Abstract

In this work the concept of tracking-integrated concentrating photovoltaics is studied and its capabilities are quantitatively analyzed. The design strategy desists from ideal concentration performance to reduce the external mechanical solar tracking effort in favor of a compact installation, possibly resulting in lower overall cost. The proposed optical design is based on an extended Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) algorithm and uses two laterally moving plano-convex lenses to achieve high concentration over a wide angular range of ±24°. It achieves 500× concentration, outperforming its conventional concentrating photovoltaic counterparts on a polar aligned single axis tracker.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  22. F. Muñoz, J. M. I. Herrero, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, W. Lin, J. F. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and C. Marta, "Novel fast catadioptric objective with wide field of view," Proc. SPIE 7780, 778704 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (9)

J. Hallas, J. Karp, E. Tremblay, and J. Ford, "Lateral translation micro-tracking of planar micro-optic solar concentrator," Proc. SPIE 7769, 776904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Duerr, B. Muthirayan, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, "Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems," Proc. SPIE 7773, 777315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Fu, R. Leutz, and H. P. Annen, "Secondary optics for Fresnel lens solar concentrators," Proc. SPIE 7785, 778509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Huld, T. Cebecauer, M. Šúri, and E. Dunlop, "Analysis of one-axis tracking strategies for PV systems in Europe," Prog. Photovoltaics 18, 183-194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Muñoz, J. M. I. Herrero, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, W. Lin, J. F. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and C. Marta, "Novel fast catadioptric objective with wide field of view," Proc. SPIE 7780, 778704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Karp, E. Tremblay, and J. Ford, "Planar micro-optic solar concentrator," Opt. Express 18, 1122-1133 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1122.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, "High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator," Opt. Express 18, A25 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-S1-A25.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Winston, and W. Zhang, "Pushing concentration of stationary solar concentrators to the limit," Opt. Express 18, A64-A72 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-S1-A64.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kotsidas, E. Chatzi, and V. Modi, "Stationary nonimaging lenses for solar concentration," Appl. Opt. 49, 5183-5191 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-49-27-5183.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

A. Mohr, T. Roth, and S. Glunz, "BICON: high concentration PV using one-axis tracking and silicon concentrator cells," Prog. Photovoltaics 14, 663-674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Gibson, B. Duncan, E. Watson, and J. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

M. Brunotte, A. Goetzberger, and U. Blieske, "Two-stage concentrator permitting concentration factors up to 300X with one-axis tracking," Sol. Energy 56, 285-300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. Watson, "Analysis of beam steering with decentered microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 32, 2665-2670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Annen, H. P.

L. Fu, R. Leutz, and H. P. Annen, "Secondary optics for Fresnel lens solar concentrators," Proc. SPIE 7785, 778509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benitez, P.

Benítez, P.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, "High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator," Opt. Express 18, A25 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-S1-A25.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Muñoz, J. M. I. Herrero, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, W. Lin, J. F. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and C. Marta, "Novel fast catadioptric objective with wide field of view," Proc. SPIE 7780, 778704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, W. Lin, J. Infante, F. Muñoz, and A. Santamaría, "An application of the SMS method for imaging designs," Opt. Express 17, 24036-24044 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-24036.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biot, G.

F. Muñoz, J. M. I. Herrero, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, W. Lin, J. F. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and C. Marta, "Novel fast catadioptric objective with wide field of view," Proc. SPIE 7780, 778704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blen, J.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blieske, U.

M. Brunotte, A. Goetzberger, and U. Blieske, "Two-stage concentrator permitting concentration factors up to 300X with one-axis tracking," Sol. Energy 56, 285-300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brunotte, M.

M. Brunotte, A. Goetzberger, and U. Blieske, "Two-stage concentrator permitting concentration factors up to 300X with one-axis tracking," Sol. Energy 56, 285-300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buljan, M.

Cebecauer, T.

T. Huld, T. Cebecauer, M. Šúri, and E. Dunlop, "Analysis of one-axis tracking strategies for PV systems in Europe," Prog. Photovoltaics 18, 183-194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chatzi, E.

Chaves, J.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, "High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator," Opt. Express 18, A25 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-S1-A25.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cvetkovic, A.

Dross, O.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, F.

F. Duerr, B. Muthirayan, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, "Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems," Proc. SPIE 7773, 777315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, B.

J. Gibson, B. Duncan, E. Watson, and J. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dunlop, E.

T. Huld, T. Cebecauer, M. Šúri, and E. Dunlop, "Analysis of one-axis tracking strategies for PV systems in Europe," Prog. Photovoltaics 18, 183-194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Falicoff, W.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J.

J. Karp, E. Tremblay, and J. Ford, "Planar micro-optic solar concentrator," Opt. Express 18, 1122-1133 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1122.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hallas, J. Karp, E. Tremblay, and J. Ford, "Lateral translation micro-tracking of planar micro-optic solar concentrator," Proc. SPIE 7769, 776904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

L. Fu, R. Leutz, and H. P. Annen, "Secondary optics for Fresnel lens solar concentrators," Proc. SPIE 7785, 778509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, J.

J. Gibson, B. Duncan, E. Watson, and J. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glunz, S.

A. Mohr, T. Roth, and S. Glunz, "BICON: high concentration PV using one-axis tracking and silicon concentrator cells," Prog. Photovoltaics 14, 663-674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goetzberger, A.

M. Brunotte, A. Goetzberger, and U. Blieske, "Two-stage concentrator permitting concentration factors up to 300X with one-axis tracking," Sol. Energy 56, 285-300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

González, J. C.

Gordon, J. M.

Hallas, J.

J. Hallas, J. Karp, E. Tremblay, and J. Ford, "Lateral translation micro-tracking of planar micro-optic solar concentrator," Proc. SPIE 7769, 776904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hernández, M.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, "High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator," Opt. Express 18, A25 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-S1-A25.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herrero, J. M. I.

F. Muñoz, J. M. I. Herrero, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, W. Lin, J. F. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and C. Marta, "Novel fast catadioptric objective with wide field of view," Proc. SPIE 7780, 778704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huld, T.

T. Huld, T. Cebecauer, M. Šúri, and E. Dunlop, "Analysis of one-axis tracking strategies for PV systems in Europe," Prog. Photovoltaics 18, 183-194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Infante, J.

Karp, J.

J. Hallas, J. Karp, E. Tremblay, and J. Ford, "Lateral translation micro-tracking of planar micro-optic solar concentrator," Proc. SPIE 7769, 776904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Karp, E. Tremblay, and J. Ford, "Planar micro-optic solar concentrator," Opt. Express 18, 1122-1133 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1122.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotsidas, P.

Leutz, R.

L. Fu, R. Leutz, and H. P. Annen, "Secondary optics for Fresnel lens solar concentrators," Proc. SPIE 7785, 778509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

F. Muñoz, J. M. I. Herrero, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, W. Lin, J. F. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and C. Marta, "Novel fast catadioptric objective with wide field of view," Proc. SPIE 7780, 778704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, W. Lin, J. Infante, F. Muñoz, and A. Santamaría, "An application of the SMS method for imaging designs," Opt. Express 17, 24036-24044 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-24036.
[CrossRef]

Loomis, J.

J. Gibson, B. Duncan, E. Watson, and J. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marta, C.

F. Muñoz, J. M. I. Herrero, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, W. Lin, J. F. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and C. Marta, "Novel fast catadioptric objective with wide field of view," Proc. SPIE 7780, 778704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meuret, Y.

F. Duerr, B. Muthirayan, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, "Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems," Proc. SPIE 7773, 777315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miñano, J. C.

Modi, V.

Mohedano, R.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, "High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator," Opt. Express 18, A25 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-S1-A25.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, A.

A. Mohr, T. Roth, and S. Glunz, "BICON: high concentration PV using one-axis tracking and silicon concentrator cells," Prog. Photovoltaics 14, 663-674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, F.

F. Muñoz, J. M. I. Herrero, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, W. Lin, J. F. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and C. Marta, "Novel fast catadioptric objective with wide field of view," Proc. SPIE 7780, 778704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, W. Lin, J. Infante, F. Muñoz, and A. Santamaría, "An application of the SMS method for imaging designs," Opt. Express 17, 24036-24044 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-24036.
[CrossRef]

Muthirayan, B.

F. Duerr, B. Muthirayan, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, "Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems," Proc. SPIE 7773, 777315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roth, T.

A. Mohr, T. Roth, and S. Glunz, "BICON: high concentration PV using one-axis tracking and silicon concentrator cells," Prog. Photovoltaics 14, 663-674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santamaría, A.

Šúri, M.

T. Huld, T. Cebecauer, M. Šúri, and E. Dunlop, "Analysis of one-axis tracking strategies for PV systems in Europe," Prog. Photovoltaics 18, 183-194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

F. Duerr, B. Muthirayan, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, "Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems," Proc. SPIE 7773, 777315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tremblay, E.

J. Hallas, J. Karp, E. Tremblay, and J. Ford, "Lateral translation micro-tracking of planar micro-optic solar concentrator," Proc. SPIE 7769, 776904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Karp, E. Tremblay, and J. Ford, "Planar micro-optic solar concentrator," Opt. Express 18, 1122-1133 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1122.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilaplana, J. F.

F. Muñoz, J. M. I. Herrero, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, W. Lin, J. F. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and C. Marta, "Novel fast catadioptric objective with wide field of view," Proc. SPIE 7780, 778704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watson, E.

J. Gibson, B. Duncan, E. Watson, and J. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Watson, "Analysis of beam steering with decentered microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 32, 2665-2670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Winston, R.

Zamora, P.

Zhang, W.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (3)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Watson, "Analysis of beam steering with decentered microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 32, 2665-2670 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Gibson, B. Duncan, E. Watson, and J. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

J. Hallas, J. Karp, E. Tremblay, and J. Ford, "Lateral translation micro-tracking of planar micro-optic solar concentrator," Proc. SPIE 7769, 776904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Muñoz, J. M. I. Herrero, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, W. Lin, J. F. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and C. Marta, "Novel fast catadioptric objective with wide field of view," Proc. SPIE 7780, 778704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Duerr, B. Muthirayan, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, "Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems," Proc. SPIE 7773, 777315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (3808 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3292 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Inherent difference between a conventional (stationary) CPV module with its acceptance angle α (a) and a tracking-integrated CPV module with the aperture angle αA of the optical system and the acceptance angle α for a particular direction (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular range of incident sun light for CPV modules mounted on a single axis tracker that is (a) polar aligned or (b) horizontally aligned. (Both for Seville, Spain).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of a calculated meniscus lens for two parallel ray sets and design angles θ = ±10°. The laterally moving receiver is indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Line concentration (a) and point concentration (b) ratio against the incident angle for different SMS2D lenses comprising a laterally moving receiver.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic drawing of a basic optical system consisting of two laterally moving lenses and a receiver plane. The offset indicates the lateral shift of the second lens for an off-axis incident ray set. All relevant parameters describing the system are indicated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extended SMS2D design procedure to include motion by the alternate addition of surface segments on the top and bottom surfaces of two plano-convex lenses. The calculation starts through the center of the bottom surface which determines the optical path length (a). It then proceeds through mirroring (b) to the edges (c) of the lenses. Finally, all chains add up to the final lenses that map the incident rays to the receiver point R (d).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Line concentration (a) and point concentration (b) ratio against the incident angle for different extended SMS2D lens designs comprising a lateral moveable receiver.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Exemplary single-frame excerpts from ray tracing animation of (a) line concentration ( Media 1) and (b) point concentration ( Media 2) over the entire angular range. The used designs are the two results obtained for θ = 19° for line and point concentration.

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