Abstract

To find out efficient red phosphors used for white light-emitting diodes (LEDs), a new Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Eu3+ phosphor was prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The effect of Li2CO3 flux and Eu3+ doping concentrations on structural and luminescent properties of Ba2Gd2Si4O13 phosphors was studied in detail. The phosphors show intense absorption in near ultraviolet-blue region and exhibit intense red emissions with CIE coordinates of (0.66, 0.34) under 393 nm excitation. The integrated emission intensity of Ba2(Gd0.4Eu0.6)2Si4O13 excited at 393 nm, 362 nm and 464 nm is about 3.5, 4.0 and 3.1 times as that of Y2O3:Eu3+ commercial phosphors, respectively. The excellent luminescent properties and good color saturation make it a promising red phosphor for white LEDs.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Piao, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, and K. I. MacHida, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161908 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Guo, X. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Tang, L. Chen, and C. Ma, “Effect of NH4F flux on structural and luminescent properties of Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphors prepared by solid-state reaction method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(8), J310–J314 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Lee and S. Y. Seo, “Optimization of yttrium aluminum garnet:Ce3+ phosphors for white light-emitting diodes by combinatorial chemistry method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149(11), J85–J88 (2002).
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  8. Y. Zhou, J. Liu, X. Yang, X. Yu, and J. Zhuang, “A promising deep red phosphor AgLaMo2O8:Pr 3+ with blue excitation for white LED application,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(3), H278–H280 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (9)

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, X. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Tang, L. Chen, and C. Ma, “Effect of NH4F flux on structural and luminescent properties of Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphors prepared by solid-state reaction method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(8), J310–J314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, J. Liu, X. Yang, X. Yu, and J. Zhuang, “A promising deep red phosphor AgLaMo2O8:Pr 3+ with blue excitation for white LED application,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(3), H278–H280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and Y. Wang, “Eu3+-doped Ba3Bi(PO4)3: A red phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(4), J35–J37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, U. Kolitsch, and E. Tillmanns, “Ba2Gd2(Si4O13): a silicate with finite Si4O13 chains,” Acta Crystallogr. C 66(3), i29–i32 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Liu, C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and R. S. Liu, “ZnB2O4:Bi3+,Eu3+:a highly efficient, red-emitting phosphor,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2946–2951 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Kuo, W. R. Liu, and T. M. Chen, “High color rendering white light-emitting-diode illuminator using the red-emitting Eu(2+)-activated CaZnOS phosphors excited by blue LED,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8187–8192 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Guo, X. Wang, J. Chen, and F. Li, “Ultraviolet light induced white light emission in Ag and Eu3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18900–18905 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Guo, H. Zhang, J. Li, and F. Li, “Blue-white-green tunable luminescence from Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Ce3+,Tb3+ phosphors excited by ultraviolet light,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27257–27262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

X. Yang, J. Liu, H. Yang, X. Yu, Y. Guo, Y. Zhou, and J. Liu, “Synthesis and characterization of new red phosphors for white LED applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(22), 3771–3774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Liu, C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, R. S. Liu, and B. M. Cheng, “Versatile phosphors BaY2Si3O10:RE (RE = Ce3+, Tb3+, Eu3+) for light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18103–18109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

G. Gundiah, Y. Shimomura, N. Kijima, and A. K. Cheetham, “Novel red phosphors based on vanadate garnets for solid state lighting applications,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455(4-6), 279–283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, G. Lakshminarayana, S. Zhou, Y. Teng, and J. Qiu, “Cyan-white-red luminescence from europium doped Al2O3-La2O3-SiO2 glasses,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6731–6735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guan, C. Liu, and P. Li, “Luminescent properties of Eu3+-doped La2Mo2O9 red phosphor by the flux method,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(12), 3117–3120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

X. Piao, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, and K. I. MacHida, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Lee and S. Y. Seo, “Optimization of yttrium aluminum garnet:Ce3+ phosphors for white light-emitting diodes by combinatorial chemistry method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149(11), J85–J88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer in oxidic phosphors,” Phys. Lett. A 28(6), 444–445 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Blasse, G.

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer in oxidic phosphors,” Phys. Lett. A 28(6), 444–445 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cheetham, A. K.

G. Gundiah, Y. Shimomura, N. Kijima, and A. K. Cheetham, “Novel red phosphors based on vanadate garnets for solid state lighting applications,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455(4-6), 279–283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

H. Guo, X. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Tang, L. Chen, and C. Ma, “Effect of NH4F flux on structural and luminescent properties of Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphors prepared by solid-state reaction method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(8), J310–J314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. M.

Cheng, B. M.

Chiu, Y. C.

Choi, J. C.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guan, L.

X. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guan, C. Liu, and P. Li, “Luminescent properties of Eu3+-doped La2Mo2O9 red phosphor by the flux method,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(12), 3117–3120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gundiah, G.

G. Gundiah, Y. Shimomura, N. Kijima, and A. K. Cheetham, “Novel red phosphors based on vanadate garnets for solid state lighting applications,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455(4-6), 279–283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

Guo, Y.

X. Yang, J. Liu, H. Yang, X. Yu, Y. Guo, Y. Zhou, and J. Liu, “Synthesis and characterization of new red phosphors for white LED applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(22), 3771–3774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hanzawa, H.

X. Piao, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, and K. I. MacHida, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horikawa, T.

X. Piao, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, and K. I. MacHida, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. M.

Jeon, P. E.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kijima, N.

G. Gundiah, Y. Shimomura, N. Kijima, and A. K. Cheetham, “Novel red phosphors based on vanadate garnets for solid state lighting applications,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455(4-6), 279–283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. C.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. W.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kolitsch, U.

M. Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, U. Kolitsch, and E. Tillmanns, “Ba2Gd2(Si4O13): a silicate with finite Si4O13 chains,” Acta Crystallogr. C 66(3), i29–i32 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, T. W.

Lakshminarayana, G.

Lee, S.

S. Lee and S. Y. Seo, “Optimization of yttrium aluminum garnet:Ce3+ phosphors for white light-emitting diodes by combinatorial chemistry method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149(11), J85–J88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Li, J.

Li, P.

X. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guan, C. Liu, and P. Li, “Luminescent properties of Eu3+-doped La2Mo2O9 red phosphor by the flux method,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(12), 3117–3120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guan, C. Liu, and P. Li, “Luminescent properties of Eu3+-doped La2Mo2O9 red phosphor by the flux method,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(12), 3117–3120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

Liu, C.

X. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guan, C. Liu, and P. Li, “Luminescent properties of Eu3+-doped La2Mo2O9 red phosphor by the flux method,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(12), 3117–3120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Y. Zhou, J. Liu, X. Yang, X. Yu, and J. Zhuang, “A promising deep red phosphor AgLaMo2O8:Pr 3+ with blue excitation for white LED application,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(3), H278–H280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Liu, H. Yang, X. Yu, Y. Guo, Y. Zhou, and J. Liu, “Synthesis and characterization of new red phosphors for white LED applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(22), 3771–3774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Liu, H. Yang, X. Yu, Y. Guo, Y. Zhou, and J. Liu, “Synthesis and characterization of new red phosphors for white LED applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(22), 3771–3774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R. S.

Liu, W. R.

Ma, C.

H. Guo, X. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Tang, L. Chen, and C. Ma, “Effect of NH4F flux on structural and luminescent properties of Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphors prepared by solid-state reaction method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(8), J310–J314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y. Y.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MacHida, K. I.

X. Piao, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, and K. I. MacHida, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y. X.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. L.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. H.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piao, X.

X. Piao, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, and K. I. MacHida, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S. Y.

S. Lee and S. Y. Seo, “Optimization of yttrium aluminum garnet:Ce3+ phosphors for white light-emitting diodes by combinatorial chemistry method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149(11), J85–J88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, Y.

G. Gundiah, Y. Shimomura, N. Kijima, and A. K. Cheetham, “Novel red phosphors based on vanadate garnets for solid state lighting applications,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455(4-6), 279–283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

H. Guo, X. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Tang, L. Chen, and C. Ma, “Effect of NH4F flux on structural and luminescent properties of Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphors prepared by solid-state reaction method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(8), J310–J314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teng, Y.

Tillmanns, E.

M. Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, U. Kolitsch, and E. Tillmanns, “Ba2Gd2(Si4O13): a silicate with finite Si4O13 chains,” Acta Crystallogr. C 66(3), i29–i32 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

H. Guo, X. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Tang, L. Chen, and C. Ma, “Effect of NH4F flux on structural and luminescent properties of Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphors prepared by solid-state reaction method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(8), J310–J314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, X. Wang, J. Chen, and F. Li, “Ultraviolet light induced white light emission in Ag and Eu3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18900–18905 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. Zhang and Y. Wang, “Eu3+-doped Ba3Bi(PO4)3: A red phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(4), J35–J37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, M.

M. Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, U. Kolitsch, and E. Tillmanns, “Ba2Gd2(Si4O13): a silicate with finite Si4O13 chains,” Acta Crystallogr. C 66(3), i29–i32 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, F.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

X. Yang, J. Liu, H. Yang, X. Yu, Y. Guo, Y. Zhou, and J. Liu, “Synthesis and characterization of new red phosphors for white LED applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(22), 3771–3774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, G. Lakshminarayana, S. Zhou, Y. Teng, and J. Qiu, “Cyan-white-red luminescence from europium doped Al2O3-La2O3-SiO2 glasses,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6731–6735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Y. Zhou, J. Liu, X. Yang, X. Yu, and J. Zhuang, “A promising deep red phosphor AgLaMo2O8:Pr 3+ with blue excitation for white LED application,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(3), H278–H280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Liu, H. Yang, X. Yu, Y. Guo, Y. Zhou, and J. Liu, “Synthesis and characterization of new red phosphors for white LED applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(22), 3771–3774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

X. Li, Z. Yang, L. Guan, C. Liu, and P. Li, “Luminescent properties of Eu3+-doped La2Mo2O9 red phosphor by the flux method,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(12), 3117–3120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, Y. T.

Yu, X.

Y. Zhou, J. Liu, X. Yang, X. Yu, and J. Zhuang, “A promising deep red phosphor AgLaMo2O8:Pr 3+ with blue excitation for white LED application,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(3), H278–H280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Liu, H. Yang, X. Yu, Y. Guo, Y. Zhou, and J. Liu, “Synthesis and characterization of new red phosphors for white LED applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(22), 3771–3774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and Y. Wang, “Eu3+-doped Ba3Bi(PO4)3: A red phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(4), J35–J37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. Y.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Guo, X. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Tang, L. Chen, and C. Ma, “Effect of NH4F flux on structural and luminescent properties of Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphors prepared by solid-state reaction method,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(8), J310–J314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, J. Liu, X. Yang, X. Yu, and J. Zhuang, “A promising deep red phosphor AgLaMo2O8:Pr 3+ with blue excitation for white LED application,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(3), H278–H280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Liu, H. Yang, X. Yu, Y. Guo, Y. Zhou, and J. Liu, “Synthesis and characterization of new red phosphors for white LED applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(22), 3771–3774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, J.

Y. Zhou, J. Liu, X. Yang, X. Yu, and J. Zhuang, “A promising deep red phosphor AgLaMo2O8:Pr 3+ with blue excitation for white LED application,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(3), H278–H280 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. C (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD pattern of BGSO:Eu3+ (60 mol%) powders (a) fired at different temperatures (1100 °C, 1200 °C and 1300 °C) without flux, (b) fired at 1100 °C with various Li2CO3 flux amounts (1 wt%, 2 wt%, 3 wt%, 5 wt%), as well as the calculated patterns from ICSD file of BGSO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra (λex = 393 nm) of BGSO:Eu3+ phosphors (a) fired at 1100 °C with 2 wt% Li2CO3 flux and (b) fired at 1300 °C without flux. The inset shows the integrated emission intensity of BGSO:Eu3+ powers fired at 1100 °C with various Li2CO3 flux amounts (0 wt%, 1 wt%, 2 wt%, 3 wt%, 5 wt%), as well as fired at 1300 °C without flux.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrated emission intensity of BGSO:xEu3+ with various Eu3+ concentrations (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Excitation spectra of BGSO:Eu3+ and commercial Y2O3:Eu3+.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectra of BGSO:Eu3+ and commercial Y2O3:Eu3+, the inset shows the integrated emission intensity of BGSO:Eu3+ and commercial Y2O3:Eu3+.

Equations (1)

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R c 2 ( 3 V 4 π x c N ) 1 / 3 ,

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