Abstract

We have comparatively investigated electrically pumped random lasing (RL) actions of two metal-insulator-semiconductor structured devices using pure ZnO and Zn2TiO4-nanoparticle-incorporated ZnO films as the semiconductor components i.e. light-emitting layers, respectively. It is demonstrated that the device using the Zn2TiO4-nanoparticle-incorporated ZnO film as the light-emitting layer exhibits a much smaller threshold current for the electrically pumped RL, which is ascribed to the enhanced multiple light scattering by incorporation of Zn2TiO4 nanoparticles into ZnO film. It is believed that this work provides a strategy for developing low-threshold ZnO-based random lasers.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor power,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Y. Ma, J. W. Pan, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Room temperature electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14426–14433 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
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  14. H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “Directional and controllable edge-emitting ZnO ultraviolet random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101116 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. F. J. P. Schuurmans, M. Megens, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Lagendijk, “Light scattering near the localization transition in macroporous GaP networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2183–2186 (1999).
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  19. S. A. Mayén-Hernández, G. Torres-Delgado, R. Castanedo-Pérez, M. G. Villarreal, A. Cruz-Orea, J. G. M. Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Optical and structural properties of ZnO + Zn2TiO4 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(11), 1127–1130 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Ocana, W. P. Hsu, and E. Matijevic, “Preparation and properties of uniform-coated colloidal particles. 6. Titania on zinc oxide,” Langmuir 7(12), 2911–2916 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “347 nm ultraviolet electroluminescence from MgxZn1-xO-based light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Suhara, Semiconductor Laser Fundamentals (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2004), equation (3.16) in Chap. 3.
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    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, L. Jin, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films: Compensation between optical gain and light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251115 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (5)

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped wavelength-tunable ultraviolet random lasing from Mg(x)Zn(1-x)O films on Si,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10668–10673 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “Directional and controllable edge-emitting ZnO ultraviolet random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, L. Jin, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films: Compensation between optical gain and light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Ma, J. W. Pan, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Room temperature electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14426–14433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “347 nm ultraviolet electroluminescence from MgxZn1-xO-based light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Mayén-Hernández, G. Torres-Delgado, R. Castanedo-Pérez, M. G. Villarreal, A. Cruz-Orea, J. G. M. Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Optical and structural properties of ZnO + Zn2TiO4 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(11), 1127–1130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, A. S. K. Li, G. T. Du, R. P. H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, “Effect of a microstructure on the formation of self-assembled laser cavities in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(3), 1663–1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

F. J. P. Schuurmans, M. Megens, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Lagendijk, “Light scattering near the localization transition in macroporous GaP networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2183–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor power,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

M. Ocana, W. P. Hsu, and E. Matijevic, “Preparation and properties of uniform-coated colloidal particles. 6. Titania on zinc oxide,” Langmuir 7(12), 2911–2916 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Powder laser,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 45, 847–850 (1986).

Alvarez, J. G. M.

S. A. Mayén-Hernández, G. Torres-Delgado, R. Castanedo-Pérez, M. G. Villarreal, A. Cruz-Orea, J. G. M. Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Optical and structural properties of ZnO + Zn2TiO4 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(11), 1127–1130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Apalkov, V. M.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auzel, F.

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Briskina, Ch. M.

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Powder laser,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 45, 847–850 (1986).

Cao, H.

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor power,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Castanedo-Pérez, R.

S. A. Mayén-Hernández, G. Torres-Delgado, R. Castanedo-Pérez, M. G. Villarreal, A. Cruz-Orea, J. G. M. Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Optical and structural properties of ZnO + Zn2TiO4 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(11), 1127–1130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, A. S. K. Li, G. T. Du, R. P. H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, “Effect of a microstructure on the formation of self-assembled laser cavities in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(3), 1663–1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor power,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. L.

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped wavelength-tunable ultraviolet random lasing from Mg(x)Zn(1-x)O films on Si,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10668–10673 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Ma, J. W. Pan, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Room temperature electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14426–14433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “347 nm ultraviolet electroluminescence from MgxZn1-xO-based light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choy, K. L.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cruz-Orea, A.

S. A. Mayén-Hernández, G. Torres-Delgado, R. Castanedo-Pérez, M. G. Villarreal, A. Cruz-Orea, J. G. M. Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Optical and structural properties of ZnO + Zn2TiO4 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(11), 1127–1130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. Y.

H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, A. S. K. Li, G. T. Du, R. P. H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, “Effect of a microstructure on the formation of self-assembled laser cavities in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(3), 1663–1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, R. J. B.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, G. T.

H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, A. S. K. Li, G. T. Du, R. P. H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, “Effect of a microstructure on the formation of self-assembled laser cavities in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(3), 1663–1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fallert, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. W.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gouedard, C.

Ho, S. T.

H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, A. S. K. Li, G. T. Du, R. P. H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, “Effect of a microstructure on the formation of self-assembled laser cavities in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(3), 1663–1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor power,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X. H.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W. P.

M. Ocana, W. P. Hsu, and E. Matijevic, “Preparation and properties of uniform-coated colloidal particles. 6. Titania on zinc oxide,” Langmuir 7(12), 2911–2916 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Husson, D.

Jin, L.

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, L. Jin, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films: Compensation between optical gain and light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. Y.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

F. J. P. Schuurmans, M. Megens, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Lagendijk, “Light scattering near the localization transition in macroporous GaP networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2183–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, A. S. K.

H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, A. S. K. Li, G. T. Du, R. P. H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, “Effect of a microstructure on the formation of self-assembled laser cavities in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(3), 1663–1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. H.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. S.

X. Y. Ma, J. W. Pan, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Room temperature electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14426–14433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “347 nm ultraviolet electroluminescence from MgxZn1-xO-based light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. K.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “Directional and controllable edge-emitting ZnO ultraviolet random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. L.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. Y.

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, L. Jin, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films: Compensation between optical gain and light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped wavelength-tunable ultraviolet random lasing from Mg(x)Zn(1-x)O films on Si,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10668–10673 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Ma, J. W. Pan, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Room temperature electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14426–14433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “347 nm ultraviolet electroluminescence from MgxZn1-xO-based light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Markushev, V. M.

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Powder laser,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 45, 847–850 (1986).

Matijevic, E.

M. Ocana, W. P. Hsu, and E. Matijevic, “Preparation and properties of uniform-coated colloidal particles. 6. Titania on zinc oxide,” Langmuir 7(12), 2911–2916 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mayén-Hernández, S. A.

S. A. Mayén-Hernández, G. Torres-Delgado, R. Castanedo-Pérez, M. G. Villarreal, A. Cruz-Orea, J. G. M. Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Optical and structural properties of ZnO + Zn2TiO4 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(11), 1127–1130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M.

F. J. P. Schuurmans, M. Megens, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Lagendijk, “Light scattering near the localization transition in macroporous GaP networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2183–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

Ocana, M.

M. Ocana, W. P. Hsu, and E. Matijevic, “Preparation and properties of uniform-coated colloidal particles. 6. Titania on zinc oxide,” Langmuir 7(12), 2911–2916 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Olmedo, M.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. C.

H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, A. S. K. Li, G. T. Du, R. P. H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, “Effect of a microstructure on the formation of self-assembled laser cavities in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(3), 1663–1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. W.

Raikh, M. E.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuurmans, F. J. P.

F. J. P. Schuurmans, M. Megens, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Lagendijk, “Light scattering near the localization transition in macroporous GaP networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2183–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor power,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shan, C. X.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, B.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D. Z.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z. K.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, L. Jin, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films: Compensation between optical gain and light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped wavelength-tunable ultraviolet random lasing from Mg(x)Zn(1-x)O films on Si,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10668–10673 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres-Delgado, G.

S. A. Mayén-Hernández, G. Torres-Delgado, R. Castanedo-Pérez, M. G. Villarreal, A. Cruz-Orea, J. G. M. Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Optical and structural properties of ZnO + Zn2TiO4 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(11), 1127–1130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

F. J. P. Schuurmans, M. Megens, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Lagendijk, “Light scattering near the localization transition in macroporous GaP networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2183–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villarreal, M. G.

S. A. Mayén-Hernández, G. Torres-Delgado, R. Castanedo-Pérez, M. G. Villarreal, A. Cruz-Orea, J. G. M. Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Optical and structural properties of ZnO + Zn2TiO4 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(11), 1127–1130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor power,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. R.

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped wavelength-tunable ultraviolet random lasing from Mg(x)Zn(1-x)O films on Si,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10668–10673 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, L. Jin, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films: Compensation between optical gain and light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Ma, J. W. Pan, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Yang, and D. R. Yang, “Room temperature electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14426–14433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “347 nm ultraviolet electroluminescence from MgxZn1-xO-based light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. Y.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “Directional and controllable edge-emitting ZnO ultraviolet random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yang, Z.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “Directional and controllable edge-emitting ZnO ultraviolet random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zelaya-Angel, O.

S. A. Mayén-Hernández, G. Torres-Delgado, R. Castanedo-Pérez, M. G. Villarreal, A. Cruz-Orea, J. G. M. Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Optical and structural properties of ZnO + Zn2TiO4 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(11), 1127–1130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J. Y.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Y.

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped wavelength-tunable ultraviolet random lasing from Mg(x)Zn(1-x)O films on Si,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10668–10673 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “347 nm ultraviolet electroluminescence from MgxZn1-xO-based light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Z.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D. X.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor power,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zolin, V. F.

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Powder laser,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 45, 847–850 (1986).

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. H. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “Directional and controllable edge-emitting ZnO ultraviolet random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “347 nm ultraviolet electroluminescence from MgxZn1-xO-based light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tian, X. Y. Ma, L. Jin, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films: Compensation between optical gain and light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, A. S. K. Li, G. T. Du, R. P. H. Chang, and S. T. Ho, “Effect of a microstructure on the formation of self-assembled laser cavities in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(3), 1663–1665 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

S. A. Mayén-Hernández, G. Torres-Delgado, R. Castanedo-Pérez, M. G. Villarreal, A. Cruz-Orea, J. G. M. Alvarez, and O. Zelaya-Angel, “Optical and structural properties of ZnO + Zn2TiO4 thin films prepared by the sol–gel method,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 18(11), 1127–1130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Math. Gen. (1)

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

M. Ocana, W. P. Hsu, and E. Matijevic, “Preparation and properties of uniform-coated colloidal particles. 6. Titania on zinc oxide,” Langmuir 7(12), 2911–2916 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor power,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. J. P. Schuurmans, M. Megens, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Lagendijk, “Light scattering near the localization transition in macroporous GaP networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2183–2186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waves Random Media (1)

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. (1)

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Powder laser,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 45, 847–850 (1986).

Other (1)

T. Suhara, Semiconductor Laser Fundamentals (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2004), equation (3.16) in Chap. 3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) XRD patterns for: 1 — ZnO film and 2 — ZnO/Zn2TiO4 film. (b), (c) Typical SEM images for ZnO and ZnO/Zn2TiO4 films, respectively. (d) and (e) Elemental maps of Zn and Ti in ZnO/Zn2TiO4 film using EDS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) HRTEM image of ZnO/Zn2TiO4 film on a silicon substrate. The lattice fringes in the regions marked 1, 2, 3 and 4 are magnified in the right-hand panels. EDS spectrum is acquired around region 5. (b) Fast Fourier transform pattern derived from the HRTEM image in (a), where the spots marked with □-1, 2 and 3 correspond to ZnO (002), (103) and (101) planes, respectively, and that marked with Δ to Zn2TiO4 (311) plane. (c) Lattice fringes for ZnO (002), (103) and (101) planes derived from the FFT pattern in (b). (d) Lattice fringes for Zn2TiO4 (311) plane derived from the FFT pattern in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PL spectra for: 1 — ZnO film and 2 — ZnO/Zn2TiO4 film. (b), (c) Evolution of RT EL spectra with increasing forward bias voltage/current for the MIS devices with ZnO and ZnO/Zn2TiO4 films as the light-emitting layers, respectively. (d) Dependences of the detected output power on the injection current for the MIS devices with the light emitting layers of: 1 — ZnO film and 2 — ZnO/Zn2TiO4 film, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic energy band structure of ZnO-based MIS structure on silicon substrate under sufficient forward bias. (b) The density of states and energy distribution of electrons and holes in the conduction and valence bands respectively for ‘region L’ as shown in (a), satisfying the condition EFn − EFp > Eg for stimulated emission. (c) Schematic diagram for dependence of maximum gain factor in the gain spectrum on the injection current.

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