Abstract

Room temperature spasing of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.46 μm wavelength has been demonstrated by sandwiching a gold-film plasmonic waveguide between optically pumped InGaAs quantum-well gain media. The spaser exhibits gain narrowing, the expected transverse-magnetic polarization, and mirror feedback provided by cleaved facets in a 1-mm long cavity fabricated with a flip-chip approach. The 1.06-μm pump-threshold of ~60 kW/cm2 is in good agreement with calculations. The architecture is readily adaptable to all-electrical operation on an integrated microchip.

© 2011 OSA

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  3. P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
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  4. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
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  5. C.-S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, R. A. Flynn, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, K. Bussmann, J. R. Meyer, and J. P. Long, “An integrated surface-plasmon source,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10609–10615 (2010).
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  6. D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. B.-S. Kim, Y. Chung, and J.-S. Lee, “An efficient split-step time-domain dynamic modeling of DFB/DBR laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36(7), 787–794 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J.-P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, R. A. Flynn, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, K. Bussmann, J. R. Meyer, and J. P. Long, “An integrated surface-plasmon source,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10609–10615 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Banerjee, R. Li, and H. Grebel, “Surface plasmon lasers with quantum dots as gain media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. L. Stiles, J. A. Dieringer, N. C. Shah, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 601–626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Theoretical investigation of compact couplers between dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1211–1221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D. A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Room-temperature operation of lambda=7.5 μm surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B.-S. Kim, Y. Chung, and J.-S. Lee, “An efficient split-step time-domain dynamic modeling of DFB/DBR laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36(7), 787–794 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. Jensen and A. Torabi, “Refractive index of quaternary In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(6), 3623–3625 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. Sarid, “Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(26), 1927–1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. R.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Austin, D. A.

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D. A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Room-temperature operation of lambda=7.5 μm surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Babuty, A.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J.-P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahriz, M.

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D. A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Room-temperature operation of lambda=7.5 μm surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, A.

A. Banerjee, R. Li, and H. Grebel, “Surface plasmon lasers with quantum dots as gain media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaudoin, G.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J.-P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bewley, W. W.

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bousseksou, A.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J.-P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, A. T. R.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bussmann, K.

C.-S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, R. A. Flynn, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, K. Bussmann, J. R. Meyer, and J. P. Long, “An integrated surface-plasmon source,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10609–10615 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chassagneux, Y.

Chung, Y.

B.-S. Kim, Y. Chung, and J.-S. Lee, “An efficient split-step time-domain dynamic modeling of DFB/DBR laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36(7), 787–794 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cockburn, J. W.

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D. A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Room-temperature operation of lambda=7.5 μm surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J.-P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D. A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Room-temperature operation of lambda=7.5 μm surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danz, N.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Wilde, Y.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J.-P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demler, E. A.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dieringer, J. A.

P. L. Stiles, J. A. Dieringer, N. C. Shah, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 601–626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doyen, I. M.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J.-P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Fice, M. J.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, R. A.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, R. A. Flynn, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, K. Bussmann, J. R. Meyer, and J. P. Long, “An integrated surface-plasmon source,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10609–10615 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, G. W.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gatzogiannis, E.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

Genevet, P.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grebel, H.

A. Banerjee, R. Li, and H. Grebel, “Surface plasmon lasers with quantum dots as gain media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greene, P. D.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

Jensen, B.

B. Jensen and A. Torabi, “Refractive index of quaternary In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(6), 3623–3625 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jones, G.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karouta, F.

Kats, M. A.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-S.

B.-S. Kim, Y. Chung, and J.-S. Lee, “An efficient split-step time-domain dynamic modeling of DFB/DBR laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36(7), 787–794 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.-S.

C.-S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, R. A. Flynn, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, K. Bussmann, J. R. Meyer, and J. P. Long, “An integrated surface-plasmon source,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10609–10615 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

Krysa, A. B.

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D. A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Room-temperature operation of lambda=7.5 μm surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-S.

B.-S. Kim, Y. Chung, and J.-S. Lee, “An efficient split-step time-domain dynamic modeling of DFB/DBR laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36(7), 787–794 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

Leosson, K.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

A. Banerjee, R. Li, and H. Grebel, “Surface plasmon lasers with quantum dots as gain media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindle, J. R.

Long, J. P.

C.-S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, R. A. Flynn, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, K. Bussmann, J. R. Meyer, and J. P. Long, “An integrated surface-plasmon source,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10609–10615 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.-M.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marell, M.

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

Moreau, V.

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D. A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Room-temperature operation of lambda=7.5 μm surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ning, C.-Z.

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

O’Reilly, E. P.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y.-S.

Oulton, R. F.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palomo, J.

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D. A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Room-temperature operation of lambda=7.5 μm surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patriarche, G.

Polman, A.

J. A. Dionne, L. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. S.

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D. A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Room-temperature operation of lambda=7.5 μm surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J.-P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarid, D.

D. Sarid, “Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(26), 1927–1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Scarrott, K.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

P. L. Stiles, J. A. Dieringer, N. C. Shah, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 601–626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silver, M.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simpkins, B. S.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J.-P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalbrugge, B.

Smit, M. K.

Smith, A. D.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, A. S.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiles, P. L.

P. L. Stiles, J. A. Dieringer, N. C. Shah, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 601–626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, M.

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L.

J. A. Dionne, L. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tetienne, J. P.

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tetienne, J.-P.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J.-P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torabi, A.

B. Jensen and A. Torabi, “Refractive index of quaternary In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(6), 3623–3625 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

P. L. Stiles, J. A. Dieringer, N. C. Shah, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 601–626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

Veronis, G.

Vranic, A.

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, R. A. Flynn, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, K. Bussmann, J. R. Meyer, and J. P. Long, “An integrated surface-plasmon source,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10609–10615 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, W. H.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, L. R.

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D. A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Room-temperature operation of lambda=7.5 μm surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) (1)

P. L. Stiles, J. A. Dieringer, N. C. Shah, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 601–626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, J. Palomo, R. Colombelli, D. A. Austin, J. W. Cockburn, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, “Room-temperature operation of lambda=7.5 μm surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Banerjee, R. Li, and H. Grebel, “Surface plasmon lasers with quantum dots as gain media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, C.-S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Jones, A. D. Smith, E. P. O’Reilly, M. Silver, A. T. R. Briggs, M. J. Fice, A. R. Adams, P. D. Greene, K. Scarrott, and A. Vranic, “The influence of tensile strain on differential gain and Auger recombination in 1.5-μm multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 822–833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B.-S. Kim, Y. Chung, and J.-S. Lee, “An efficient split-step time-domain dynamic modeling of DFB/DBR laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36(7), 787–794 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. Jensen and A. Torabi, “Refractive index of quaternary In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(6), 3623–3625 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

P. Genevet, J. P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4880–4883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rep. (1)

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. A. Dionne, L. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J.-P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sarid, “Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(26), 1927–1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Side view (not to scale), showing the Au-film plasmonic waveguide sandwiched between two dies containing the QW stacks. The stacks are immersed in the evanescent field of the long-range SPP mode represented by the transverse optical magnetic field hx. Arrows to the right indicate the diagnostic radiation emitted when SPPs reflect from the end facet. (b) End-on view (not to scale) showing the ridge architecture after dies are flip-chip bonded. (c) Rendering of the bonded dies pumped from above and emitting diagnostic radiation to the right. (d) End-on micrograph of the output facet, showing above-threshold diagnostic radiation at 1.46 μm emitted from the end of the SPP waveguide over the width of 100-μm-wide confining ridge. Output power was obtained by integrating the calibrated micrograph intensity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log-log plot comparing the strength of diagnostic radiation from the spaser (circles) and a control device with air above the Au-film waveguide (squares) vs the instantaneous pump-intensity. The control exhibited only spontaneous emission. Solid line shows expectations from our wave-equation model. Inset: L-L plot with linear axes showing threshold at ~60 kW/cm2 pump.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Polarization of the emitted diagnostic radiation (111 kW/cm2 pump intensity) measured with a rotating polarizing filter, showing maxima consistent with TM polarized SPPs. (b) Spectral narrowing as the pump is varied through threshold. Inset: Spectrum at 118 kW/cm2, near our highest pump intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Front-facet emission as a knife-edge mask blocking the pump light is scanned from back to front facets [as sketched in Fig. 1(a)], for various pump intensities. The three regions identified with simulations are: (1) rapid falloff (0 to ~200 μm) as SPP absorption in the mask shadow prevents back-facet feedback; (2) a plateau (to ~950 μm) where saturated amplified-spontaneous-emission dominates; and (3) exponential falloff of unsaturated ASE.

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