Abstract

This study employed the optical responses of periodic structures, multiple-variable functions with sufficient complexity, to develop a cryptographic scheme. The characteristics of structures could be delivered easily with the ciphertext, a series of numbers containing plaintext messages. Two optimization methods utilizing a genetic algorithm were adopted to generate the periodic structure profile as a critical encryption/decryption key. The robustness of methods was further confirmed under various limits. The ciphertext could only be decrypted by referring to the codebook after acquiring the pre-determined optical response. The confidentiality and large capacity of the scheme revealed the enhanced coding strategies here while the success of the scheme was demonstrated with the delivery of an example message.

© 2011 OSA

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2010

2008

R. Katayama and Y. Komatsu, “Blue/DVD/CD compatible optical head,” Appl. Opt. 47(22), 4045–4054 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Lee, Y.-B. Chen, and Z. M. Zhang, “Transmission enhancement through nanoscale metallic slit arrays from the visible to mid-infrared,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 5, 201–213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Zhou, S. D. Chang, and C. P. Grover, “Cryptography based on the absorption/emission features of multicolor semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2925–2931 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-13-2925 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Cheng and Y. L. Lo, “Arbitrary strain distribution measurement using a genetic algorithm approach and two fiber Bragg grating intensity spectra,” Opt. Commun. 239(4-6), 323–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. J. Shen, Q. Z. Zhu, and Z. M. Zhang, “A scatterometer for measuring the bidirectional reflectance and transmittance of semiconductor wafers with rough surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4885–4892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Gisin, G. G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297(5589), 2026–2030 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

C. T. Clelland, V. Risca, and C. Bancroft, “Hiding messages in DNA microdots,” Nature 399(6736), 533–534 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

1981

1978

R. L. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman, “Method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems,” Commun. ACM 21(2), 120–126 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abushagur, M. A. G.

Adleman, L.

R. L. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman, “Method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems,” Commun. ACM 21(2), 120–126 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Annovazzi-Lodi, V.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argyris, A.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bancroft, C.

C. T. Clelland, V. Risca, and C. Bancroft, “Hiding messages in DNA microdots,” Nature 399(6736), 533–534 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. D.

Chen, J. S.

Chen, W.

Chen, X. D.

Chen, Y.-B.

Y.-B. Chen and J. S. Chen, “Cryptosystem for plaintext messages utilizing optical properties of gratings,” Appl. Opt. 49(11), 2041–2046 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Lee, Y.-B. Chen, and Z. M. Zhang, “Transmission enhancement through nanoscale metallic slit arrays from the visible to mid-infrared,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 5, 201–213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. C.

H. C. Cheng and Y. L. Lo, “Arbitrary strain distribution measurement using a genetic algorithm approach and two fiber Bragg grating intensity spectra,” Opt. Commun. 239(4-6), 323–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clelland, C. T.

C. T. Clelland, V. Risca, and C. Bancroft, “Hiding messages in DNA microdots,” Nature 399(6736), 533–534 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colet, P.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, I.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Ojalvo, J.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gershenfeld, N.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297(5589), 2026–2030 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, G. G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grover, C. P.

Javidi, B.

Johnson, E. G.

Katayama, R.

Komatsu, Y.

Larger, L.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. J.

B. J. Lee, Y.-B. Chen, and Z. M. Zhang, “Transmission enhancement through nanoscale metallic slit arrays from the visible to mid-infrared,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 5, 201–213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. L.

H. C. Cheng and Y. L. Lo, “Arbitrary strain distribution measurement using a genetic algorithm approach and two fiber Bragg grating intensity spectra,” Opt. Commun. 239(4-6), 323–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mirasso, C. R.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moharam, M. G.

Nomura, T.

Pappu, R.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297(5589), 2026–2030 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pesquera, L.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Recht, B.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297(5589), 2026–2030 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Refregier, P.

Ribordy, G. G.

N. Gisin, G. G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Risca, V.

C. T. Clelland, V. Risca, and C. Bancroft, “Hiding messages in DNA microdots,” Nature 399(6736), 533–534 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivest, R. L.

R. L. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman, “Method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems,” Commun. ACM 21(2), 120–126 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shamir, A.

R. L. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman, “Method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems,” Commun. ACM 21(2), 120–126 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. J.

Y. J. Shen, Q. Z. Zhu, and Z. M. Zhang, “A scatterometer for measuring the bidirectional reflectance and transmittance of semiconductor wafers with rough surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4885–4892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Shore, K. A.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Syvridis, D.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, J.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297(5589), 2026–2030 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. M.

B. J. Lee, Y.-B. Chen, and Z. M. Zhang, “Transmission enhancement through nanoscale metallic slit arrays from the visible to mid-infrared,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 5, 201–213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Shen, Q. Z. Zhu, and Z. M. Zhang, “A scatterometer for measuring the bidirectional reflectance and transmittance of semiconductor wafers with rough surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4885–4892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, M.

Zhu, Q. Z.

Y. J. Shen, Q. Z. Zhu, and Z. M. Zhang, “A scatterometer for measuring the bidirectional reflectance and transmittance of semiconductor wafers with rough surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4885–4892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Commun. ACM

R. L. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman, “Method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems,” Commun. ACM 21(2), 120–126 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci.

B. J. Lee, Y.-B. Chen, and Z. M. Zhang, “Transmission enhancement through nanoscale metallic slit arrays from the visible to mid-infrared,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 5, 201–213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature

C. T. Clelland, V. Risca, and C. Bancroft, “Hiding messages in DNA microdots,” Nature 399(6736), 533–534 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 438 (7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

H. C. Cheng and Y. L. Lo, “Arbitrary strain distribution measurement using a genetic algorithm approach and two fiber Bragg grating intensity spectra,” Opt. Commun. 239(4-6), 323–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Mod. Phys.

N. Gisin, G. G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

Y. J. Shen, Q. Z. Zhu, and Z. M. Zhang, “A scatterometer for measuring the bidirectional reflectance and transmittance of semiconductor wafers with rough surfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4885–4892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297(5589), 2026–2030 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, 1989).

S. S. Rao, Engineering Optimization: Theory and Practice (John Wiley, 2009).

E. G. Loewen and E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (M. Dekker, 1997).

F. P. Incropera, D. P. DeWitt, T. L. Bergman, and A. S. Lavain, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer (John Wiley, 2007).

A. J. Menezes, P. C. Van Oorschot, and S. A. Vanstone, Handbook of Applied Cryptography (CRC Press, 1997).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1998).

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