. Benamar, M. Rami, C. Messaoudi, D. Sayah, and A. Ennaoui, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 56(2), 125–139 (1998).

Boxman, R. L.

E. Çetinörgü, S. Goldsmith, and R. L. Boxman, “Air annealing effects on the optical properties of ZnO–SnO2 thin films deposited by a filtered vacuum arc deposition system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(3), 364–369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

K. M. Krause, M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. A. Rider, N. G. Wakefield, J. C. Sit, J. M. Buriak, M. Thommes, and M. J. Brett, “Surface area characterization of obliquely deposited metal oxide nanostructured thin films,” Langmuir 26(6), 4368–4376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Steele, J. P. Gospodyn, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Impact of morphology on high-speed humidity sensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 6(1), 24–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13(3), 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226(2), 196–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buriak, J. M.

K. M. Krause, M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. A. Rider, N. G. Wakefield, J. C. Sit, J. M. Buriak, M. Thommes, and M. J. Brett, “Surface area characterization of obliquely deposited metal oxide nanostructured thin films,” Langmuir 26(6), 4368–4376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Çetinörgü, E.

E. Çetinörgü, S. Goldsmith, and R. L. Boxman, “Air annealing effects on the optical properties of ZnO–SnO2 thin films deposited by a filtered vacuum arc deposition system,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(3), 364–369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chae, G. S.

G. S. Chae, “A modified transparent conducting oxide for flat panel displays only,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 1, No. 3A), 1282–1286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, and Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with ITO p-contact layers prepared by RF sputtering,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), L21–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with ITO p-contact layers prepared by RF sputtering,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), L21–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. T.

S. T. Chang, M. Tang, R. Y. He, W. C. Wang, Z. Pei, and C. Y. Kung, “TCAD simulation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon/microcrystalline-silicon/hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium PIN solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S250–S254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, and Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Y. Huang, S. Dai, S. Chen, C. Zhang, Y. Sui, S. Xiao, and L. Hu, “Theoretical modeling of the series resistance effect on dye-sensitized solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. C.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with ITO p-contact layers prepared by RF sputtering,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), L21–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, and Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. Y.

S. S. Kim, S. Y. Choi, C. G. Park, and H. W. Jin, “Transparent conductive ITO thin films through the sol-gel process using metal salts,” Thin Solid Films 347(1-2), 155–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dai, S.

Y. Huang, S. Dai, S. Chen, C. Zhang, Y. Sui, S. Xiao, and L. Hu, “Theoretical modeling of the series resistance effect on dye-sensitized solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dairiki, K.

B. Sang, K. Dairiki, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with ZnO as front contact,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 9A), 4983–4988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dew, S. K.

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S. T. Chang, M. Tang, R. Y. He, W. C. Wang, Z. Pei, and C. Y. Kung, “TCAD simulation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon/microcrystalline-silicon/hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium PIN solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S250–S254 (2010).
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X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120203 (2009).
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J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
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P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, and Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
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Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
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Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
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C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with ITO p-contact layers prepared by RF sputtering,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), L21–L23 (2003).
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J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
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E. Benamar, M. Rami, C. Messaoudi, D. Sayah, and A. Ennaoui, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 56(2), 125–139 (1998).

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M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: Effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
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X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120203 (2009).
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S. Y. Myong, K. Sriprapha, S. Miyajima, M. Konagai, and A. Yamada, “High efficiency protocrystalline silicon/microcrystalline silicon tandem cell with zinc oxide intermediate layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263509 (2007).
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Y. Sato, K. Yanagisawa, N. Oka, S. I. Nakamura, and Y. Shigesato, “Sputter deposition of Al-doped ZnO films with various incident angles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 27(5), 1166–1171 (2009).
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J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, “Microfractography of thin films,” Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87–91 (1966).

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S. Nitta, S. Itoh, M. Tanaka, T. Endo, and A. Hatano, “Optical properties of a-Si:H and a-SixCl1-x:H films prepared by glow-discharge deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. 8(1-3), 249–257 (1982).
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Y. Sato, K. Yanagisawa, N. Oka, S. I. Nakamura, and Y. Shigesato, “Sputter deposition of Al-doped ZnO films with various incident angles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 27(5), 1166–1171 (2009).
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Park, C. G.

S. S. Kim, S. Y. Choi, C. G. Park, and H. W. Jin, “Transparent conductive ITO thin films through the sol-gel process using metal salts,” Thin Solid Films 347(1-2), 155–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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S. T. Chang, M. Tang, R. Y. He, W. C. Wang, Z. Pei, and C. Y. Kung, “TCAD simulation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon/microcrystalline-silicon/hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium PIN solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S250–S254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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D. X. Ye, T. Karabacak, R. C. Picu, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Uniform Si nanostructures grown by oblique angle deposition with substrate swing rotation,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1717–1723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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E. Benamar, M. Rami, C. Messaoudi, D. Sayah, and A. Ennaoui, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 56(2), 125–139 (1998).

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K. M. Krause, M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. A. Rider, N. G. Wakefield, J. C. Sit, J. M. Buriak, M. Thommes, and M. J. Brett, “Surface area characterization of obliquely deposited metal oxide nanostructured thin films,” Langmuir 26(6), 4368–4376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13(3), 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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B. Sang, K. Dairiki, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with ZnO as front contact,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 9A), 4983–4988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Sato, K. Yanagisawa, N. Oka, S. I. Nakamura, and Y. Shigesato, “Sputter deposition of Al-doped ZnO films with various incident angles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 27(5), 1166–1171 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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E. Benamar, M. Rami, C. Messaoudi, D. Sayah, and A. Ennaoui, “Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 56(2), 125–139 (1998).

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M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: Effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

X. Xiao, G. Dong, J. Shao, H. He, and Z. Fan, “Optical and electrical properties of SnO2:Sb thin films deposited by oblique angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(6), 1636–1640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with ITO p-contact layers prepared by RF sputtering,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), L21–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shigesato, Y.

Y. Sato, K. Yanagisawa, N. Oka, S. I. Nakamura, and Y. Shigesato, “Sputter deposition of Al-doped ZnO films with various incident angles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 27(5), 1166–1171 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sit, J. C.

K. M. Krause, M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. A. Rider, N. G. Wakefield, J. C. Sit, J. M. Buriak, M. Thommes, and M. J. Brett, “Surface area characterization of obliquely deposited metal oxide nanostructured thin films,” Langmuir 26(6), 4368–4376 (2010).
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J. J. Steele, J. P. Gospodyn, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Impact of morphology on high-speed humidity sensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 6(1), 24–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smy, T.

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13(3), 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226(2), 196–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sobahan, K. M. A.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sriprapha, K.

S. Y. Myong, K. Sriprapha, S. Miyajima, M. Konagai, and A. Yamada, “High efficiency protocrystalline silicon/microcrystalline silicon tandem cell with zinc oxide intermediate layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steele, J. J.

J. J. Steele, J. P. Gospodyn, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Impact of morphology on high-speed humidity sensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 6(1), 24–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strümpfel, J.

C. May and J. Strümpfel, “ITO coating by reactive magnetron sputtering–comparison of properties from DC and MF processing,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 48–52 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, and U. H. Liaw, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with ITO p-contact layers prepared by RF sputtering,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), L21–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sui, Y.

Y. Huang, S. Dai, S. Chen, C. Zhang, Y. Sui, S. Xiao, and L. Hu, “Theoretical modeling of the series resistance effect on dye-sensitized solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, T. Ito, and Y. Taga, “Photocatalysis of sculptured thin films of TiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3968–3970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tabata, K.

T. Maruyama and K. Tabata, “Indium tin oxide thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition from metal acetates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 2, No. 2), L355–L357 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Taga, Y.

M. Suzuki, T. Ito, and Y. Taga, “Photocatalysis of sculptured thin films of TiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3968–3970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tait, R. N.

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226(2), 196–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

S. Nitta, S. Itoh, M. Tanaka, T. Endo, and A. Hatano, “Optical properties of a-Si:H and a-SixCl1-x:H films prepared by glow-discharge deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. 8(1-3), 249–257 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tang, M.

S. T. Chang, M. Tang, R. Y. He, W. C. Wang, Z. Pei, and C. Y. Kung, “TCAD simulation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon/microcrystalline-silicon/hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium PIN solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S250–S254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taschuk, M. T.

K. M. Krause, M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. A. Rider, N. G. Wakefield, J. C. Sit, J. M. Buriak, M. Thommes, and M. J. Brett, “Surface area characterization of obliquely deposited metal oxide nanostructured thin films,” Langmuir 26(6), 4368–4376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thommes, M.

K. M. Krause, M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. A. Rider, N. G. Wakefield, J. C. Sit, J. M. Buriak, M. Thommes, and M. J. Brett, “Surface area characterization of obliquely deposited metal oxide nanostructured thin films,” Langmuir 26(6), 4368–4376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 169–177 (1999).
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M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: Effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
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K. M. Krause, M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. A. Rider, N. G. Wakefield, J. C. Sit, J. M. Buriak, M. Thommes, and M. J. Brett, “Surface area characterization of obliquely deposited metal oxide nanostructured thin films,” Langmuir 26(6), 4368–4376 (2010).
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D. X. Ye, T. Karabacak, R. C. Picu, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Uniform Si nanostructures grown by oblique angle deposition with substrate swing rotation,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1717–1723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. C.

S. T. Chang, M. Tang, R. Y. He, W. C. Wang, Z. Pei, and C. Y. Kung, “TCAD simulation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon/microcrystalline-silicon/hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium PIN solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S250–S254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. R.

S. Y. Lien, B. R. Wu, J. C. Liu, and D. S. Wuu, “Fabrication and characteristics of n-Si/c-Si/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using hot-wire CVD,” Thin Solid Films 516(5), 747–750 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

S. Y. Lien, B. R. Wu, J. C. Liu, and D. S. Wuu, “Fabrication and characteristics of n-Si/c-Si/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using hot-wire CVD,” Thin Solid Films 516(5), 747–750 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Huang, S. Dai, S. Chen, C. Zhang, Y. Sui, S. Xiao, and L. Hu, “Theoretical modeling of the series resistance effect on dye-sensitized solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243503 (2009).
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X. Xiao, G. Dong, J. Shao, H. He, and Z. Fan, “Optical and electrical properties of SnO2:Sb thin films deposited by oblique angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(6), 1636–1640 (2010).
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S. Y. Myong, K. Sriprapha, S. Miyajima, M. Konagai, and A. Yamada, “High efficiency protocrystalline silicon/microcrystalline silicon tandem cell with zinc oxide intermediate layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120203 (2009).
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Y. Sato, K. Yanagisawa, N. Oka, S. I. Nakamura, and Y. Shigesato, “Sputter deposition of Al-doped ZnO films with various incident angles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 27(5), 1166–1171 (2009).
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P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, and Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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D. X. Ye, T. Karabacak, R. C. Picu, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Uniform Si nanostructures grown by oblique angle deposition with substrate swing rotation,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1717–1723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, and Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. W. Leem, Y. T. Lee, and J. S. Yu, “Optimum design of InGaP/GaAs dual-junction solar cells with different tunnel diodes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(8), 605–612 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, and Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: Effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Huang, S. Dai, S. Chen, C. Zhang, Y. Sui, S. Xiao, and L. Hu, “Theoretical modeling of the series resistance effect on dye-sensitized solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Y.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, and Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Distributed Bragg reflector consisting of high- and low-refractive-index thin film layers made of the same material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Myong, K. Sriprapha, S. Miyajima, M. Konagai, and A. Yamada, “High efficiency protocrystalline silicon/microcrystalline silicon tandem cell with zinc oxide intermediate layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Suzuki, T. Ito, and Y. Taga, “Photocatalysis of sculptured thin films of TiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3968–3970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, S. Dai, S. Chen, C. Zhang, Y. Sui, S. Xiao, and L. Hu, “Theoretical modeling of the series resistance effect on dye-sensitized solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, D. Fischer, and A. Shah, “Microcrystalline silicon and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 169–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

X. Xiao, G. Dong, J. Shao, H. He, and Z. Fan, “Optical and electrical properties of SnO2:Sb thin films deposited by oblique angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(6), 1636–1640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

J. J. Steele, J. P. Gospodyn, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Impact of morphology on high-speed humidity sensor performance,” IEEE Sens. J. 6(1), 24–27 (2006).
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M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: Effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

Y. Sato, K. Yanagisawa, N. Oka, S. I. Nakamura, and Y. Shigesato, “Sputter deposition of Al-doped ZnO films with various incident angles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 27(5), 1166–1171 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13(3), 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

X. Yan, F. W. Mont, D. J. Poxson, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, J. Cho, and E. F. Schubert, “Refractive-index-matched indium-tin-oxide electrodes for liquid crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120203 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

B. Sang, K. Dairiki, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with ZnO as front contact,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 9A), 4983–4988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

K. M. Krause, M. T. Taschuk, K. D. Harris, D. A. Rider, N. G. Wakefield, J. C. Sit, J. M. Buriak, M. Thommes, and M. J. Brett, “Surface area characterization of obliquely deposited metal oxide nanostructured thin films,” Langmuir 26(6), 4368–4376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

D. X. Ye, T. Karabacak, R. C. Picu, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Uniform Si nanostructures grown by oblique angle deposition with substrate swing rotation,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1717–1723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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S. Y. Lien, B. R. Wu, J. C. Liu, and D. S. Wuu, “Fabrication and characteristics of n-Si/c-Si/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using hot-wire CVD,” Thin Solid Films 516(5), 747–750 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. May and J. Strümpfel, “ITO coating by reactive magnetron sputtering–comparison of properties from DC and MF processing,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 48–52 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, S. Y. Choi, C. G. Park, and H. W. Jin, “Transparent conductive ITO thin films through the sol-gel process using metal salts,” Thin Solid Films 347(1-2), 155–160 (1999).
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S. T. Chang, M. Tang, R. Y. He, W. C. Wang, Z. Pei, and C. Y. Kung, “TCAD simulation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon/microcrystalline-silicon/hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium PIN solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S250–S254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for depositing the ITO films fabricated by GLAD method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRD patterns of the ITO films deposited on glass substrate for different incident flux angles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top-view and cross-sectional SEM images of the deposited ITO films on Si substrate at incident flux angles of (i) θα = 0°, (ii) θα = 40°, (iii) θα = 60°, and (iv) θα = 80°, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (a) refractive index and (b) extinction coefficient of the GLAD ITO films on Si substrate in the wavelength range of 350-1100 nm. The inset of (a) shows the measured refractive index and the estimated relative porosity of the GLAD ITO films versus incident flux angle at 633 nm. The inset of (b) shows the (α)2 versus plots of GLAD ITO films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical transmittance spectra of the GLAD ITO films on glass substrate for different incident flux angles. The insets show the simulation model (upper) and calculated transmittance spectra (lower) of corresponding film structures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Resistivity and sheet resistance and (b) measured reflectance spectra of the 0° ITO (200 nm)/GLAD ITO bi-layer structures as a function of incident flux angle. The insets of (a) show the SEM images (upper) of the 0° ITO/0° ITO and 0° ITO/80° ITO bi-layer structures, respectively, and the carrier concentration and Hall mobility (lower) of the corresponding films at different incident flux angles. The insets of (b) show the simulation model (left) and calculated reflectance spectra (right) of the corresponding film structures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Jsc versus the intrinsic layer thickness in the top a-Si:H cell under AM1.5g illumination and (b) schematic diagram of optimized a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cell structure with the 0° ITO/GLAD ITO bi-layer structures as a TCO layer used in this simulation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) J-V characteristics and (b) EQE spectra of the optimized a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cells with the 0° ITO/GLAD ITO bi-layer structures as a TCO layer under AM1.5g illumination. The inset of (a) shows the photogeneration rate of optimized a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cells with the 0° ITO/80° ITO bi-layer structure for incident light of 400 nm and 800 nm wavelengths under AM1.5g illumination.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical Parameters of Main Materials Used for this Simulation

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of a-Si:H/μc-Si:H Tandem Thin Film Solar Cells with 0° ITO/GLAD ITO Bi-Layer Structures at Different Incident Flux Angles under AM1.5g Illumination

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