Abstract

We report on the first femtosecond vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) exceeding 1 W of average output power. The VECSEL is optically pumped, based on self-assembled InAs quantum dot (QD) gain layers, cooled efficiently using a thin disk geometry and passively modelocked with a fast quantum dot semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). We developed a novel gain structure with a flat group delay dispersion (GDD) of ± 10 fs2 over a range of 30 nm around the designed operation wavelength of 960 nm. This amount of GDD is several orders of magnitude lower compared to standard designs. Furthermore, we used an optimized positioning scheme of 63 QD gain layers to broaden and flatten the spectral gain. For stable and self-starting pulse formation, we have employed a QD-SESAM with a fast absorption recovery time of around 500 fs. We have achieved 1 W of average output power with 784-fs pulse duration at a repetition rate of 5.4 GHz. The QD-SESAM and the QD-VECSEL are operated with similar cavity mode areas, which is beneficial for higher repetition rates and the integration of both elements into a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL).

© 2011 OSA

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  1. U. Keller and T. H. Chiu, “Resonant passive modelocked Nd:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(7), 1710–1721 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).
  8. D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, A. Klehr, A. Liero, M. Weyers, and G. Erbert, “Mode-locked InGaAs-AlGaAs disk laser generating sub-200-fs pulses, pulse picking and amplification by a tapered diode amplifier,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10820–10834 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, S. Elsmere, A. Quarterman, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “Ultrafast optical Stark mode-locked semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2797–2799 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 3 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Harris, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, “Emission spectra and mode structure of InAs/GaAs self-organized quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 969–971 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part I: Experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 429–437 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. X. Kärtner, B. Braun, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave-mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part II: Theory,” Appl. Phys. B 61(6), 569–579 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Hoffmann, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. R. Kovsh, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 733–736 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “10-GHz passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser with 1.4-W average output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Klopp, F. Saas, M. Zorn, M. Weyers, and U. Griebner, “290-fs pulses from a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5770–5775 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, “Sub-500-fs soliton pulse in a passively mode-locked broadband surface-emitting laser with 100-mW average power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3892–3894 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10143–10153 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. Langlois, M. Joschko, E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “High fluence ultrafast dynamics of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3841–3843 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).

2010 (4)

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, A. Klehr, A. Liero, M. Weyers, and G. Erbert, “Mode-locked InGaAs-AlGaAs disk laser generating sub-200-fs pulses, pulse picking and amplification by a tapered diode amplifier,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10820–10834 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

2007 (1)

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “10-GHz passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser with 1.4-W average output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, “Sub-500-fs soliton pulse in a passively mode-locked broadband surface-emitting laser with 100-mW average power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3892–3894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Langlois, M. Joschko, E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “High fluence ultrafast dynamics of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3841–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Harris, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, “Emission spectra and mode structure of InAs/GaAs self-organized quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 969–971 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part I: Experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, B. Braun, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave-mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part II: Theory,” Appl. Phys. B 61(6), 569–579 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

1992 (1)

U. Keller and T. H. Chiu, “Resonant passive modelocked Nd:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(7), 1710–1721 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aschwanden, A.

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “10-GHz passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser with 1.4-W average output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barbarin, Y.

Beere, H.

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bellancourt, A. R.

Bellancourt, A.-R.

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brauch, U.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part I: Experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, B. Braun, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave-mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part II: Theory,” Appl. Phys. B 61(6), 569–579 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C.

M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Butkus, M.

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, T. H.

U. Keller and T. H. Chiu, “Resonant passive modelocked Nd:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(7), 1710–1721 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, E.

M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Daniell, G. J.

Ebling, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elsmere, S.

Erbert, G.

Farrer, I.

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, S. Elsmere, A. Quarterman, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “Ultrafast optical Stark mode-locked semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2797–2799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, “Sub-500-fs soliton pulse in a passively mode-locked broadband surface-emitting laser with 100-mW average power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3892–3894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giesen, A.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Gini, E.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “10-GHz passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser with 1.4-W average output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).

Golling, M.

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. R. Kovsh, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

Häring, R.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).

Harris, L.

L. Harris, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, “Emission spectra and mode structure of InAs/GaAs self-organized quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 969–971 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G.

L. Harris, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, “Emission spectra and mode structure of InAs/GaAs self-organized quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 969–971 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, “Sub-500-fs soliton pulse in a passively mode-locked broadband surface-emitting laser with 100-mW average power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3892–3894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

L. Harris, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, “Emission spectra and mode structure of InAs/GaAs self-organized quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 969–971 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hügel, H.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Ippen, E. P.

P. Langlois, M. Joschko, E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “High fluence ultrafast dynamics of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3841–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iwaniuk, D.

Jappy, C.

M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joschko, M.

P. Langlois, M. Joschko, E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “High fluence ultrafast dynamics of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3841–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

P. Langlois, M. Joschko, E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “High fluence ultrafast dynamics of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3841–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part I: Experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, B. Braun, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave-mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part II: Theory,” Appl. Phys. B 61(6), 569–579 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. R. Kovsh, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “10-GHz passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser with 1.4-W average output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part I: Experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, B. Braun, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave-mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part II: Theory,” Appl. Phys. B 61(6), 569–579 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and T. H. Chiu, “Resonant passive modelocked Nd:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(7), 1710–1721 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Klehr, A.

Klopp, P.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

P. Langlois, M. Joschko, E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “High fluence ultrafast dynamics of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3841–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koontz, E. M.

P. Langlois, M. Joschko, E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “High fluence ultrafast dynamics of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3841–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A. R.

M. Hoffmann, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. R. Kovsh, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I. L.

M. Hoffmann, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. R. Kovsh, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langlois, P.

P. Langlois, M. Joschko, E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “High fluence ultrafast dynamics of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3841–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leburn, C.

M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liero, A.

Lorenser, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “10-GHz passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser with 1.4-W average output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lumb, M.

M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. R. Kovsh, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marchese, S. V.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, N.

M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mihoubi, Z.

Mikhrin, S. S.

M. Hoffmann, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. R. Kovsh, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).

Mowbray, D. J.

L. Harris, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, “Emission spectra and mode structure of InAs/GaAs self-organized quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 969–971 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murray, R.

M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opower, H.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Paschotta, R.

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “10-GHz passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser with 1.4-W average output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).

Quarterman, A.

Quarterman, A. H.

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rafailov, E. U.

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, S. Elsmere, A. Quarterman, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “Ultrafast optical Stark mode-locked semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2797–2799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, J. S.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, “Sub-500-fs soliton pulse in a passively mode-locked broadband surface-emitting laser with 100-mW average power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3892–3894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rudin, B.

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saas, F.

Sagnes, I.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, “Sub-500-fs soliton pulse in a passively mode-locked broadband surface-emitting laser with 100-mW average power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3892–3894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Girons, G.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, “Sub-500-fs soliton pulse in a passively mode-locked broadband surface-emitting laser with 100-mW average power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3892–3894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shafiei, M.

Sibbett, W.

M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sieber, O. D.

Skolnick, M. S.

L. Harris, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, “Emission spectra and mode structure of InAs/GaAs self-organized quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 969–971 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stavrinou, P.

M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Südmeyer, T.

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. R. Kovsh, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

P. Langlois, M. Joschko, E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “High fluence ultrafast dynamics of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3841–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A.

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, S. Elsmere, A. Quarterman, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “Ultrafast optical Stark mode-locked semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2797–2799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tropper, A. C.

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, “Sub-500-fs soliton pulse in a passively mode-locked broadband surface-emitting laser with 100-mW average power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3892–3894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unold, H. J.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “10-GHz passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser with 1.4-W average output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Voss, A.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part I: Experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weyers, M.

Wilcox, K. G.

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, S. Elsmere, A. Quarterman, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “Ultrafast optical Stark mode-locked semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2797–2799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittig, K.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Wittwer, V. J.

Zorn, M.

Appl. Phys. B (7)

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

B. Braun, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part I: Experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 429–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, B. Braun, and U. Keller, “Continuous-wave-mode-locked solid-state lasers with enhanced spatial hole-burning, Part II: Theory,” Appl. Phys. B 61(6), 569–579 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. R. Kovsh, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lumb, P. Stavrinou, E. Clarke, R. Murray, C. Leburn, C. Jappy, N. Metzger, C. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Dispersionless saturable absorber mirrors with large modulation depths and low saturation fluences,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 53–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

P. Langlois, M. Joschko, E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “High fluence ultrafast dynamics of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3841–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “10-GHz passively mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser with 1.4-W average output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, “Sub-500-fs soliton pulse in a passively mode-locked broadband surface-emitting laser with 100-mW average power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3892–3894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(25), 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Harris, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, and G. Hill, “Emission spectra and mode structure of InAs/GaAs self-organized quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 969–971 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and T. H. Chiu, “Resonant passive modelocked Nd:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(7), 1710–1721 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “High Peak Power Femtosecond Pulse Passively Mode-Locked Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1021–1023 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IET Optoelectron. (1)

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

P. Klopp, F. Saas, M. Zorn, M. Weyers, and U. Griebner, “290-fs pulses from a semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5770–5775 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, A. Klehr, A. Liero, M. Weyers, and G. Erbert, “Mode-locked InGaAs-AlGaAs disk laser generating sub-200-fs pulses, pulse picking and amplification by a tapered diode amplifier,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10820–10834 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of fundamentally SESAM modelocked optically pumped VECSELs. More details are listed in Table 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Semiconductor designs of the QD-VECSEL (left) and the QD-SESAM (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index profile (black) and E-field distribution at a wavelength of 965 nm (blue) of the QD-VECSEL (left) and the QD-SESAM (right), showing the active and the absorber region, respectively, together with the top layers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

GDD as a function of the wavelength for the QD-VECSEL (left) and the QD-SESAM (right). Left: Simulated GDD without top-coating (black), with top-coating (blue) and with top-coating and multiplied by a factor of 1000 (red). Right: Simulated GDD without top-coating and with top-coating (blue).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurements of the non-linear reflectivity (left) and the impulse response (right) of the QD-SESAM. Left: Measurement points (blue dotted) and fit (solid blue). The solid thin blue lines are the fitted values for the parameters F sat, R lin and R ns. (in the text). Right: Pump-probe measurement points (blue dotted) and double exponential fit (solid blue).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Overview of the laser cavity, showing the perpendicular pumping geometry and the cavity elements: output coupler, QD-VECSEL and QD-SESAM.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Modelocking results for the shortest pulses obtained. Left: Optical spectrum with a spectral resolution of 0.2 nm and a spectral width of 2.7 nm around 961 nm. Middle: Measured auto-correlation trace (blue) and its sech2-fit (red) showing a pulse duration of 416 fs. Right: Microwave spectrum with a resolution bandwidth of 100 kHz and a span of 10 MHz, showing a repetition rate of 4.47 GHz.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Modelocking results of the highest average power obtained. Left: Optical spectrum with a spectral resolution of 0.2 nm and a spectral width of 1.7 nm around 970 nm. Middle: Measured auto-correlation trace (blue) and its sech2-fit (red), showing a pulse duration of 784 fs. Right: Microwave spectrum with a resolution bandwidth of 100 kHz and a span of 10 MHz, showing a repetition rate of 5.44 GHz.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Overview of Fundamentally Modelocked VECSELs

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = R ns · F sat F · log ( 1 + R lin R ns · ( e F / F sat 1 ) ) · e F / F 2 ,
A · e t / t s + ( 1 A ) · e t / t f ,

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