Abstract

The outdoor readability of the most popular portable liquid crystal display (LCDs) viz. fringe field switching has been addressed both in single and dual cell gap transflective devices. The devices use dual orientation, such as, homogeneous alignment in transmissive (T) part and 64° twisted alignment in reflective (R) part. The dark states of the proposed devices are achieved by controlling phase retardation in T part and polarization rotation in R part and the white state is realized by rotating optic axis of liquid crystal and removing phase retardation in T and R parts, respectively. The devices show high light efficiency without requiring any optical compensation films, exhibiting strong potential for portable display applications.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, M.-H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Single cell-gap transflective liquid crystal device utilizing continuous director rotation with different twist angle in the fringe-field switching mode,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 1169–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Her, S. J. Shin, Y. J. Lim, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective fringe-field switching liquid crystal display without any retarder,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22842–22849 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Seo, H. J. Jang, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, I.-B. Kang, and C. H. Oh, “Wide Pretilt Angle Control of Liquid Crystal Display Device by Ion Beam Exposure on the Vertical Aligning Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(44), L1074–L1076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. M. Rhee, and S. H. Lee, “Cell gap-dependent transmission characteristics of a fringe-electric field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell, for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 32(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic Characteristics of Single Gap Transflective Display using In-plane Switching Mode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 433(1), 105–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Park, H. Y. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, D. H. Lim, S. Y. Kim, Y. J. Lim, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of Reflective Part with Wide-Band Property in Single Gap Transflective Fringe-Field Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6695–6697 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

N. Koma, M. Mitsui, K. Inoue, K. Maeda, T. Yamada, and Y. Tanaka, “Development of a Novel Transflective-Type VA-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 35(1), 288–291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song and S. H. Lee, “A single Gap transflective Display using In-Plane Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A/B), L1130–L1132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Niewukerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, and J. A. M. M. van Haaren, “Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 78–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Shibazaki, Y. Ukawa, S. Takahashi, Y. Lefuji, and T. Nakagawa, “Transflective LCD with Low Driving Voltage and Wide Viewing Angle,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 90–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. Yoda, T. Uesaka, T. Ogasawara, and T. Toyooka, “Wide-Viewing-Angle Transflective TFT-LCDs with Hybrid Aligned Nematic Compensators,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 33(1), 762–765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

S. H. Hong, I. C. Park, H. Y. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Electro-optic characteristic of fringe-field switching mode depending on rubbing direction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L527–L530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H. J.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andry, P. S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baik, H. K.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baik, I. S.

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bruinink, J.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Niewukerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, and J. A. M. M. van Haaren, “Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 78–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cai, C.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callegari, A.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, P.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chigrinov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M. H.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, M.-H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Single cell-gap transflective liquid crystal device utilizing continuous director rotation with different twist angle in the fringe-field switching mode,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 1169–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Doornkamp, C.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Niewukerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, and J. A. M. M. van Haaren, “Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 78–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galligan, E.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Her, J. H.

Hong, S. H.

S. H. Hong, I. C. Park, H. Y. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Electro-optic characteristic of fringe-field switching mode depending on rubbing direction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L527–L530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hougham, G.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, B. H.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hyun, D. C.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

N. Koma, M. Mitsui, K. Inoue, K. Maeda, T. Yamada, and Y. Tanaka, “Development of a Novel Transflective-Type VA-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 35(1), 288–291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. J.

J.-H. Seo, H. J. Jang, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, I.-B. Kang, and C. H. Oh, “Wide Pretilt Angle Control of Liquid Crystal Display Device by Ion Beam Exposure on the Vertical Aligning Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(44), L1074–L1076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. H.

J. B. Park, H. Y. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, D. H. Lim, S. Y. Kim, Y. J. Lim, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of Reflective Part with Wide-Band Property in Single Gap Transflective Fringe-Field Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6695–6697 (2005).
[CrossRef]

John, R.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, B. S.

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. H.

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. M. Rhee, and S. H. Lee, “Cell gap-dependent transmission characteristics of a fringe-electric field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell, for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 32(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D.

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.-B.

J.-H. Seo, H. J. Jang, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, I.-B. Kang, and C. H. Oh, “Wide Pretilt Angle Control of Liquid Crystal Display Device by Ion Beam Exposure on the Vertical Aligning Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(44), L1074–L1076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katoh, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B. K.

Kim, D. S.

J. H. Song, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic Characteristics of Single Gap Transflective Display using In-plane Switching Mode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 433(1), 105–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. M. Rhee, and S. H. Lee, “Cell gap-dependent transmission characteristics of a fringe-electric field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell, for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 32(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Park, H. Y. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, D. H. Lim, S. Y. Kim, Y. J. Lim, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of Reflective Part with Wide-Band Property in Single Gap Transflective Fringe-Field Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6695–6697 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Hong, I. C. Park, H. Y. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Electro-optic characteristic of fringe-field switching mode depending on rubbing direction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L527–L530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

J.-H. Seo, H. J. Jang, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, I.-B. Kang, and C. H. Oh, “Wide Pretilt Angle Control of Liquid Crystal Display Device by Ion Beam Exposure on the Vertical Aligning Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(44), L1074–L1076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, M.-H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Single cell-gap transflective liquid crystal device utilizing continuous director rotation with different twist angle in the fringe-field switching mode,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 1169–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. C.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

J. B. Park, H. Y. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, D. H. Lim, S. Y. Kim, Y. J. Lim, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of Reflective Part with Wide-Band Property in Single Gap Transflective Fringe-Field Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6695–6697 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. Y.

J. H. Song, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic Characteristics of Single Gap Transflective Display using In-plane Switching Mode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 433(1), 105–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koma, N.

N. Koma, M. Mitsui, K. Inoue, K. Maeda, T. Yamada, and Y. Tanaka, “Development of a Novel Transflective-Type VA-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 35(1), 288–291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, N. D.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, G.-D.

J. H. Her, S. J. Shin, Y. J. Lim, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective fringe-field switching liquid crystal display without any retarder,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22842–22849 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, M.-H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Single cell-gap transflective liquid crystal device utilizing continuous director rotation with different twist angle in the fringe-field switching mode,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 1169–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, M.-H.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, M.-H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Single cell-gap transflective liquid crystal device utilizing continuous director rotation with different twist angle in the fringe-field switching mode,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 1169–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. M. Rhee, and S. H. Lee, “Cell gap-dependent transmission characteristics of a fringe-electric field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell, for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 32(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, M.-H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Single cell-gap transflective liquid crystal device utilizing continuous director rotation with different twist angle in the fringe-field switching mode,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 1169–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Her, S. J. Shin, Y. J. Lim, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective fringe-field switching liquid crystal display without any retarder,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22842–22849 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic Characteristics of Single Gap Transflective Display using In-plane Switching Mode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 433(1), 105–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. M. Rhee, and S. H. Lee, “Cell gap-dependent transmission characteristics of a fringe-electric field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell, for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 32(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Park, H. Y. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, D. H. Lim, S. Y. Kim, Y. J. Lim, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of Reflective Part with Wide-Band Property in Single Gap Transflective Fringe-Field Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6695–6697 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song and S. H. Lee, “A single Gap transflective Display using In-Plane Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A/B), L1130–L1132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Hong, I. C. Park, H. Y. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Electro-optic characteristic of fringe-field switching mode depending on rubbing direction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L527–L530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

J.-H. Seo, H. J. Jang, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, I.-B. Kang, and C. H. Oh, “Wide Pretilt Angle Control of Liquid Crystal Display Device by Ion Beam Exposure on the Vertical Aligning Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(44), L1074–L1076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lefuji, Y.

M. Shibazaki, Y. Ukawa, S. Takahashi, Y. Lefuji, and T. Nakagawa, “Transflective LCD with Low Driving Voltage and Wide Viewing Angle,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 90–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lien, A.

A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lien, S. C. A.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, D. H.

J. B. Park, H. Y. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, D. H. Lim, S. Y. Kim, Y. J. Lim, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of Reflective Part with Wide-Band Property in Single Gap Transflective Fringe-Field Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6695–6697 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. J.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, M.-H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Single cell-gap transflective liquid crystal device utilizing continuous director rotation with different twist angle in the fringe-field switching mode,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 1169–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Her, S. J. Shin, Y. J. Lim, K. H. Park, J. H. Lee, B. K. Kim, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Transflective fringe-field switching liquid crystal display without any retarder,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22842–22849 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Park, H. Y. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, D. H. Lim, S. Y. Kim, Y. J. Lim, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of Reflective Part with Wide-Band Property in Single Gap Transflective Fringe-Field Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6695–6697 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, K.

N. Koma, M. Mitsui, K. Inoue, K. Maeda, T. Yamada, and Y. Tanaka, “Development of a Novel Transflective-Type VA-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 35(1), 288–291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitsui, M.

N. Koma, M. Mitsui, K. Inoue, K. Maeda, T. Yamada, and Y. Tanaka, “Development of a Novel Transflective-Type VA-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 35(1), 288–291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakagaki, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, T.

M. Shibazaki, Y. Ukawa, S. Takahashi, Y. Lefuji, and T. Nakagawa, “Transflective LCD with Low Driving Voltage and Wide Viewing Angle,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 90–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niewukerk, A. C.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Niewukerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, and J. A. M. M. van Haaren, “Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 78–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Odahara, S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogasawara, T.

E. Yoda, T. Uesaka, T. Ogasawara, and T. Toyooka, “Wide-Viewing-Angle Transflective TFT-LCDs with Hybrid Aligned Nematic Compensators,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 33(1), 762–765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oh, C. H.

J.-H. Seo, H. J. Jang, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, I.-B. Kang, and C. H. Oh, “Wide Pretilt Angle Control of Liquid Crystal Display Device by Ion Beam Exposure on the Vertical Aligning Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(44), L1074–L1076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Osenga, J. T. M.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Niewukerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, and J. A. M. M. van Haaren, “Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 78–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. C.

S. H. Hong, I. C. Park, H. Y. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Electro-optic characteristic of fringe-field switching mode depending on rubbing direction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L527–L530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. B.

J. B. Park, H. Y. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, D. H. Lim, S. Y. Kim, Y. J. Lim, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of Reflective Part with Wide-Band Property in Single Gap Transflective Fringe-Field Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6695–6697 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

Peeters, E.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Niewukerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, and J. A. M. M. van Haaren, “Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 78–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Purushothaman, S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renders, C. A.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Niewukerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, and J. A. M. M. van Haaren, “Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 78–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, J. M.

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. M. Rhee, and S. H. Lee, “Cell gap-dependent transmission characteristics of a fringe-electric field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell, for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 32(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ritsko, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roosendaal, S. J.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Niewukerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, and J. A. M. M. van Haaren, “Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 78–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, C.

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, K.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samant, M.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Satoh, H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J.-H.

J.-H. Seo, H. J. Jang, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, I.-B. Kang, and C. H. Oh, “Wide Pretilt Angle Control of Liquid Crystal Display Device by Ion Beam Exposure on the Vertical Aligning Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(44), L1074–L1076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shibazaki, M.

M. Shibazaki, Y. Ukawa, S. Takahashi, Y. Lefuji, and T. Nakagawa, “Transflective LCD with Low Driving Voltage and Wide Viewing Angle,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 90–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. J.

Shin, S.-T.

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shiota, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soh, H.-S.

J. H. Song, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic Characteristics of Single Gap Transflective Display using In-plane Switching Mode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 433(1), 105–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, I. S.

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

J. H. Song, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic Characteristics of Single Gap Transflective Display using In-plane Switching Mode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 433(1), 105–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song and S. H. Lee, “A single Gap transflective Display using In-Plane Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A/B), L1130–L1132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sousa, M.

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Speidell, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stöhr, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, S.

M. Shibazaki, Y. Ukawa, S. Takahashi, Y. Lefuji, and T. Nakagawa, “Transflective LCD with Low Driving Voltage and Wide Viewing Angle,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 90–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

N. Koma, M. Mitsui, K. Inoue, K. Maeda, T. Yamada, and Y. Tanaka, “Development of a Novel Transflective-Type VA-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 35(1), 288–291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

E. Yoda, T. Uesaka, T. Ogasawara, and T. Toyooka, “Wide-Viewing-Angle Transflective TFT-LCDs with Hybrid Aligned Nematic Compensators,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 33(1), 762–765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uesaka, T.

E. Yoda, T. Uesaka, T. Ogasawara, and T. Toyooka, “Wide-Viewing-Angle Transflective TFT-LCDs with Hybrid Aligned Nematic Compensators,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 33(1), 762–765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ukawa, Y.

M. Shibazaki, Y. Ukawa, S. Takahashi, Y. Lefuji, and T. Nakagawa, “Transflective LCD with Low Driving Voltage and Wide Viewing Angle,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 90–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van der Zande, B. M. I.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Niewukerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, and J. A. M. M. van Haaren, “Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 78–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Haaren, J. A. M. M.

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Niewukerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, and J. A. M. M. van Haaren, “Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 78–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, K. E.

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

N. Koma, M. Mitsui, K. Inoue, K. Maeda, T. Yamada, and Y. Tanaka, “Development of a Novel Transflective-Type VA-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 35(1), 288–291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoda, E.

E. Yoda, T. Uesaka, T. Ogasawara, and T. Toyooka, “Wide-Viewing-Angle Transflective TFT-LCDs with Hybrid Aligned Nematic Compensators,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 33(1), 762–765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-H. Seo, H. J. Jang, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, I.-B. Kang, and C. H. Oh, “Wide Pretilt Angle Control of Liquid Crystal Display Device by Ion Beam Exposure on the Vertical Aligning Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(44), L1074–L1076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, M.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a single-cell-gap transflective liquid-crystal display associated with in-plane rotation of a liquid crystal driven by a fringe-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys.

Y. J. Lim, M. H. Chin, J. H. Kim, M.-H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Single cell-gap transflective liquid crystal device utilizing continuous director rotation with different twist angle in the fringe-field switching mode,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), 1169–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. B. Park, H. Y. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, D. H. Lim, S. Y. Kim, Y. J. Lim, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of Reflective Part with Wide-Band Property in Single Gap Transflective Fringe-Field Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6695–6697 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Song and S. H. Lee, “A single Gap transflective Display using In-Plane Switching Mode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A/B), L1130–L1132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Hong, I. C. Park, H. Y. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Electro-optic characteristic of fringe-field switching mode depending on rubbing direction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 6A), L527–L530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Seo, H. J. Jang, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, I.-B. Kang, and C. H. Oh, “Wide Pretilt Angle Control of Liquid Crystal Display Device by Ion Beam Exposure on the Vertical Aligning Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(44), L1074–L1076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. M. Rhee, and S. H. Lee, “Cell gap-dependent transmission characteristics of a fringe-electric field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell, for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 32(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)

J. H. Song, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, and W. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic Characteristics of Single Gap Transflective Display using In-plane Switching Mode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 433(1), 105–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. H. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest

N. Koma, M. Mitsui, K. Inoue, K. Maeda, T. Yamada, and Y. Tanaka, “Development of a Novel Transflective-Type VA-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 35(1), 288–291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Yoda, T. Uesaka, T. Ogasawara, and T. Toyooka, “Wide-Viewing-Angle Transflective TFT-LCDs with Hybrid Aligned Nematic Compensators,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 33(1), 762–765 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Niewukerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, and J. A. M. M. van Haaren, “Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 78–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Shibazaki, Y. Ukawa, S. Takahashi, Y. Lefuji, and T. Nakagawa, “Transflective LCD with Low Driving Voltage and Wide Viewing Angle,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 34(1), 90–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Jisaki, and H. Yamaguchi, “Development of transflective LCD for high contrast and wide viewing angle by using homeotropic alignment, Proc. of the 8th International Display Workshop (Society for Information Display, Nagoya, Japan), 133-136 (2001).

K.-J. Kim, J. S. Lim, T. Y. Jung, C. Nam, and B. C. Ahn, “A new transflective TFT-LCD with dual color filter,” Proc. of the 9th International Display Workshop (Society for Information Display, Fukuoka, Japan), 433–436 (2002).

H. C. Choi, “Future of Smartbook” Proc. of the 13th Korea Liquid Crystal Conference (Yeungnam University, Gyeonsan, Korea) 1–2 (2011).

I. H. Yu, J. H. Song, Y. J. Lim, S. H. Lee, D. S. Kim, H.-S. Soh, W. Y. Kim, and S. D. Yeo, “Electro-optic Characteristics of In-Plane Driven Transflective LCD,” Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops, 167–170 (2004).

S.-T. Wu, and D.-K. Yang, “Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays” John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chapter 3, p. 98–99 (2001).

F. S. Yeung, F.-C. Xie, H.-S. Kwok, J. Wan, O. Tsui, and P. Sheng, “ High Pretilt Angles by Nano-Structured Surfaces and their Applications,” SID Symposium Digest 36, 1080–1083 (2005).

J.-H. Lee, W.-H. Lee, D.-C. Shin, J.-H. Lim, K.-B. Park, J.-D. Lee, W.-S. Kim, M.-S. Yang, Y.-K. Hwang, and I.-J. Chung, “The Advanced Transflective IPS LCD by Photo Alignment Technology,” SID Symposium Digest 41, 1791–1793 (2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cell structure of the proposed dual (a) and single (b) cell gap transflective LCDs using the low twisted nematic liquid crystal only in R part and (c) top view of electrode structure in both Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The calculated light leakage: (a) dual cell gap structure and (b) single cell gap structure with a high pretilt angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Calculated V-R and V-T curves as a function of α in the T part of Fig. 1(a), (b) Optimal normalized V-R and V-T curves of Fig. 3(a), (c) Calculated V-R and V-T curves as a function of I in the R part of Fig. 1(b) when the α is 10° in T part, and (d) Optimal normalized V-R and V-T curves of Fig. 3(c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength dispersion of dark and white states in T and R parts of (a) Fig. 1(a) and (b) Fig. 1(b), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Iso-contrast contour at an incident wavelength of 550 nm for (a) the T parts in both [Fig. 1(a)] and [Fig. 1(b)] and that for the R parts in the (b) [Fig. 1(a)] and (c) [Fig. 1(b)].

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T / T o = sin 2 2 θ ( V ) sin 2 ( π d Δ n eff λ )
R / R o = [ 2 φ ( Γ / 2 ) φ 2 + ( Γ / 2 ) 2 ] 2 sin 4 X

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