Abstract

We present the design and fabrication of a waveguide-based Ge electro-absorption (EA) modulator integrated with a 3µm silicon-on-isolator (SOI) waveguide. The proposed Ge EA modulator employs a butt-coupled horizontally-oriented p-i-n structure. The optical design achieves a low-loss transition from Ge to Si waveguides. The interaction between the optical mode of the waveguide and the bias induced electric field in the p-i-n structure was maximized to achieve high modulation efficiency. By balancing the trade-offs between the extinction ratio and the insertion loss of the device, an optimal working regime was identified. The measurement results from a fabricated device were used to verify the design. Under a −4Vpp reverse bias, the device demonstrates a total insertion loss (including the transition loss) of 2.7-5.2dB and an extinction ratio of 4.9-8.2dB over the wavelength range of 1610-1640nm. Subtracting the contribution of the transition loss, the Δα/α value for the fabricated device was estimated to be between 2.2 and 3.2 with an electric field around 55kV/cm.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, K. Wada, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
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  12. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, and M. Asghari, “Low-loss polarization-insensitive Silicon-on-insulator-based WDM filter for triplexer applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1968–1970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, K. Wada, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electro-optical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electron-absorption modulator integrated with 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, and M. Asghari, “Low-loss polarization-insensitive Silicon-on-insulator-based WDM filter for triplexer applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1968–1970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electro-optical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, K. Wada, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electron-absorption modulator integrated with 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Danielson, D. T.

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, K. Wada, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electron-absorption modulator integrated with 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electron-absorption modulator integrated with 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, and M. Asghari, “Low-loss polarization-insensitive Silicon-on-insulator-based WDM filter for triplexer applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1968–1970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.-N.

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electron-absorption modulator integrated with 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, and M. Asghari, “Low-loss polarization-insensitive Silicon-on-insulator-based WDM filter for triplexer applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1968–1970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fong, J.

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electron-absorption modulator integrated with 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, and M. Asghari, “Low-loss polarization-insensitive Silicon-on-insulator-based WDM filter for triplexer applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1968–1970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jongthanmmanurak, S.

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, K. Wada, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, K. Wada, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Krishnamoorthym, A. V.

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-C.

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electron-absorption modulator integrated with 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, and M. Asghari, “Low-loss polarization-insensitive Silicon-on-insulator-based WDM filter for triplexer applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1968–1970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electron-absorption modulator integrated with 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, and M. Asghari, “Low-loss polarization-insensitive Silicon-on-insulator-based WDM filter for triplexer applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1968–1970 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electron-absorption modulator integrated with 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. F.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, K. Wada, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Michel, J.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, K. Wada, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, D.

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, K. Wada, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, J. E.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1198 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electron-absorption modulator integrated with 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electro-optical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, K. Wada, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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Zheng, X.

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Jongthanmmanurak, J. F. Liu, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, K. Wada, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthym, and M. Asghari, “High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261105 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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G. T. Reed and A. Knights, Silicon Photonics (Wiley, 93–97, 2004).

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. B. Jonathan, and M. Asghari, “Novel fabrication tolerant flat-top demultiplexers based on etched diffraction gratings in SOI,” 5rd Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics, P386 - 388. Sorrento, Italy (September 17–19, 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view of the Ge EA modulator integrated with large core single mode SOI waveguide. (b)-(d) Cross-section views and optical mode profiles of the Si and the Ge waveguides with (c) 0.3μm and (d) 0.6μm Ge slab thicknesses. The amplitude difference between two adjacent contours is 3dB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated transition loss between Ge and Si waveguides excluding Ge absorption. (b) Beam propagation simulation of the devices with 0.3μm and (c) 0.6μm thick Ge slab, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulated doping profiles for side-wall boron and phosphorus doping in Ge. (b) Simulation results of the electric field profiles for the device under reverse biases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Simulated transmission of the device versus device length under two bias conditions. (b) Simulated insertion loss and extinction ratio of the device under −4V bias.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured extinction ratio and insertion loss of a Ge EA modulator device with 1.0μm width in the spectral range of 1570-1640nm. (b) Estimation of Δα/α value for the device. The double arrow indicates the best working regime. The insert shows the SEM image of the fabricated device.

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