Abstract

We report the first demonstration of a broadband trace gas sensor based on chirp-pulse terahertz spectroscopy. The advent of newly developed solid state sources and sensitive heterodyne detectors for the terahertz frequency range have made it possible to generate and detect precise arbitrary waveforms at THz frequencies with ultra-low phase noise. In order to maximize sensitivity, the sample gas is first polarized using sub-μs chirped THz pulses and the free inductive decays (FIDs) are then detected using a heterodyne receiver. This approach allows for a rapid broadband multi-component sensing with low parts in 109 (ppb) sensitivities and spectral frequency accuracy of <20 kHz in real-time. Such a system can be configured into a portable, easy to use, and relatively inexpensive sensing platform.

© 2011 OSA

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2010

2008

B. C. Dian, G. G. Brown, K. O. Douglass, and B. H. Pate, “Measuring picosecond Isomerization kinetics via broadband microwave spectroscopy,” Science 320(5878), 924–928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gerecht, D. Gu, L. You, and K. S. Yngvesson, “A passive heterodyne hot electron bolometer imager operating at 850 gigahertz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(5), 1083–1091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New Measurements of the Water Vapor Continuum in the Region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “Absorption of the Water Vapor-Oxygen Mixture in the Region from 0.3 to 3.6 THz: Continuum and Magnetic Dipole Absorbance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251(1-2), 203–209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

I. R. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, “Chemical analysis in the submillimetre spectral region with a compact solid state system,” Analyst (Lond.) 131(12), 1299–1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 287–295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chrisbenner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerianjr, K. Chance, and L. Coudert, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. P. Müller, F. Schlöder, J. Stutzki, and G. Winnewisser, “The Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy, CDMS: A useful tool for astronomers and spectroscopists,” J. Mol. Struct. 742(1-3), 215–227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz laser study of self-pressure and temperature broadening and shifts of water lines for pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 87(3-4), 377–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996

1954

Adler, F.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chrisbenner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerianjr, K. Chance, and L. Coudert, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Behnke, M.

I. R. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, “Chemical analysis in the submillimetre spectral region with a compact solid state system,” Analyst (Lond.) 131(12), 1299–1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigourd, D.

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chrisbenner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerianjr, K. Chance, and L. Coudert, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bocquet, R.

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Briles, T. C.

Brown, G. G.

B. C. Dian, G. G. Brown, K. O. Douglass, and B. H. Pate, “Measuring picosecond Isomerization kinetics via broadband microwave spectroscopy,” Science 320(5878), 924–928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, L.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chrisbenner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerianjr, K. Chance, and L. Coudert, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chrisbenner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerianjr, K. Chance, and L. Coudert, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cazier, F.

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chackerianjr, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chrisbenner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerianjr, K. Chance, and L. Coudert, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chrisbenner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerianjr, K. Chance, and L. Coudert, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chrisbenner, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chrisbenner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerianjr, K. Chance, and L. Coudert, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cossel, K. C.

Coudert, L.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chrisbenner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerianjr, K. Chance, and L. Coudert, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cuisset, A.

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F. C.

I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, G. M. Plummer, and F. C. De Lucia, “Submillimeter spectroscopy for chemical analysis with absolute specificity,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1533–1535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, “Chemical analysis in the submillimetre spectral region with a compact solid state system,” Analyst (Lond.) 131(12), 1299–1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewaele, D.

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dian, B. C.

B. C. Dian, G. G. Brown, K. O. Douglass, and B. H. Pate, “Measuring picosecond Isomerization kinetics via broadband microwave spectroscopy,” Science 320(5878), 924–928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douglass, K. O.

B. C. Dian, G. G. Brown, K. O. Douglass, and B. H. Pate, “Measuring picosecond Isomerization kinetics via broadband microwave spectroscopy,” Science 320(5878), 924–928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foltynowicz, A.

Fraser, G. T.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “Absorption of the Water Vapor-Oxygen Mixture in the Region from 0.3 to 3.6 THz: Continuum and Magnetic Dipole Absorbance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251(1-2), 203–209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New Measurements of the Water Vapor Continuum in the Region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 287–295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz laser study of self-pressure and temperature broadening and shifts of water lines for pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 87(3-4), 377–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerecht, E.

E. Gerecht, D. Gu, L. You, and K. S. Yngvesson, “A passive heterodyne hot electron bolometer imager operating at 850 gigahertz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(5), 1083–1091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, D.

E. Gerecht, D. Gu, L. You, and K. S. Yngvesson, “A passive heterodyne hot electron bolometer imager operating at 850 gigahertz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(5), 1083–1091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hindle, F.

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chrisbenner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerianjr, K. Chance, and L. Coudert, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

Ma, Q.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New Measurements of the Water Vapor Continuum in the Region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “Absorption of the Water Vapor-Oxygen Mixture in the Region from 0.3 to 3.6 THz: Continuum and Magnetic Dipole Absorbance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251(1-2), 203–209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maslowski, P.

Matton, S.

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Medvedev, I. R.

I. R. Medvedev, C. F. Neese, G. M. Plummer, and F. C. De Lucia, “Submillimeter spectroscopy for chemical analysis with absolute specificity,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1533–1535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, “Chemical analysis in the submillimetre spectral region with a compact solid state system,” Analyst (Lond.) 131(12), 1299–1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mouret, G.

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müller, H. S. P.

H. S. P. Müller, F. Schlöder, J. Stutzki, and G. Winnewisser, “The Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy, CDMS: A useful tool for astronomers and spectroscopists,” J. Mol. Struct. 742(1-3), 215–227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neese, C. F.

Nouali, H.

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olson, W. B.

Pate, B. H.

B. C. Dian, G. G. Brown, K. O. Douglass, and B. H. Pate, “Measuring picosecond Isomerization kinetics via broadband microwave spectroscopy,” Science 320(5878), 924–928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilston, R. G.

Plummer, G. M.

Plusquellic, D. F.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New Measurements of the Water Vapor Continuum in the Region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “Absorption of the Water Vapor-Oxygen Mixture in the Region from 0.3 to 3.6 THz: Continuum and Magnetic Dipole Absorbance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251(1-2), 203–209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 287–295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz laser study of self-pressure and temperature broadening and shifts of water lines for pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 87(3-4), 377–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Podobedov, V. B.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “Absorption of the Water Vapor-Oxygen Mixture in the Region from 0.3 to 3.6 THz: Continuum and Magnetic Dipole Absorbance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251(1-2), 203–209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New Measurements of the Water Vapor Continuum in the Region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “Investigation of the water-vapor continuum in the THz region using a multipass cell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 287–295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz laser study of self-pressure and temperature broadening and shifts of water lines for pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 87(3-4), 377–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chrisbenner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerianjr, K. Chance, and L. Coudert, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schlöder, F.

H. S. P. Müller, F. Schlöder, J. Stutzki, and G. Winnewisser, “The Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy, CDMS: A useful tool for astronomers and spectroscopists,” J. Mol. Struct. 742(1-3), 215–227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siegrist, K. E.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New Measurements of the Water Vapor Continuum in the Region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “Absorption of the Water Vapor-Oxygen Mixture in the Region from 0.3 to 3.6 THz: Continuum and Magnetic Dipole Absorbance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251(1-2), 203–209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strow, L. L.

Stutzki, J.

H. S. P. Müller, F. Schlöder, J. Stutzki, and G. Winnewisser, “The Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy, CDMS: A useful tool for astronomers and spectroscopists,” J. Mol. Struct. 742(1-3), 215–227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tabata, H.

T. Uno and H. Tabata, “In situ measurement of Combustion Gas Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy Setup for Gas Phase Spectroscopy and Measurement of Solid Sample,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DL17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New Measurements of the Water Vapor Continuum in the Region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “Absorption of the Water Vapor-Oxygen Mixture in the Region from 0.3 to 3.6 THz: Continuum and Magnetic Dipole Absorbance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251(1-2), 203–209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D. C.

Uno, T.

T. Uno and H. Tabata, “In situ measurement of Combustion Gas Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy Setup for Gas Phase Spectroscopy and Measurement of Solid Sample,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DL17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, J. U.

Winnewisser, G.

H. S. P. Müller, F. Schlöder, J. Stutzki, and G. Winnewisser, “The Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy, CDMS: A useful tool for astronomers and spectroscopists,” J. Mol. Struct. 742(1-3), 215–227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Yngvesson, K. S.

E. Gerecht, D. Gu, L. You, and K. S. Yngvesson, “A passive heterodyne hot electron bolometer imager operating at 850 gigahertz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(5), 1083–1091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

You, L.

E. Gerecht, D. Gu, L. You, and K. S. Yngvesson, “A passive heterodyne hot electron bolometer imager operating at 850 gigahertz,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(5), 1083–1091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (Lond.)

I. R. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, “Chemical analysis in the submillimetre spectral region with a compact solid state system,” Analyst (Lond.) 131(12), 1299–1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, G. Mouret, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, and H. Nouali, “Multiple component analysis of cigarette smoke using THz spectroscopy, comparison with standard chemical analytical methods,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 579–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

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Certain equipment or materials are identified in this paper in order to specify the experimental procedure adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor is it intended to imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available.

Virginia Diodes, Inc, http://www.virginiadiodes.com/multipliers.htm .

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, C. E. NIST Tech. Note 1297 1994. The publication may be downloaded from: http://physics.nist.gov/Pubs/guidelines/contents.html

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