Abstract

The attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in the clear atmosphere from low frequencies up to 2 THz is mainly caused by water vapor. Although there have been many numerical simulations and excellent early sub-mm and far-infrared measurements of this attenuation, there has remained controversy about the background absorption in the most promising windows of transparency below 1 THz. Here, we report an accurate terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) characterization of water vapor from 0.2 to 2 THz. Our results agree with the previous predicted and measured attenuations for the weak water lines, but show more attenuation for the relatively transparent windows between these lines.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. A., Deepak, T.D. Wilkerson, and L. H. Ruhnke, eds., Atmospheric Water Vapor (Academic Press, 1980). This book is the Proceedings of the International Workshop on Atmospheric Water Vapor, Vail, Colorado, September 11–13, 1979.
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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. E. Burch, and D. A. Gryvnak, “Continuum Absorption by Water Vapor in the infrared and Millimeter Regions,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Atmospheric Water Vapor, Vail, Colorado, September 11–13, (1979), pp. 47–76
  5. Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. E. Fedosyev, “Measurement of the atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 9, 627–644 (1966).
  6. R. L. Frenkel and D. Woods, “The microwave absorption by H2O vapor and its mixtures with other gases between 100 and 300 Gc/s,” Proc. IEEE 54(4), 498–505 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. W. Straiton, and C. W. Tolbert, “Anomalies in the Absorption of Radio Waves by Atmospheric Gases,” Proc. IRE 48, 898–903 (1960).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. D. E. Burch, “Absorption of infrared radiant energy by CO2 and H2O. III. absorption by H2O between 0.5 and 36 cm−1,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58(10), 1383–1394 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and demiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Yuan, H. B. Liu, J. Z. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of the atmosphere with different humidity,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 28–37 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Wohnsiedler, M. Theuer, M. Herrmann, S. Islam, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, and F. Hase, “Simulation and experiment of terahertz stand-off detection,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150H, 72150H-8 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Wohnsiedler, M. Theuer, M. Herrmann, S. Islam, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, and F. Hase, “Simulation and experiment of terahertz stand-off detection,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150H, 72150H-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Yuan, H. B. Liu, J. Z. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of the atmosphere with different humidity,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 28–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and demiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1972 (1)

V. Ya. Ryadov and N. I. Furashov, “Investigation of the spectrum of radiowave absorption by atmospheric water vapor in the 1.15 to 1.5 mm range,” Radio Phys. Quantum Electron. 15(10), 1124–1128 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

1966 (2)

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. E. Fedosyev, “Measurement of the atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 9, 627–644 (1966).

R. L. Frenkel and D. Woods, “The microwave absorption by H2O vapor and its mixtures with other gases between 100 and 300 Gc/s,” Proc. IEEE 54(4), 498–505 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Al-Douseri, F.

T. Yuan, H. B. Liu, J. Z. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of the atmosphere with different humidity,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 28–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appleby, R.

R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

S. Wohnsiedler, M. Theuer, M. Herrmann, S. Islam, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, and F. Hase, “Simulation and experiment of terahertz stand-off detection,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150H, 72150H-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burch, D. E.

Chen, Y.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dryagin, Yu. A.

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. E. Fedosyev, “Measurement of the atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 9, 627–644 (1966).

Exter, M.

Fattinger, C.

Fedosyev, L. E.

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. E. Fedosyev, “Measurement of the atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 9, 627–644 (1966).

Frenkel, R. L.

R. L. Frenkel and D. Woods, “The microwave absorption by H2O vapor and its mixtures with other gases between 100 and 300 Gc/s,” Proc. IEEE 54(4), 498–505 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Furashov, N. I.

V. Ya. Ryadov and N. I. Furashov, “Investigation of the spectrum of radiowave absorption by atmospheric water vapor in the 1.15 to 1.5 mm range,” Radio Phys. Quantum Electron. 15(10), 1124–1128 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Gryvnak, D. A.

Hase, F.

S. Wohnsiedler, M. Theuer, M. Herrmann, S. Islam, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, and F. Hase, “Simulation and experiment of terahertz stand-off detection,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150H, 72150H-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, M.

S. Wohnsiedler, M. Theuer, M. Herrmann, S. Islam, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, and F. Hase, “Simulation and experiment of terahertz stand-off detection,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150H, 72150H-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

T. Yuan, H. B. Liu, J. Z. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of the atmosphere with different humidity,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 28–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Islam, S.

S. Wohnsiedler, M. Theuer, M. Herrmann, S. Islam, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, and F. Hase, “Simulation and experiment of terahertz stand-off detection,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150H, 72150H-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jonuscheit, J.

S. Wohnsiedler, M. Theuer, M. Herrmann, S. Islam, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, and F. Hase, “Simulation and experiment of terahertz stand-off detection,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150H, 72150H-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Kislyakov, A. G.

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. E. Fedosyev, “Measurement of the atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 9, 627–644 (1966).

Kukin, L. M.

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. E. Fedosyev, “Measurement of the atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 9, 627–644 (1966).

Liu, H. B.

T. Yuan, H. B. Liu, J. Z. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of the atmosphere with different humidity,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 28–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-B.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, A. I.

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. E. Fedosyev, “Measurement of the atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 9, 627–644 (1966).

Patty, R. R.

Ryadov, V. Ya.

V. Ya. Ryadov and N. I. Furashov, “Investigation of the spectrum of radiowave absorption by atmospheric water vapor in the 1.15 to 1.5 mm range,” Radio Phys. Quantum Electron. 15(10), 1124–1128 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Theuer, M.

S. Wohnsiedler, M. Theuer, M. Herrmann, S. Islam, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, and F. Hase, “Simulation and experiment of terahertz stand-off detection,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150H, 72150H-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, H. B.

R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wohnsiedler, S.

S. Wohnsiedler, M. Theuer, M. Herrmann, S. Islam, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, and F. Hase, “Simulation and experiment of terahertz stand-off detection,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150H, 72150H-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Woods, D.

R. L. Frenkel and D. Woods, “The microwave absorption by H2O vapor and its mixtures with other gases between 100 and 300 Gc/s,” Proc. IEEE 54(4), 498–505 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Z.

T. Yuan, H. B. Liu, J. Z. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of the atmosphere with different humidity,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 28–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, T.

T. Yuan, H. B. Liu, J. Z. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of the atmosphere with different humidity,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 28–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Yuan, H. B. Liu, J. Z. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of the atmosphere with different humidity,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 28–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. (1)

Yu. A. Dryagin, A. G. Kislyakov, L. M. Kukin, A. I. Naumov, and L. E. Fedosyev, “Measurement of the atmospheric absorption of radio waves in the range 1.36-3.0 mm,” Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz. 9, 627–644 (1966).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (2)

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1514–1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Frenkel and D. Woods, “The microwave absorption by H2O vapor and its mixtures with other gases between 100 and 300 Gc/s,” Proc. IEEE 54(4), 498–505 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. Yuan, H. B. Liu, J. Z. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of the atmosphere with different humidity,” Proc. SPIE 5070, 28–37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Wohnsiedler, M. Theuer, M. Herrmann, S. Islam, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, and F. Hase, “Simulation and experiment of terahertz stand-off detection,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150H, 72150H-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Radio Phys. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Ya. Ryadov and N. I. Furashov, “Investigation of the spectrum of radiowave absorption by atmospheric water vapor in the 1.15 to 1.5 mm range,” Radio Phys. Quantum Electron. 15(10), 1124–1128 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. W. Straiton, and C. W. Tolbert, “Anomalies in the Absorption of Radio Waves by Atmospheric Gases,” Proc. IRE 48, 898–903 (1960).

A., Deepak, T.D. Wilkerson, and L. H. Ruhnke, eds., Atmospheric Water Vapor (Academic Press, 1980). This book is the Proceedings of the International Workshop on Atmospheric Water Vapor, Vail, Colorado, September 11–13, 1979.

D. E. Burch, and D. A. Gryvnak, “Continuum Absorption by Water Vapor in the infrared and Millimeter Regions,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Atmospheric Water Vapor, Vail, Colorado, September 11–13, (1979), pp. 47–76

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

This figure is a revised version of Fig. 10 of [4]. “Spectral plots of the near-millimeter attenuation by the atmospheric H2O at sea level. H2O density = 5.9 g/m3. Curve A represents attenuation calculated by summing the theoretical contributions by all the lines and adding the continuum represented by curve B.” [4]. The H2O density corresponds to a relative humidity of 34% at 20 °C. The indicated measurements have been done by several groups; the open triangles below 150 GHz are from Dryagin et al. [5]; the open circles below 200 GHz are from Frenkel and Woods [6]; the filled triangle at 200 GHz is from Straiton and Tolbert [7]; the filled squares from 200 to 400 GHz are from Ryadov and Furashov [8], and the solid circles from below 400 GHz to 1000 GHz are from Burch [9,10]. 7 water windows (circled numbers) and 5 weak water lines (broad arrows) are marked for comparison with the THz-TDS measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Atmospheric attenuation at sea level for different conditions of temperature, relative humidity (RH), fog, dust and rain. (STD: 20 °C, RH 44%), (Humid: 35 °C, RH 90%), (Winter: −10 °C, RH 30%), (Fog, Dust, and Rain: 20 °C, RH 44%). Revised figure taken from Ref. 2. Six water windows (circled numbers) and 5 weak water lines (broad arrows) are marked for comparison with the THz-TDS measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Enclosed THz-TDS system for atmospheric measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a). Measured THz reference pulse (lower trace) and measured THz sample pulse (upper trace). For clarity the THz sample pulse was shifted upwards by 500 pa. (b). Corresponding amplitude spectrum (upper curve) for the THz reference pulse and the amplitude spectrum for the sample pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The amplitude transmission through 6.18 m of atmosphere at 21 °C with RH 51%. The “real data points” are indicated by the larger open circles separated from each other by 6.1 GHz, and the interpolated points obtained from the zero-padding are separated from each other by 0.61 GHz and define the solid line. 10 water windows (circled numbers) and 8 weak water lines are marked to compare with previous predictions and measurements.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Power Attenuation (dB/km) of Water Windows Shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 (STD-Curve) with Experimental Results of Fig. 5

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Power Attenuation (dB/km) of Weak Water Absorption Lines Shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 (STD-Curve), with Experimental Results of Fig. 5

Metrics