Abstract

Optical diffuse reflectance in fibrous tissues depends on measurement angles in relation to fiber orientation. In this study, path-length resolved optical reflectance was measured in tendon and skeletal muscle samples using a low-coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The results show that the angular dependency in reflectance was eliminated in tendon tissue when representing reflectance as a function of mean path-length. Our analysis indicated that this observation can be understood in the frame work of anisotropic diffuse theory. However the same phenomenon was not observed in muscles, suggesting involvement of additional scattering mechanisms.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Errata

Chuanmao Fan, Ali Shuaib, and Gang Yao, "Path-length resolved reflectance in tendon and muscle: erratum," Opt. Express 19, 10895-10895 (2011)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-11-10895

References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Ranasinghesagara and G. Yao, “Effects of inhomogeneous myofibril morphology on optical diffraction in single muscle fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3051–3058 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. A. Choma, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Instantaneous quadrature low-coherence interferometry with 3×3 fiber-optic couplers,” Opt. Lett. 28(22), 2162–2164 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, “Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 246–254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Shuaib and G. Yao, “Equi-intensity distribution of optical reflectance in a fibrous turbid medium,” Appl. Opt. 49(5), 838–844 (2010).
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  23. J. Xia and G. Yao, “Angular distribution of diffuse reflectance in biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6552–6560 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shuaib and G. Yao, “Equi-intensity distribution of optical reflectance in a fibrous turbid medium,” Appl. Opt. 49(5), 838–844 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Path-length-resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase-modulated low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024020–024027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ranasinghesagara and G. Yao, “Imaging 2D optical diffuse reflectance in skeletal muscle,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3998–4007 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3998 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xia and G. Yao, “Angular distribution of diffuse reflectance in biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6552–6560 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, and G. Yao, “A photon migration method for characterizing fiber formation in meat analogs,” J. Food Sci. 71(5), E227–E231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

N. G. Laing and K. J. Nowak, “When contractile proteins go bad: the sarcomere and skeletal muscle disease,” Bioessays 27(8), 809–822 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue-like phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014012–014019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and R. Hibst, “Light propagation in dentin: influence of microstructure on anisotropy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(2), N7–N14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Instantaneous quadrature low-coherence interferometry with 3×3 fiber-optic couplers,” Opt. Lett. 28(22), 2162–2164 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. M. Johnson, B. P. J. Bret, J. G. Rivas, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, “Anisotropic diffusion of light in a strongly scattering material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 243901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassi, A.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bret, B. P. J.

P. M. Johnson, B. P. J. Bret, J. G. Rivas, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, “Anisotropic diffusion of light in a strongly scattering material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 243901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chernomordik, V.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue-like phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014012–014019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chernomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(17), 3979–3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, J. J. G. Guerrero, V. Chernomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Experimental evaluation of an anisotropic scattering model of a slab geometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2518–2520 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Comelli, D.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diebolder, R.

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and R. Hibst, “Light propagation in dentin: influence of microstructure on anisotropy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(2), N7–N14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dogariu, A.

Dudko, O. K.

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chernomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(17), 3979–3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eidsath, A.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue-like phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014012–014019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Essenpreis, M.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, F. K.

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, and R. Hibst, “Anisotropy of light propagation in biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2617–2619 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and R. Hibst, “Light propagation in dentin: influence of microstructure on anisotropy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(2), N7–N14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue-like phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014012–014019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chernomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(17), 3979–3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, J. J. G. Guerrero, V. Chernomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Experimental evaluation of an anisotropic scattering model of a slab geometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2518–2520 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerrard, D. E.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerrero, J. J. G.

Hassan, M.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue-like phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014012–014019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

Hermann, M.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibst, R.

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, and R. Hibst, “Anisotropy of light propagation in biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2617–2619 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and R. Hibst, “Light propagation in dentin: influence of microstructure on anisotropy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(2), N7–N14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, F.

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, and G. Yao, “A photon migration method for characterizing fiber formation in meat analogs,” J. Food Sci. 71(5), E227–E231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Johnson, P. M.

P. M. Johnson, B. P. J. Bret, J. G. Rivas, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, “Anisotropic diffusion of light in a strongly scattering material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 243901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, J. J.

P. M. Johnson, B. P. J. Bret, J. G. Rivas, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, “Anisotropic diffusion of light in a strongly scattering material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 243901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, and R. Hibst, “Anisotropy of light propagation in biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2617–2619 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and R. Hibst, “Light propagation in dentin: influence of microstructure on anisotropy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(2), N7–N14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, “Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 246–254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, U.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagendijk, A.

P. M. Johnson, B. P. J. Bret, J. G. Rivas, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, “Anisotropic diffusion of light in a strongly scattering material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 243901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laing, N. G.

N. G. Laing and K. J. Nowak, “When contractile proteins go bad: the sarcomere and skeletal muscle disease,” Bioessays 27(8), 809–822 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nath, T. M.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickell, S.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nowak, K. J.

N. G. Laing and K. J. Nowak, “When contractile proteins go bad: the sarcomere and skeletal muscle disease,” Bioessays 27(8), 809–822 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, “Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 246–254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

Rajan, V.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Path-length-resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase-modulated low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024020–024027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranasinghesagara, J.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ranasinghesagara and G. Yao, “Effects of inhomogeneous myofibril morphology on optical diffraction in single muscle fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3051–3058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ranasinghesagara and G. Yao, “Imaging 2D optical diffuse reflectance in skeletal muscle,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3998–4007 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3998 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, and G. Yao, “A photon migration method for characterizing fiber formation in meat analogs,” J. Food Sci. 71(5), E227–E231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, J. G.

P. M. Johnson, B. P. J. Bret, J. G. Rivas, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, “Anisotropic diffusion of light in a strongly scattering material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 243901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, A.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue-like phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014012–014019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shuaib, A.

Smith, P.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue-like phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014012–014019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steenbergen, W.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Path-length-resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase-modulated low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024020–024027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sviridov, A.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue-like phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014012–014019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taroni, P.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Zee, P.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Leeuwen, T. G.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Path-length-resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase-modulated low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024020–024027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varghese, B.

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Path-length-resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase-modulated low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024020–024027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weaver, A.

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weaver, A. D.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, G. H.

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chernomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(17), 3979–3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, S. J.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wetzel, C.

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
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Xia, J.

J. Xia and G. Yao, “Angular distribution of diffuse reflectance in biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6552–6560 (2007).
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J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yao, G.

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
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A. Shuaib and G. Yao, “Equi-intensity distribution of optical reflectance in a fibrous turbid medium,” Appl. Opt. 49(5), 838–844 (2010).
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J. Ranasinghesagara and G. Yao, “Effects of inhomogeneous myofibril morphology on optical diffraction in single muscle fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3051–3058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia and G. Yao, “Angular distribution of diffuse reflectance in biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6552–6560 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ranasinghesagara and G. Yao, “Imaging 2D optical diffuse reflectance in skeletal muscle,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3998–4007 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3998 .
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J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, and G. Yao, “A photon migration method for characterizing fiber formation in meat analogs,” J. Food Sci. 71(5), E227–E231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bioessays (1)

N. G. Laing and K. J. Nowak, “When contractile proteins go bad: the sarcomere and skeletal muscle disease,” Bioessays 27(8), 809–822 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 040504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue-like phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014012–014019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Kienle, C. Wetzel, A. Bassi, D. Comelli, P. Taroni, and A. Pifferi, “Determination of the optical properties of anisotropic biological media using an isotropic diffusion model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014026 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Varghese, V. Rajan, T. G. Van Leeuwen, and W. Steenbergen, “Path-length-resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase-modulated low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024020–024027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Food Sci. (1)

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, and G. Yao, “A photon migration method for characterizing fiber formation in meat analogs,” J. Food Sci. 71(5), E227–E231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Meat Sci. (1)

J. Ranasinghesagara, T. M. Nath, S. J. Wells, A. D. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, and G. Yao, “Imaging optical diffuse reflectance in beef muscles for tenderness prediction,” Meat Sci. 84(3), 413–421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and R. Hibst, “Light propagation in dentin: influence of microstructure on anisotropy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(2), N7–N14 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, “Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(10), 2873–2886 (2000).
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O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chernomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(17), 3979–3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. M. Johnson, B. P. J. Bret, J. G. Rivas, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, “Anisotropic diffusion of light in a strongly scattering material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 243901 (2002).
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Other (1)

R. L. Lieber, Skeletal Muscle Structure, Function & Plasticity: The Physiological Basis of Rehabilitation, 2nd ed. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2002), p. 369.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of the fiber optic Mach-Zehnder low coherence interferometer. SLD: superluminescent diode, PL: pilot light for aiming. PD: balance photo-detector. AF: amplifier & band-pass filter. DAQ: data acquisition board.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Examples of raw data measured at 0.1 cm away from incidence; (b) the mean path-length as a function of measurement distance; (c) the total reflectance and (d) the transition distance as a function of the mean path-length in tendon.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Examples of raw data measured at 0.1 cm from incidence; (b) the mean path-length as function of measurement distance; (c) the total reflectance and (d) the transition distance as function of the mean path-length obtained in skeletal muscle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The mean path-length (a) and total reflectance (b) after transforming the y-axis by y’=2.43y for the same tendon data shown in Fig. 2(b) & (c), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The mean path-length (a) and total reflectance (b) after transforming the y-axis by y’=2.03y for the same muscle data shown in Fig. 3(b) & (c), respectively.

Equations (4)

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R d , α = 1 N l = 0 l max r d , α ( l ) ,
l d , α = l = 0 l max l r d , α ( l ) / l = 0 l max r d , α ( l ) ,
1 c Φ ( r , t ) t ( D 2 x 2 + D y 2 y 2 + D 2 z 2 ) Φ ( r , t ) + μ a Φ ( r , t ) = Q 0 ( r , t ) ,
r d , α ( l ) = r i s o ( x 2 + ( y D / D y ) 2 , l ) ,

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