Abstract

We show experimentally and theoretically enhancement of external quantum efficiency in the green-NIR spectrum for organic photovoltaic device, by the incorporation of patterned Au nano-disk arrays that extend from the front electrode into the active layer. Enhancement mechanisms and design rules are extracted by comprehensive simulations which match the experimental findings. The enhanced efficiency is shown to stem from field enhancement originating from both localized plasmonic resonances and periodic nano patch antennas configuration.

© 2010 OSA

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  7. S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
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2010 (3)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Effect of small random disorders and imperfections on the performance of arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 12(1), 013015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10195–10205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cellsby plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 4310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Scie. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (8)

V. Andersson, K. Tvingstedt, and O. Inganas, “Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, S. Na, J. Jo, D. Kim, and Y. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Wong, X. Z. Wang, Z. He, A. B. Djurisić, C. T. Yip, K. Y. Cheung, H. Wang, C. S. K. Mak, and W. K. Chan, “Metallated conjugated polymers as a new avenue towards high-efficiency polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 521–527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Liu, M. A. G. Namboothiry, and D. L. Carroll, “Roles of donor and acceptor nanodomains in 6% efficient thermally annealed polymer photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 163511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Loos, S. C. Veenstra, W. J. H. Verhees, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, M. A. J. Michels, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 579–583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Y. A.

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Effect of small random disorders and imperfections on the performance of arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 12(1), 013015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ameri, T.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Scie. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, V.

V. Andersson, K. Tvingstedt, and O. Inganas, “Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bailly, S.

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beaupre, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beck, F. J.

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 4310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Scie. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brandl, D. W.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, D. L.

K. Kim, J. Liu, M. A. G. Namboothiry, and D. L. Carroll, “Roles of donor and acceptor nanodomains in 6% efficient thermally annealed polymer photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 163511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 4310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. K.

W. Y. Wong, X. Z. Wang, Z. He, A. B. Djurisić, C. T. Yip, K. Y. Cheung, H. Wang, C. S. K. Mak, and W. K. Chan, “Metallated conjugated polymers as a new avenue towards high-efficiency polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 521–527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. Y.

W. Y. Wong, X. Z. Wang, Z. He, A. B. Djurisić, C. T. Yip, K. Y. Cheung, H. Wang, C. S. K. Mak, and W. K. Chan, “Metallated conjugated polymers as a new avenue towards high-efficiency polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 521–527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Bettignies, R.

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Defranoux, C.

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Scie. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Djurisic, A. B.

W. Y. Wong, X. Z. Wang, Z. He, A. B. Djurisić, C. T. Yip, K. Y. Cheung, H. Wang, C. S. K. Mak, and W. K. Chan, “Metallated conjugated polymers as a new avenue towards high-efficiency polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 521–527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duche, D.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cellsby plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Effect of small random disorders and imperfections on the performance of arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 12(1), 013015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cellsby plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cellsby plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ginger, D. S.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guillerez, S.

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guyer, S. R.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hägglund, C.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Z.

W. Y. Wong, X. Z. Wang, Z. He, A. B. Djurisić, C. T. Yip, K. Y. Cheung, H. Wang, C. S. K. Mak, and W. K. Chan, “Metallated conjugated polymers as a new avenue towards high-efficiency polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 521–527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeger, A. J.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.

F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inganas, O.

V. Andersson, K. Tvingstedt, and O. Inganas, “Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A. J.

X. Yang, J. Loos, S. C. Veenstra, W. J. H. Verhees, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, M. A. J. Michels, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 579–583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo, J.

S. Kim, S. Na, J. Jo, D. Kim, and Y. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasemo, B.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

S. Kim, S. Na, J. Jo, D. Kim, and Y. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J. Liu, M. A. G. Namboothiry, and D. L. Carroll, “Roles of donor and acceptor nanodomains in 6% efficient thermally annealed polymer photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 163511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, S. Na, J. Jo, D. Kim, and Y. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koh, W. S.

Kroon, J. M.

X. Yang, J. Loos, S. C. Veenstra, W. J. H. Verhees, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, M. A. J. Michels, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 579–583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, A. P.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.

F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, M.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. B. T.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, N. C.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, J. Liu, M. A. G. Namboothiry, and D. L. Carroll, “Roles of donor and acceptor nanodomains in 6% efficient thermally annealed polymer photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 163511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loos, J.

X. Yang, J. Loos, S. C. Veenstra, W. J. H. Verhees, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, M. A. J. Michels, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 579–583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luhman, W. A.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lungenschmied, C.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Scie. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mak, C. S. K.

W. Y. Wong, X. Z. Wang, Z. He, A. B. Djurisić, C. T. Yip, K. Y. Cheung, H. Wang, C. S. K. Mak, and W. K. Chan, “Metallated conjugated polymers as a new avenue towards high-efficiency polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 521–527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathian, G.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cellsby plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michels, M. A. J.

X. Yang, J. Loos, S. C. Veenstra, W. J. H. Verhees, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, M. A. J. Michels, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 579–583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monestier, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cellsby plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morfa, A. J.

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moriarty, T.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Munechika, K.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, S.

S. Kim, S. Na, J. Jo, D. Kim, and Y. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nah, Y.

S. Kim, S. Na, J. Jo, D. Kim, and Y. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, K.

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Namboothiry, M. A. G.

K. Kim, J. Liu, M. A. G. Namboothiry, and D. L. Carroll, “Roles of donor and acceptor nanodomains in 6% efficient thermally annealed polymer photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 163511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noone, K. M.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ostrikov, K.

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petersson, G.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 4310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, T. H.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Romero, M. J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rowlen, K. L.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shrotriya, V.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cellsby plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, K.

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tenent, R. C.

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cellsby plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tvingstedt, K.

V. Andersson, K. Tvingstedt, and O. Inganas, “Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van de Lagemaat, J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veenstra, S. C.

X. Yang, J. Loos, S. C. Veenstra, W. J. H. Verhees, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, M. A. J. Michels, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 579–583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhees, W. J. H.

X. Yang, J. Loos, S. C. Veenstra, W. J. H. Verhees, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, M. A. J. Michels, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 579–583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verschuuren, M. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Wong, X. Z. Wang, Z. He, A. B. Djurisić, C. T. Yip, K. Y. Cheung, H. Wang, C. S. K. Mak, and W. K. Chan, “Metallated conjugated polymers as a new avenue towards high-efficiency polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 521–527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. Z.

W. Y. Wong, X. Z. Wang, Z. He, A. B. Djurisić, C. T. Yip, K. Y. Cheung, H. Wang, C. S. K. Mak, and W. K. Chan, “Metallated conjugated polymers as a new avenue towards high-efficiency polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 521–527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wienk, M. M.

X. Yang, J. Loos, S. C. Veenstra, W. J. H. Verhees, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, M. A. J. Michels, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 579–583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, W. Y.

W. Y. Wong, X. Z. Wang, Z. He, A. B. Djurisić, C. T. Yip, K. Y. Cheung, H. Wang, C. S. K. Mak, and W. K. Chan, “Metallated conjugated polymers as a new avenue towards high-efficiency polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 521–527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yakimov, A.

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, J. Loos, S. C. Veenstra, W. J. H. Verhees, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, M. A. J. Michels, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Nanoscale morphology of high-performance polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 579–583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yip, C. T.

W. Y. Wong, X. Z. Wang, Z. He, A. B. Djurisić, C. T. Yip, K. Y. Cheung, H. Wang, C. S. K. Mak, and W. K. Chan, “Metallated conjugated polymers as a new avenue towards high-efficiency polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 521–527 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zach, M.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, “Electromagnetic coupling of light into a silicon solar cell by nanodisk plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, S. Na, J. Jo, D. Kim, and Y. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, J. Liu, M. A. G. Namboothiry, and D. L. Carroll, “Roles of donor and acceptor nanodomains in 6% efficient thermally annealed polymer photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 163511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Scie. (1)

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Scie. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

V. Andersson, K. Tvingstedt, and O. Inganas, “Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 4310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Effect of small random disorders and imperfections on the performance of arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 12(1), 013015 (2010).
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Nano Lett. (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the device structure; (inset) SEM image of the fabricated MNPs array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results of cell with Au MNPs array vs. reference cell. (a) EQE measurement. (b) EQE enhancement factor. (c) J-V characteristics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Calculated (FDTD) fraction of power absorbed in the active P3HT:PCBM layer of a cell with Au MNPs compared to a reference cell. Fraction of light absorbed in the Au MNPs is also plotted. (b) Absorption enhancement factor. (c-d) Cross sections of electric field intensity normalized to incident source - log scale, at the symmetry axis y = 0. (c) Plasmon resonance λ = 680nm (d) Patch antenna resonance λ = 785nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Calculated (FDTD) absorption enhancement factor in a cell with Au MNPs compared to a reference cell. Au MNP height is 100nm, radius 50nm and period 350nm. Inset: fraction of power absorbed in the active layer and the absorption in the Au. (b-c) Cross sections of electric field intensity at the split peak of the plasmon resonance (log scale normalized to incident source), (b) Peak at λ = 665nm (c) Peak at λ = 695nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated (FDTD) fraction of power absorbed in the photoactive layer of a cell with Au MNPs height of 100nm, radius of 50nm and varying density compared to a reference cell. (20% -period 200nm,10% - period −280nm, 5% - period 400nm, 4% - period 450nm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Calculated (FDTD) absorption enhancement factor for cells with Au MNPs - heights of 100nm and 60nm compared to a reference cell (particle radius is 50nm and period 400nm). Inset - fraction of power absorbed in the active layer. (b) Cross section of electric field intensity normalized to incident source log scale, at symmetry axis y = 0 - at the plasmon resonance λ = 645nm for particle height of 60nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated (FDTD) absorption enhancement factor for cells with Au MNPs: in direct contact with the photoactive layer; 5nm PEDOT layer buffering between the Au nanodisk and the active layer (In both particle radius is 50nm, height 100nm and period 400nm). Inset: fraction of power absorbed in the active P3HT:PCBM layer.

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