Abstract

We report the development of two liquid waveguide based photonic elements for use in reconfigurable photonic systems. This work demonstrates the ability to couple light from a conventional optical fiber to an adaptable liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide and back again to an optical fiber(s) enabling us to take advantage of both liquid- and solid-state photonic modalities. We demonstrate and characterize the use of this fiber-in and fiber-out system as either an optical switch or signal attenuator. Microscale flow control enables the adaptive morphology and tunable position of the liquid waveguide yielding an attenuation range of 3.1-10.7 dB, operability over a broad bandwidth spanning the range of wavelengths from visible to telecommunication, and a 1x2 sub-second switching system with a cross-talk as low as 20 dB and maximum coupling efficiency of 3.87 dB.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Diwekar, V. Kamaev, J. Shi, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Optical and magneto-optical studies of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals on cobalt films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3112–3114 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Verluise, V. Laude, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, and P. Tournois, “Amplitude and phase control of ultrashort pulses by use of an acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter: pulse compression and shaping,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 575–577 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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  26. Y. C. Seow, S. P. Lim, and H. P. Lee, “Tunable optofluidic switch via hydrodynamic control of laminar flow rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 114105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. M. Lim, J. P. Urbanski, T. Thorsen, and S. M. Yang, “Pneumatic control of a liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide as the basis for an optofluidic switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. In press.
    [PubMed]
  28. G. M. Whitesides, E. Ostuni, S. Takayama, X. Jiang, and D. E. Ingber, “Soft lithography in biology and biochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3(1), 335–373 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

N. Courjal, S. Benchabane, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, Y. Gruson, and V. Laude, “Acousto-optically tunable lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Song and D. Psaltis, “Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Jung, A. J. Chung, and D. Erickson, “Analysis of liquid-to-solid coupling and other performance parameters for microfluidically reconfigurable photonic systems,” Opt. Express 18(11), 10973–10984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. C. Seow, S. P. Lim, and H. P. Lee, “Tunable optofluidic switch via hydrodynamic control of laminar flow rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 114105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. M. Lim, S. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, and S. M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip 8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Tang, C. A. Stan, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamically reconfigurable liquid-core liquid-cladding lens in a microfluidic channel,” Lab Chip 8(3), 395–401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Erickson, C. H. Yang, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidics emerges from the laboratory,” Photon. Spectra 42, 74–78 (2008).

C. L. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. N. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens,” Lab Chip 7(10), 1303–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Single mode optofluidic distributed feedback dye laser,” Opt. Express 14(2), 696–701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, and R. Salut, “Electro-optic effect exaltation on lithium niobate photonic crystals due to slow photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 59–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Strukov and K. K. Likharev, “CMOL FPGA: a reconfigurable architecture for hybrid digital circuits with two-terminal nanodevices,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 888–900 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, and F. I. Baida, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of a lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. Camargo, H. Chong, and R. De La Rue, “2D Photonic crystal thermo-optic switch based on AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial structure,” Opt. Express 12(4), 588–592 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Diwekar, V. Kamaev, J. Shi, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Optical and magneto-optical studies of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals on cobalt films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3112–3114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

L. Y. Lin and E. L. Goldstein, “Opportunities and challenges for MEMS in lightwave communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 163–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. M. Whitesides, E. Ostuni, S. Takayama, X. Jiang, and D. E. Ingber, “Soft lithography in biology and biochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3(1), 335–373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1963

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, and W. H. Stevens, “The absorption spectra of liquid phase H2O, HDO and D2O from 0.7µm to 10µm,” Infrared Phys. 3, 211–222 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, and R. Salut, “Electro-optic effect exaltation on lithium niobate photonic crystals due to slow photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, and F. I. Baida, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of a lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bayly, J. G.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, and W. H. Stevens, “The absorption spectra of liquid phase H2O, HDO and D2O from 0.7µm to 10µm,” Infrared Phys. 3, 211–222 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Belotti, M.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benchabane, S.

N. Courjal, S. Benchabane, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, Y. Gruson, and V. Laude, “Acousto-optically tunable lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, M. P.

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, and R. Salut, “Electro-optic effect exaltation on lithium niobate photonic crystals due to slow photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, and F. I. Baida, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of a lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bog, U.

Camargo, E.

Campbell, K.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

L. L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. N. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. N.

L. L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. N. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

Choi, J. H.

J. M. Lim, S. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, and S. M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip 8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, H.

Chung, A. J.

Conroy, R. S.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courjal, N.

N. Courjal, S. Benchabane, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, Y. Gruson, and V. Laude, “Acousto-optically tunable lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, and R. Salut, “Electro-optic effect exaltation on lithium niobate photonic crystals due to slow photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, and F. I. Baida, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of a lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dahdah, J.

N. Courjal, S. Benchabane, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, Y. Gruson, and V. Laude, “Acousto-optically tunable lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R.

Diwekar, M.

M. Diwekar, V. Kamaev, J. Shi, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Optical and magneto-optical studies of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals on cobalt films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3112–3114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Emery, T.

Erickson, D.

Fainman, Y.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischbach, M. A.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galas, J. C.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garstecki, P.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, E. L.

L. Y. Lin and E. L. Goldstein, “Opportunities and challenges for MEMS in lightwave communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 163–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Groisman, A.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gruson, Y.

N. Courjal, S. Benchabane, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, Y. Gruson, and V. Laude, “Acousto-optically tunable lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, L. L.

L. L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. N. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. J.

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens,” Lab Chip 7(10), 1303–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingber, D. E.

G. M. Whitesides, E. Ostuni, S. Takayama, X. Jiang, and D. E. Ingber, “Soft lithography in biology and biochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3(1), 335–373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, W.

L. L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. N. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

G. M. Whitesides, E. Ostuni, S. Takayama, X. Jiang, and D. E. Ingber, “Soft lithography in biology and biochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3(1), 335–373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juluri, B. K.

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens,” Lab Chip 7(10), 1303–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, E. E.

Kamaev, V.

M. Diwekar, V. Kamaev, J. Shi, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Optical and magneto-optical studies of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals on cobalt films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3112–3114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

Kartha, V. B.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, and W. H. Stevens, “The absorption spectra of liquid phase H2O, HDO and D2O from 0.7µm to 10µm,” Infrared Phys. 3, 211–222 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

J. M. Lim, S. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, and S. M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip 8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kou, Q.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Laude, V.

N. Courjal, S. Benchabane, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, Y. Gruson, and V. Laude, “Acousto-optically tunable lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Verluise, V. Laude, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, and P. Tournois, “Amplitude and phase control of ultrashort pulses by use of an acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter: pulse compression and shaping,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 575–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. P.

Y. C. Seow, S. P. Lim, and H. P. Lee, “Tunable optofluidic switch via hydrodynamic control of laminar flow rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 114105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. W.

Levy, U.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Likharev, K. K.

D. B. Strukov and K. K. Likharev, “CMOL FPGA: a reconfigurable architecture for hybrid digital circuits with two-terminal nanodevices,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 888–900 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. M.

J. M. Lim, S. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, and S. M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip 8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lim, J. P. Urbanski, T. Thorsen, and S. M. Yang, “Pneumatic control of a liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide as the basis for an optofluidic switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. In press.
[PubMed]

Lim, S. P.

Y. C. Seow, S. P. Lim, and H. P. Lee, “Tunable optofluidic switch via hydrodynamic control of laminar flow rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 114105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. Y.

L. Y. Lin and E. L. Goldstein, “Opportunities and challenges for MEMS in lightwave communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 163–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X.

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens,” Lab Chip 7(10), 1303–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayers, B. T.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R. C.

Monat, C.

Mookherjea, S.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Ostuni, E.

G. M. Whitesides, E. Ostuni, S. Takayama, X. Jiang, and D. E. Ingber, “Soft lithography in biology and biochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3(1), 335–373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, K. E.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

W. Z. Song and D. Psaltis, “Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson, C. H. Yang, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidics emerges from the laboratory,” Photon. Spectra 42, 74–78 (2008).

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 59–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Single mode optofluidic distributed feedback dye laser,” Opt. Express 14(2), 696–701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockwood, T.

Roussey, M.

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, and R. Salut, “Electro-optic effect exaltation on lithium niobate photonic crystals due to slow photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, and F. I. Baida, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of a lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salut, R.

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, and R. Salut, “Electro-optic effect exaltation on lithium niobate photonic crystals due to slow photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Seow, Y. C.

Y. C. Seow, S. P. Lim, and H. P. Lee, “Tunable optofluidic switch via hydrodynamic control of laminar flow rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 114105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

M. Diwekar, V. Kamaev, J. Shi, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Optical and magneto-optical studies of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals on cobalt films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3112–3114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L.

Song, W. Z.

W. Z. Song and D. Psaltis, “Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

Stan, C. A.

S. K. Tang, C. A. Stan, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamically reconfigurable liquid-core liquid-cladding lens in a microfluidic channel,” Lab Chip 8(3), 395–401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, W. H.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, and W. H. Stevens, “The absorption spectra of liquid phase H2O, HDO and D2O from 0.7µm to 10µm,” Infrared Phys. 3, 211–222 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Strukov, D. B.

D. B. Strukov and K. K. Likharev, “CMOL FPGA: a reconfigurable architecture for hybrid digital circuits with two-terminal nanodevices,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 888–900 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, S.

G. M. Whitesides, E. Ostuni, S. Takayama, X. Jiang, and D. E. Ingber, “Soft lithography in biology and biochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3(1), 335–373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S. K.

S. K. Tang, C. A. Stan, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamically reconfigurable liquid-core liquid-cladding lens in a microfluidic channel,” Lab Chip 8(3), 395–401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorsen, T.

J. M. Lim, J. P. Urbanski, T. Thorsen, and S. M. Yang, “Pneumatic control of a liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide as the basis for an optofluidic switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. In press.
[PubMed]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

Torres, J.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tournois, P.

Ulliac, G.

N. Courjal, S. Benchabane, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, Y. Gruson, and V. Laude, “Acousto-optically tunable lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Urbanski, J. P.

J. M. Lim, J. P. Urbanski, T. Thorsen, and S. M. Yang, “Pneumatic control of a liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide as the basis for an optofluidic switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. In press.
[PubMed]

Van Labeke, D.

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, and R. Salut, “Electro-optic effect exaltation on lithium niobate photonic crystals due to slow photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

M. Diwekar, V. Kamaev, J. Shi, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Optical and magneto-optical studies of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals on cobalt films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3112–3114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verluise, F.

Waldeisen, J. R.

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens,” Lab Chip 7(10), 1303–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. N. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

S. K. Tang, C. A. Stan, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamically reconfigurable liquid-core liquid-cladding lens in a microfluidic channel,” Lab Chip 8(3), 395–401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Whitesides, E. Ostuni, S. Takayama, X. Jiang, and D. E. Ingber, “Soft lithography in biology and biochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3(1), 335–373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfe, D. B.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, D. K.

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

D. Erickson, C. H. Yang, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidics emerges from the laboratory,” Photon. Spectra 42, 74–78 (2008).

Yang, S. M.

J. M. Lim, S. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, and S. M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip 8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Lim, J. P. Urbanski, T. Thorsen, and S. M. Yang, “Pneumatic control of a liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide as the basis for an optofluidic switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. In press.
[PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.

G. M. Whitesides, E. Ostuni, S. Takayama, X. Jiang, and D. E. Ingber, “Soft lithography in biology and biochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3(1), 335–373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Z. Song and D. Psaltis, “Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Seow, S. P. Lim, and H. P. Lee, “Tunable optofluidic switch via hydrodynamic control of laminar flow rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 114105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lim, J. P. Urbanski, T. Thorsen, and S. M. Yang, “Pneumatic control of a liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide as the basis for an optofluidic switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. In press.
[PubMed]

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, and F. I. Baida, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of a lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Roussey, M. P. Bernal, N. Courjal, D. Van Labeke, F. I. Baida, and R. Salut, “Electro-optic effect exaltation on lithium niobate photonic crystals due to slow photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Diwekar, V. Kamaev, J. Shi, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Optical and magneto-optical studies of two-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals on cobalt films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3112–3114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Courjal, S. Benchabane, J. Dahdah, G. Ulliac, Y. Gruson, and V. Laude, “Acousto-optically tunable lithium niobate photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. N. Chen, L. Wang, and R. T. Chen, “High speed silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator for low voltage operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. Y. Lin and E. L. Goldstein, “Opportunities and challenges for MEMS in lightwave communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 163–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, and W. H. Stevens, “The absorption spectra of liquid phase H2O, HDO and D2O from 0.7µm to 10µm,” Infrared Phys. 3, 211–222 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

J. M. Lim, S. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, and S. M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip 8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Tang, C. A. Stan, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamically reconfigurable liquid-core liquid-cladding lens in a microfluidic channel,” Lab Chip 8(3), 395–401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens,” Lab Chip 7(10), 1303–1308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

D. B. Strukov and K. K. Likharev, “CMOL FPGA: a reconfigurable architecture for hybrid digital circuits with two-terminal nanodevices,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 888–900 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photon. Spectra

D. Erickson, C. H. Yang, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidics emerges from the laboratory,” Photon. Spectra 42, 74–78 (2008).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. E. Lyshevski, MEMS and NEMS: Systems, Devices, and Structures (CRC Press, 2002).

M. Gad-el-Hak, MEMS: Design and Fabrication (CRC Press, 2006).

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (4195 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3071 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic views of (a) the optofluidic system showing the principle of operation for the optical switch (upper image) and the tunable modulator (lower image) (b) Experimental setup showing the coupling of the optical and flow control systems to the chip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optofluidic tunable attenuator (a) PDMS chip showing liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide and light propagation along it. (b) Magnified view from above looking at the region near liquid waveguide. (c) Minimum and maximum transmitted power states for the liquid waveguide. (d) Output power measurements for the 1.25 mm liquid waveguide length: output (see supplemental Media 1). In all cases, scale bar represents 125 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Output power as a function of the waveguide width for different channel lengths (equivalent to liquid waveguide length). (b) Maximum power as a function of the liquid waveguide length ranging from 0.5 mm to 4.75 mm. The error bars represents standard error of the mean. (c) Emitted fluorescence intensity from the liquid waveguide as a function of downstream distance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optofluidic switch showing carbon black added to the bottom substrate in order to reduce cross-talk between the two output optical fibers. (b) Optical micrograph view of the red dashed zone in (a). (c) Photographic image of the 1x2 optofluidic switch in both states. (d) Magnified view of the switching states. (see supplemental Media 2). In all cases, scale bar represents 125 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output power vs. switching period for (a) 5 seconds, (b) 3 seconds, (c) 1 second, and (d) 0.5 seconds. (Inset) Maximum power plot for each switching period. The error bars represents standard error of mean.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Coupled power into the output waveguide as a function of core width for 4 different slaser wavelengths. (b) Maximum coupling efficiency for all wavelengths tested here. The error bars represents standard error of the mean.

Metrics