Abstract

A combined wire structure, made up of longer periodic Si microwires and short nanoneedles, was prepared to enhance light absorption using one-step plasma etching via lithographical patterning. The combined wire array exhibited light absorption of up to ~97.6% from 300 to 1100 nm without an anti-reflection coating. These combined wire arrays on a Si substrate were embedded into a transparent polymer. A large-scale wire-embedded soft film was then obtained by peeling the polymer-embedded wire portion from the substrate. Optically attractive features were present in these soft films, making them suitable for use in flexible silicon solar cell applications.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (5)

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Jung, Z. Guo, S.-W. Jee, H.-D. Um, K.-T. Park, and J.-H. Lee, “A strong antireflective solar cell prepared by tapering silicon nanowires,” Opt. Express 18(S3), A286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

W. Bai, Q. Gan, F. Bartoli, J. Zhang, L. Cai, Y. Huang, and G. Song, “Design of plasmonic back structures for efficiency enhancement of thin-film amorphous Si solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3725–3727 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible polymer-embedded Si wire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Gunawan and S. Guha, “Characteristics of vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1388–1393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

H. Fang, X. Li, S. Song, Y. Xu, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of slantingly-aligned silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell applications,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

R. F. Oulton, D. F. P. Pile, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons at abrupt surface interface: Implications for nanoscale cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

W. A. Murray, S. Astilean, and W. L. Barnes, “Transition from localized surface plasmon resonance to extended surface plasmon-polariton as metallic nanoparticles merge to form a periodic hole array,” Phys. Rev. B 69(16), 165407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andrä, G.

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astilean, S.

W. A. Murray, S. Astilean, and W. L. Barnes, “Transition from localized surface plasmon resonance to extended surface plasmon-polariton as metallic nanoparticles merge to form a periodic hole array,” Phys. Rev. B 69(16), 165407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible polymer-embedded Si wire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bai, W.

Balch, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. A. Murray, S. Astilean, and W. L. Barnes, “Transition from localized surface plasmon resonance to extended surface plasmon-polariton as metallic nanoparticles merge to form a periodic hole array,” Phys. Rev. B 69(16), 165407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartoli, F.

Boettcher, S. W.

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunschwig, B. S.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible polymer-embedded Si wire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L.

Catchpole, K. R.

Chen, G.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christiansen, S.

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Codella, P. J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cody, G.

E. Yablonovitch and G. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davuluru, A.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Falk, F.

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, X. Li, S. Song, Y. Xu, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of slantingly-aligned silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell applications,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, N.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Filler, M. A.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible polymer-embedded Si wire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fronheiser, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Q.

Garnett, E. C.

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guha, S.

O. Gunawan and S. Guha, “Characteristics of vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1388–1393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gunawan, O.

O. Gunawan and S. Guha, “Characteristics of vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1388–1393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

Herzinger, C.

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Jee, S.-W.

Johs, B.

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.-Y.

Kayes, B. M.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible polymer-embedded Si wire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempa, T. J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korevaar, B. A.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.-L.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

LeBoeuf, S. F.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

Lee, S. T.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, N. S.

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible polymer-embedded Si wire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

H. Fang, X. Li, S. Song, Y. Xu, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of slantingly-aligned silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell applications,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. M.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, D. F. P. Pile, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons at abrupt surface interface: Implications for nanoscale cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, P. G.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maiolo, J. R.

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maldonado, S.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible polymer-embedded Si wire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McGahan, W.

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murray, W. A.

W. A. Murray, S. Astilean, and W. L. Barnes, “Transition from localized surface plasmon resonance to extended surface plasmon-polariton as metallic nanoparticles merge to form a periodic hole array,” Phys. Rev. B 69(16), 165407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ose, E.

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, D. F. P. Pile, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons at abrupt surface interface: Implications for nanoscale cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-T.

Paulson, W.

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pietrzykowski, M.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pietsch, M.

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, D. F. P. Pile, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons at abrupt surface interface: Implications for nanoscale cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plass, K. E.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible polymer-embedded Si wire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putnam, M. C.

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rand, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rapol, U.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M. Y.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, G.

Song, S.

H. Fang, X. Li, S. Song, Y. Xu, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of slantingly-aligned silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell applications,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spurgeon, J. M.

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible polymer-embedded Si wire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stelzner, T.

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sulima, O.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsakalakos, L.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Um, H.-D.

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Warren, E. L.

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, S. M.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Woollam, J.

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, X. Li, S. Song, Y. Xu, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of slantingly-aligned silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell applications,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch and G. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, D. F. P. Pile, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons at abrupt surface interface: Implications for nanoscale cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, X. Li, S. Song, Y. Xu, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of slantingly-aligned silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell applications,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible polymer-embedded Si wire arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

H. Fang, X. Li, S. Song, Y. Xu, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of slantingly-aligned silicon nanowire arrays for solar cell applications,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

R. F. Oulton, D. F. P. Pile, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons at abrupt surface interface: Implications for nanoscale cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Murray, S. Astilean, and W. L. Barnes, “Transition from localized surface plasmon resonance to extended surface plasmon-polariton as metallic nanoparticles merge to form a periodic hole array,” Phys. Rev. B 69(16), 165407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. W. Boettcher, J. M. Spurgeon, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. D. Kelzenberg, J. R. Maiolo, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Energy-conversion properties of vapor-liquid-solid-grown silicon wire-array photocathodes,” Science 327(5962), 185–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

K. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

O. Gunawan and S. Guha, “Characteristics of vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1388–1393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. D. Henry, J. R. Maiolo, M. D. Kelzenberg, M. C. Putnam, J. M. Spurgeon, K. E. Plass, A. Scherer, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Radial pn junction, wire array solar cells,” in Proceedings of 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, CA, 2008), pp. 1−5.

H.-D. Um, J.-Y. Jung, X. Li, S.-W. Jee, K.-T. Park, H.-S. Seo, S. A. Moiz, S.-W. Lee, J.-Y. Ji, C. T. Kim, M. S. Hyun, Y. C. Park, J. M. Yang, and J.-H. Lee, “A novel photovoltaic nanodevice based on the co-integration of silicon micro and nanowires prepared by electroless etching with conformal plasma doping,” in Proceeding of the IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Baltimore, MD, 2009), pp. 551−554.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics showing the Si microwires (MWs) (a) and combined wires (b). Increasing the source gas ratio of the SF6/C4F8 leads to combined wires consisting of periodic MWs with short nanoneedles (NNs).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional SEM images of two different Si microwire samples. Sample (a) is ~20 µm in length and ~10 µm in pitch, while sample (b) is ~50 µm in length and ~7 µm in pitch. Wire diameters are all ~2 µm. Insets are plan-view images showing square-patterned, periodic arrays with packing fractions of ~3.1% (a), and ~6.4% (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Total reflection spectra of the Si microwires compared to a planar Si wafer as functions of wire length (L) and pitch (P). The reflection of the microwires has been reduced significantly compared to that of the planar Si wafer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical SEM images showing the three different combined wires in which the microwire (MW) lengths are 35 (a), 50 (b), and 70 µm (c). In all samples, 5-µm-long, small nanoneedles (NNs) were integrated with the MWs. The pitches between MWs are all 7 µm. (d) A digital photograph showing the 8-inch waferscale uniformity. The combined wires (left) have much darker features without the shiny nature shown by the Si MWs (right). Wire lengths are ~50 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical characterization of Si wire arrays. (a) Total reflection and absorption spectra of the combined wires with microwire lengths of 35 (black square), 50 (blue triangle), and 70 μm (red circle). All combined wires absorb >95% incident light in the visible region. (b) Specular reflection of the combined wires was greatly suppressed due to the presence of Si nanoneedles compared to that of Si microwires.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-sectional SEM images showing the Si microwire-embedded-film (SWF) just separated from the silicon substrate (a) and the combined wire-embedded film coated with an Al back reflector (CWAF) (b). The inset in panel (a) shows a bird’s eye view of the wire bottoms. The inset in panel (b) clarifies the presence of nanoneedles (NNs) between the microwires (MWs) even after detachment from the substrate. (c) Periodic, uniform wire arrays embedded within the PDMS maintain their original morphologies irrespective of intentional distortions of the detached film. (d) A photograph showing the flexibility of a detached film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effective methods for enhancing light absorption are shown schematically with the following sequence SWF→CWF→SWAF→CWAF; (a) Si microwire-embedded film (SWF), (b) combined wire-embedded film (CWF), (c) Si microwire-embedded film coated with an Al back reflector (SWAF), and (d) combined wire-embedded film coated with an Al back reflector (CWAF). (a) A large portion of incident light is preferentially transmitted through the gap between wires. (b) Additional nanoneedles (NNs) suppress reflection via the GRI effect while reducing the amount of transmission due to the decreased gap. (c) The transmitted light in the SWF is reflected back into the wire array via the back reflection effect. (d) The nanostructured Al back reflector increases the light trapping in the wires by reflecting the incident light. Also, SPPs are excited along the Al-dielectric interface which is periodically nanostructured due to the concave menisci of the PDMS. A magnified view is shown in the inset.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical characterization of the wire-embedded films. (a) Total transmissions, (b) reflections, and (c) absorption spectra of the pure PDMS (black square), SWF (magenta triangle), CWF (green diamond), SWAF (blue triangle), and CWAF (red circle). The CWAF sample presents excellent absorption characteristics in which ≥90% of the incident light is absorbed in the wavelength range of 300−1100 nm. (d) Absorption enhancements of the CWF, SWAF, and CWAF samples are noted over the SWF used as reference values. The inset shows the remarkable increase in absorption enhancement due to the excitation of SPPs closer to the NIR region.

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