Abstract

Laser light excitation of fluorescent markers offers highly sensitive and specific analysis for bio-medical or chemical analysis. To profit from these advantages for applications in the field or at the point-of-care, a plastic lab-on-a-chip with integrated organic semiconductor lasers is presented here. First order distributed feedback lasers based on the organic semiconductor tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) doped with the laser dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyril)-4H-pyrane (DCM), deep ultraviolet induced waveguides, and a nanostructured microfluidic channel are integrated into a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate. A simple and parallel fabrication process is used comprising thermal imprint, DUV exposure, evaporation of the laser material, and sealing by thermal bonding. The excitation of two fluorescent marker model systems including labeled antibodies with light emitted by integrated lasers is demonstrated.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (9)

S. Vengasandra, Y. Cai, D. Grewell, J. Shinar, and R. Shinar, “Polypropylene CD-organic light-emitting diode biosensing platform,” Lab Chip 10(8), 1051–1056 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kolew, A. Kristensen, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “All-polymer organic semiconductor laser chips: parallel fabrication and encapsulation,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24881–24887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, A. Kolew, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, S. Dehm, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Integration of organic semiconductor lasers and single-mode passive waveguides into a PMMA substrate,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 693–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, and U. Lemmer, “Compact spectroscopy system based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 47–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vannahme, M. B. Christiansen, T. Mappes, and A. Kristensen, “Optofluidic dye laser in a foil,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9280–9285 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schelb, C. Vannahme, A. Welle, S. Lenhert, B. Ross, and T. Mappes, “Fluorescence excitation on monolithically integrated all-polymer chips,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

T. Mappes, C. Vannahme, M. Schelb, U. Lemmer, and J. Mohr, “Design for optimized coupling of organic semiconductor laser light into polymer waveguides for highly integrated bio-photonic sensors,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1499–1501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ramuz, L. Burgi, R. Stanley, and C. Winnewisser, “Coupling light from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) into a single-mode waveguide: Toward monolithically integrated optical sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Mogensen and J. P. Kutter, “Optical detection in microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis 30(S1), S92–S100 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Myers and L. P. Lee, “Innovations in optical microfluidic technologies for point-of-care diagnostics,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2015–2031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction: application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21626–21640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Nunes, N. A. Mortensen, J. P. Kutter, and K. B. Mogensen, “Photonic crystal resonator integrated in a microfluidic system,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1623–1625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ichihashi, P. Henzi, M. Bruendel, J. Mohr, and D. G. Rabus, “Polymer waveguides from alicyclic methacrylate copolymer fabricated by deep-UV exposure,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 379–381 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Christiansen, M. Schøler, and A. Kristensen, “Integration of active and passive polymer optics,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3931–3939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

S. Balslev, A. M. Jorgensen, B. Bilenberg, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, and A. Kristensen, “Lab-on-a-chip with integrated optical transducers,” Lab Chip 6(2), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Janasek, J. Franzke, and A. Manz, “Scaling and the design of miniaturized chemical-analysis systems,” Nature 442(7101), 374–380 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Dittrich, K. Tachikawa, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. Latest advancements and trends,” Anal. Chem. 78(12), 3887–3908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Huebner, R. Boucher, W. Morgenroth, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures in polymer waveguide material,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1138–1141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 61(1-3), 100–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1973 (1)

E. M. Conwell, “Modes in optical waveguides formed by diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(6), 328–329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balslev, S.

S. Balslev, A. M. Jorgensen, B. Bilenberg, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, and A. Kristensen, “Lab-on-a-chip with integrated optical transducers,” Lab Chip 6(2), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banuls Polo, M. J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, E.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berleb, S.

Bilenberg, B.

S. Balslev, A. M. Jorgensen, B. Bilenberg, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, and A. Kristensen, “Lab-on-a-chip with integrated optical transducers,” Lab Chip 6(2), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, I. D.

Boucher, R.

U. Huebner, R. Boucher, W. Morgenroth, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures in polymer waveguide material,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1138–1141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, F.

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruendel, M.

Brütting, W.

Burgi, L.

M. Ramuz, L. Burgi, R. Stanley, and C. Winnewisser, “Coupling light from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) into a single-mode waveguide: Toward monolithically integrated optical sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

S. Vengasandra, Y. Cai, D. Grewell, J. Shinar, and R. Shinar, “Polypropylene CD-organic light-emitting diode biosensing platform,” Lab Chip 10(8), 1051–1056 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camposeo, A.

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlborg, C. F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

Christiansen, M. B.

Cingolani, R.

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conwell, E. M.

E. M. Conwell, “Modes in optical waveguides formed by diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(6), 328–329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

Dehm, S.

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, A. Kolew, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, S. Dehm, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Integration of organic semiconductor lasers and single-mode passive waveguides into a PMMA substrate,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 693–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dittrich, P. S.

P. S. Dittrich, K. Tachikawa, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. Latest advancements and trends,” Anal. Chem. 78(12), 3887–3908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobbertin, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dortu, F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eich, M.

U. Huebner, R. Boucher, W. Morgenroth, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures in polymer waveguide material,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1138–1141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franzke, J.

D. Janasek, J. Franzke, and A. Manz, “Scaling and the design of miniaturized chemical-analysis systems,” Nature 442(7101), 374–380 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, H.

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganesh, N.

Gerhard, A.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geschke, O.

S. Balslev, A. M. Jorgensen, B. Bilenberg, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, and A. Kristensen, “Lab-on-a-chip with integrated optical transducers,” Lab Chip 6(2), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geyer, U.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

Grewell, D.

S. Vengasandra, Y. Cai, D. Grewell, J. Shinar, and R. Shinar, “Polypropylene CD-organic light-emitting diode biosensing platform,” Lab Chip 10(8), 1051–1056 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guttmann, M.

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, A. Kolew, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, S. Dehm, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Integration of organic semiconductor lasers and single-mode passive waveguides into a PMMA substrate,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 693–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heideman, R. G.

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 61(1-3), 100–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henzi, P.

Hinze, P.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
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Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
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Huebner, U.

U. Huebner, R. Boucher, W. Morgenroth, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures in polymer waveguide material,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1138–1141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hunsperger, R. G.

Huskens, J.

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichihashi, Y.

Jakobs, P.-J.

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, A. Kolew, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, S. Dehm, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Integration of organic semiconductor lasers and single-mode passive waveguides into a PMMA substrate,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 693–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janasek, D.

D. Janasek, J. Franzke, and A. Manz, “Scaling and the design of miniaturized chemical-analysis systems,” Nature 442(7101), 374–380 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johannes, H.-H.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, A. M.

S. Balslev, A. M. Jorgensen, B. Bilenberg, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, and A. Kristensen, “Lab-on-a-chip with integrated optical transducers,” Lab Chip 6(2), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazmierczak, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klinkhammer, S.

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kolew, A. Kristensen, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “All-polymer organic semiconductor laser chips: parallel fabrication and encapsulation,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24881–24887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, A. Kolew, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, S. Dehm, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Integration of organic semiconductor lasers and single-mode passive waveguides into a PMMA substrate,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 693–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, and U. Lemmer, “Compact spectroscopy system based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 47–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolew, A.

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, A. Kolew, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, S. Dehm, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Integration of organic semiconductor lasers and single-mode passive waveguides into a PMMA substrate,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 693–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kolew, A. Kristensen, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “All-polymer organic semiconductor laser chips: parallel fabrication and encapsulation,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24881–24887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalsky, W.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kresbach, G. M.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, A.

Kröger, M.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuswandi, B.

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kutter, J. P.

K. B. Mogensen and J. P. Kutter, “Optical detection in microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis 30(S1), S92–S100 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Nunes, N. A. Mortensen, J. P. Kutter, and K. B. Mogensen, “Photonic crystal resonator integrated in a microfluidic system,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1623–1625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Balslev, A. M. Jorgensen, B. Bilenberg, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, and A. Kristensen, “Lab-on-a-chip with integrated optical transducers,” Lab Chip 6(2), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambeck, P. V.

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 61(1-3), 100–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laue, T.

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, A.

Lee, L. P.

F. B. Myers and L. P. Lee, “Innovations in optical microfluidic technologies for point-of-care diagnostics,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2015–2031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemmer, U.

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kolew, A. Kristensen, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “All-polymer organic semiconductor laser chips: parallel fabrication and encapsulation,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24881–24887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, A. Kolew, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, S. Dehm, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Integration of organic semiconductor lasers and single-mode passive waveguides into a PMMA substrate,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 693–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, and U. Lemmer, “Compact spectroscopy system based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 47–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Mappes, C. Vannahme, M. Schelb, U. Lemmer, and J. Mohr, “Design for optimized coupling of organic semiconductor laser light into polymer waveguides for highly integrated bio-photonic sensors,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1499–1501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lenhert, S.

M. Schelb, C. Vannahme, A. Welle, S. Lenhert, B. Ross, and T. Mappes, “Fluorescence excitation on monolithically integrated all-polymer chips,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malyarchuk, V.

Manz, A.

P. S. Dittrich, K. Tachikawa, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. Latest advancements and trends,” Anal. Chem. 78(12), 3887–3908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Janasek, J. Franzke, and A. Manz, “Scaling and the design of miniaturized chemical-analysis systems,” Nature 442(7101), 374–380 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mappes, T.

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, A. Kolew, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, S. Dehm, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Integration of organic semiconductor lasers and single-mode passive waveguides into a PMMA substrate,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 693–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kolew, A. Kristensen, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “All-polymer organic semiconductor laser chips: parallel fabrication and encapsulation,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24881–24887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vannahme, M. B. Christiansen, T. Mappes, and A. Kristensen, “Optofluidic dye laser in a foil,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9280–9285 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schelb, C. Vannahme, A. Welle, S. Lenhert, B. Ross, and T. Mappes, “Fluorescence excitation on monolithically integrated all-polymer chips,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Mappes, C. Vannahme, M. Schelb, U. Lemmer, and J. Mohr, “Design for optimized coupling of organic semiconductor laser light into polymer waveguides for highly integrated bio-photonic sensors,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1499–1501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maquieira Catala, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathias, P. C.

Mogensen, K. B.

K. B. Mogensen and J. P. Kutter, “Optical detection in microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis 30(S1), S92–S100 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Nunes, N. A. Mortensen, J. P. Kutter, and K. B. Mogensen, “Photonic crystal resonator integrated in a microfluidic system,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1623–1625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Balslev, A. M. Jorgensen, B. Bilenberg, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, and A. Kristensen, “Lab-on-a-chip with integrated optical transducers,” Lab Chip 6(2), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moh, T.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohr, J.

T. Mappes, C. Vannahme, M. Schelb, U. Lemmer, and J. Mohr, “Design for optimized coupling of organic semiconductor laser light into polymer waveguides for highly integrated bio-photonic sensors,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1499–1501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ichihashi, P. Henzi, M. Bruendel, J. Mohr, and D. G. Rabus, “Polymer waveguides from alicyclic methacrylate copolymer fabricated by deep-UV exposure,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 379–381 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgenroth, W.

U. Huebner, R. Boucher, W. Morgenroth, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures in polymer waveguide material,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1138–1141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

Mückl, A. G.

Myers, F. B.

F. B. Myers and L. P. Lee, “Innovations in optical microfluidic technologies for point-of-care diagnostics,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2015–2031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nunes, P. S.

Nuriman, J.

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pagliara, S.

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pisignano, D.

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polini, A.

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popplewell, J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabe, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, D. G.

Ramuz, M.

M. Ramuz, L. Burgi, R. Stanley, and C. Winnewisser, “Coupling light from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) into a single-mode waveguide: Toward monolithically integrated optical sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riechel, S.

Riedl, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ronan, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, B.

M. Schelb, C. Vannahme, A. Welle, S. Lenhert, B. Ross, and T. Mappes, “Fluorescence excitation on monolithically integrated all-polymer chips,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuel, I. D. W.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schelb, M.

M. Schelb, C. Vannahme, A. Welle, S. Lenhert, B. Ross, and T. Mappes, “Fluorescence excitation on monolithically integrated all-polymer chips,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mappes, C. Vannahme, M. Schelb, U. Lemmer, and J. Mohr, “Design for optimized coupling of organic semiconductor laser light into polymer waveguides for highly integrated bio-photonic sensors,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1499–1501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schimmel, T.

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, M.

U. Huebner, R. Boucher, W. Morgenroth, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures in polymer waveguide material,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1138–1141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schøler, M.

Sekula, S.

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinar, J.

S. Vengasandra, Y. Cai, D. Grewell, J. Shinar, and R. Shinar, “Polypropylene CD-organic light-emitting diode biosensing platform,” Lab Chip 10(8), 1051–1056 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinar, R.

S. Vengasandra, Y. Cai, D. Grewell, J. Shinar, and R. Shinar, “Polypropylene CD-organic light-emitting diode biosensing platform,” Lab Chip 10(8), 1051–1056 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snakenborg, D.

S. Balslev, A. M. Jorgensen, B. Bilenberg, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, and A. Kristensen, “Lab-on-a-chip with integrated optical transducers,” Lab Chip 6(2), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohlstrom, H.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanley, R.

M. Ramuz, L. Burgi, R. Stanley, and C. Winnewisser, “Coupling light from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) into a single-mode waveguide: Toward monolithically integrated optical sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stemme, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stössel, P.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tachikawa, K.

P. S. Dittrich, K. Tachikawa, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. Latest advancements and trends,” Anal. Chem. 78(12), 3887–3908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turnbull, G. A.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Wijngaart, W.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vannahme, C.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vannahme, M. B. Christiansen, T. Mappes, and A. Kristensen, “Optofluidic dye laser in a foil,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9280–9285 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schelb, C. Vannahme, A. Welle, S. Lenhert, B. Ross, and T. Mappes, “Fluorescence excitation on monolithically integrated all-polymer chips,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kolew, A. Kristensen, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “All-polymer organic semiconductor laser chips: parallel fabrication and encapsulation,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24881–24887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, A. Kolew, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, S. Dehm, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Integration of organic semiconductor lasers and single-mode passive waveguides into a PMMA substrate,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 693–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Mappes, C. Vannahme, M. Schelb, U. Lemmer, and J. Mohr, “Design for optimized coupling of organic semiconductor laser light into polymer waveguides for highly integrated bio-photonic sensors,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1499–1501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vengasandra, S.

S. Vengasandra, Y. Cai, D. Grewell, J. Shinar, and R. Shinar, “Polypropylene CD-organic light-emitting diode biosensing platform,” Lab Chip 10(8), 1051–1056 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verboom, W.

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vestweber, H.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walheim, S.

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Welle, A.

M. Schelb, C. Vannahme, A. Welle, S. Lenhert, B. Ross, and T. Mappes, “Fluorescence excitation on monolithically integrated all-polymer chips,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winnewisser, C.

M. Ramuz, L. Burgi, R. Stanley, and C. Winnewisser, “Coupling light from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) into a single-mode waveguide: Toward monolithically integrated optical sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V.

Woggon, T.

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, and U. Lemmer, “Compact spectroscopy system based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 47–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Zhang, W.

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, “An ultraviolet organic thin-film solid-state laser for biomarker applications,” Adv. Mater. 17, 31–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

P. S. Dittrich, K. Tachikawa, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. Latest advancements and trends,” Anal. Chem. 78(12), 3887–3908 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

B. Kuswandi, J. Nuriman, J. Huskens, and W. Verboom, “Optical sensing systems for microfluidic devices: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 601(2), 141–155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, S. Dehm, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Woggon, S. Klinkhammer, and U. Lemmer, “Compact spectroscopy system based on tunable organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 47–51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Conwell, “Modes in optical waveguides formed by diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(6), 328–329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electrophoresis (1)

K. B. Mogensen and J. P. Kutter, “Optical detection in microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis 30(S1), S92–S100 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Ramuz, L. Burgi, R. Stanley, and C. Winnewisser, “Coupling light from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) into a single-mode waveguide: Toward monolithically integrated optical sensors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 084508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Schelb, C. Vannahme, A. Welle, S. Lenhert, B. Ross, and T. Mappes, “Fluorescence excitation on monolithically integrated all-polymer chips,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (5)

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Banuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlstrom, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vengasandra, Y. Cai, D. Grewell, J. Shinar, and R. Shinar, “Polypropylene CD-organic light-emitting diode biosensing platform,” Lab Chip 10(8), 1051–1056 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. Myers and L. P. Lee, “Innovations in optical microfluidic technologies for point-of-care diagnostics,” Lab Chip 8(12), 2015–2031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Balslev, A. M. Jorgensen, B. Bilenberg, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, and A. Kristensen, “Lab-on-a-chip with integrated optical transducers,” Lab Chip 6(2), 213–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pagliara, A. Camposeo, A. Polini, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Electrospun light-emitting nanofibers as excitation source in microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(19), 2851–2856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microelectron. Eng. (3)

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, A. Kolew, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, S. Dehm, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Integration of organic semiconductor lasers and single-mode passive waveguides into a PMMA substrate,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 693–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Huebner, R. Boucher, W. Morgenroth, M. Schmidt, and M. Eich, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structures in polymer waveguide material,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1138–1141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Mappes, C. Vannahme, M. Schelb, U. Lemmer, and J. Mohr, “Design for optimized coupling of organic semiconductor laser light into polymer waveguides for highly integrated bio-photonic sensors,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1499–1501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Lenhert, F. Brinkmann, T. Laue, S. Walheim, C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. Xu, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, T. Schimmel, and H. Fuchs, “Lipid multilayer gratings,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 275–279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. Janasek, J. Franzke, and A. Manz, “Scaling and the design of miniaturized chemical-analysis systems,” Nature 442(7101), 374–380 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Optical spectroscopy with organic semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7722, 77221I, 77221I-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, “Remote opto-chemical sensing with extreme sensitivity: design, fabrication and performance of a pigtailed integrated optical phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer system,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 61(1-3), 100–127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Carroll, J. Whiteaway, and D. Plumb, Distributed feedback semiconductor lasers, IEE Circuits, Devices and Systems Series 10 (The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1998).

T. Woggon, M. Punke, M. Stroisch, M. Bruendel, M. Schelb, C. Vannahme, T. Mappes, J. Mohr, and U. Lemmer, “Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensors,” in McGraw-Hill volume on Organic Electronics in Sensors and Biotechnology, J. Shinar and R. Shinar, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York 2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of an exemplary plastic LOC system with integrated lasers as used for fluorescence excitation and (b) sectional view of one detection unit on the same system (not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Slab waveguides modes of an organic semiconductor laser and a DUV induced waveguide. (b) Calculated coupling efficiency of both modes as function of the topographical step height on the PMMA substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of a plastic LOC system with an optical micrograph of an interaction zone (upper inset) and an atomic force micrograph of a DFB laser grating (lower inset).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of the optical setup to prove the functional capability of fluorescence excitation on LOC systems.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Input-output curve of an integrated laser and (b) laser and fluorescence spectrum taken at the interaction zone as shown in Fig. 4 without using a long pass filter to block the laser light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Demonstration of fluorescence excitation. (a) Spectra of excited fluorescence in microfluidic channels (solid lines) and matched emission spectra of FluoSpheres® and Alex Fluor® (dashed lines). The laser light is blocked with long pass filters below ~665 nm in the case of the FluoSpheres® and below ~645 nm for Alexa Fluor®. (b) Combined photographs of interaction zone under illumination (grayscale) and fluorescent light from FluoSpheres® (red) taken with a CCD camera.

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