Abstract

The paper presents for the first time a study of long-period gratings (LPGs) applied for label-free detection of specific bacteria using physically adsorbed bacteriophages. For the purposes of the experiment a number of highly sensitive LPGs working at the turning point of phase matching curve was fabricated in SMF28 fiber using UV exposure. We show that the device allows for real-time monitoring of phenomena taking place on the sensor’s surface, including phage-bacteria interactions. For the applied conditions a resonance wavelength shift of ~1.3 nm induced by bacteria binding was observed.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. B. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, “Bacteria detection using disposable optical leaky waveguide sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(2), 293–302 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Shabani, M. Zourob, B. Allain, C. A. Marquette, M. F. Lawrence, and R. Mandeville, “Bacteriophage-modified microarrays for the direct impedimetric detection of bacteria,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9475–9482 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. D. Taylor, Q. Yu, S. Chen, J. Homola, and S. Jiang, “Comparison of E. coli O157:H7 preparation methods used for detection with surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 202–208 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Van Dorst, J. Mehta, K. Bekaert, E. Rouah-Martin, W. De Coen, P. Dubruel, R. Blust, and J. Robbens, “Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: a review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1178–1194 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Balasubramanian, I. B. Sorokulova, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Lytic phage as a specific and selective probe for detection of Staphylococcus aureus-A surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic study,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 948–955 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Nanduri, I. B. Sorokulova, A. M. Samoylov, A. L. Simonian, V. A. Petrenko, and V. Vodyanoy, “Phage as a molecular recognition element in biosensors immobilized by physical adsorption,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 986–992 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Archer and J. L. Liu, “Bacteriophage T4 nanoparticles as materials in sensor applications: variables that influence their organization and assembly on surfaces,” Sensors 9(8), 6298–6311 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Abdulhalim, M. Zourob, and A. Lakhtakia, “Surface plasmon resonance for biosensing: a mini-review,” Electromagnetics 28(3), 214–242 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Nanduri, S. Balasubramanian, S. Sista, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of β-galactosidase,” Anal. Chim. Acta 589(2), 166–172 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, and J. Chen, “Increasing sensitivity of arc-induced long-period gratings – pushing the fabrication technique towards its limits,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(1), 015201 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. S. Jang, K. N. Park, J. P. Kim, S. J. Sim, O. J. Kwon, Y.-G. Han, and K. S. Lee, “Sensitive DNA biosensor based on a long-period grating formed on the side-polished fiber surface,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3855–3860 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, and P. Mikulic, “Comparative study of long-period gratings written in a boron co-doped fiber by an electric arc and UV irradiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(2), 025309 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Dual-peak long-period fiber gratings with enhanced refractive index sensitivity by finely tailored mode dispersion that uses the light cladding etching technique,” Appl. Opt. 46(4), 451–455 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Huang, S.-Q. Li, H. Yang, M. Johnson, J. Wan, I. Chen, V. A. Petrenko, J. M. Barbaree, and B. A. Chin, “Optimization of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor performance,” Sens. Transducers J. 3, 87–96 (2008).
  22. A. Singh, N. Glass, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of bacteriophages on gold surfaces for the specific capture of pathogens,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3645–3651 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. Shu and D. Huang, “Highly sensitive chemical sensor based on the measurement of the separation of dual resonant peaks in a 100-mm-period fiber grating,” Opt. Commun. 171(1-3), 65–69 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. Gu, Y. Xu, C. Deng, and J. Zhang, “Dual peak resonance and transmission spectrum characteristics in a coated long-period fiber grating,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085701 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 356–360 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Gervais, M. Gel, B. Allain, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Zourob, R. Mandeville, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of biotinylated bacteriophages on biosensor surfaces,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 615–621 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4-7), 1374–1377 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Garcia-Aljaro, X. Munoz-Berbel, A. T. A. Jenkins, A. R. Blanch, and F. X. Munoz, “Surface plasmon resonance assay for real-time monitoring of somatic coliphages in wastewaters,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(13), 4054–4058 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, and J. Chen, “Increasing sensitivity of arc-induced long-period gratings – pushing the fabrication technique towards its limits,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(1), 015201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

B. Van Dorst, J. Mehta, K. Bekaert, E. Rouah-Martin, W. De Coen, P. Dubruel, R. Blust, and J. Robbens, “Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: a review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1178–1194 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, and P. Mikulic, “Comparative study of long-period gratings written in a boron co-doped fiber by an electric arc and UV irradiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(2), 025309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

A. Singh, N. Glass, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of bacteriophages on gold surfaces for the specific capture of pathogens,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3645–3651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Jang, K. N. Park, J. P. Kim, S. J. Sim, O. J. Kwon, Y.-G. Han, and K. S. Lee, “Sensitive DNA biosensor based on a long-period grating formed on the side-polished fiber surface,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3855–3860 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, P. F. Manzillo, V. Malachovska, A. Buosciolo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, L. Ambrosio, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Long period grating working in transition mode as promising technological platform for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20039–20050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Archer and J. L. Liu, “Bacteriophage T4 nanoparticles as materials in sensor applications: variables that influence their organization and assembly on surfaces,” Sensors 9(8), 6298–6311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Gu, Y. Xu, C. Deng, and J. Zhang, “Dual peak resonance and transmission spectrum characteristics in a coated long-period fiber grating,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, M. Zourob, and A. Lakhtakia, “Surface plasmon resonance for biosensing: a mini-review,” Electromagnetics 28(3), 214–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shabani, M. Zourob, B. Allain, C. A. Marquette, M. F. Lawrence, and R. Mandeville, “Bacteriophage-modified microarrays for the direct impedimetric detection of bacteria,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9475–9482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Garcia-Aljaro, X. Munoz-Berbel, A. T. A. Jenkins, A. R. Blanch, and F. X. Munoz, “Surface plasmon resonance assay for real-time monitoring of somatic coliphages in wastewaters,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(13), 4054–4058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Huang, S.-Q. Li, H. Yang, M. Johnson, J. Wan, I. Chen, V. A. Petrenko, J. M. Barbaree, and B. A. Chin, “Optimization of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor performance,” Sens. Transducers J. 3, 87–96 (2008).

2007 (7)

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Dual-peak long-period fiber gratings with enhanced refractive index sensitivity by finely tailored mode dispersion that uses the light cladding etching technique,” Appl. Opt. 46(4), 451–455 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Zhang, K. Zhou, E. Davies, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, M. Hughes, and A. Hine, “Real-time detection of DNA interactions with long-period fiber-grating-based biosensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2541–2543 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Balasubramanian, I. B. Sorokulova, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Lytic phage as a specific and selective probe for detection of Staphylococcus aureus-A surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic study,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 948–955 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Nanduri, I. B. Sorokulova, A. M. Samoylov, A. L. Simonian, V. A. Petrenko, and V. Vodyanoy, “Phage as a molecular recognition element in biosensors immobilized by physical adsorption,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 986–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Nanduri, S. Balasubramanian, S. Sista, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of β-galactosidase,” Anal. Chim. Acta 589(2), 166–172 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gervais, M. Gel, B. Allain, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Zourob, R. Mandeville, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of biotinylated bacteriophages on biosensor surfaces,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4-7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. B. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, “Bacteria detection using disposable optical leaky waveguide sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(2), 293–302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Taylor, Q. Yu, S. Chen, J. Homola, and S. Jiang, “Comparison of E. coli O157:H7 preparation methods used for detection with surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 202–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

X. Shu and D. Huang, “Highly sensitive chemical sensor based on the measurement of the separation of dual resonant peaks in a 100-mm-period fiber grating,” Opt. Commun. 171(1-3), 65–69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abdulhalim, I.

I. Abdulhalim, M. Zourob, and A. Lakhtakia, “Surface plasmon resonance for biosensing: a mini-review,” Electromagnetics 28(3), 214–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Allain, B.

A. Shabani, M. Zourob, B. Allain, C. A. Marquette, M. F. Lawrence, and R. Mandeville, “Bacteriophage-modified microarrays for the direct impedimetric detection of bacteria,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9475–9482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gervais, M. Gel, B. Allain, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Zourob, R. Mandeville, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of biotinylated bacteriophages on biosensor surfaces,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ambrosio, L.

Archer, M. J.

M. J. Archer and J. L. Liu, “Bacteriophage T4 nanoparticles as materials in sensor applications: variables that influence their organization and assembly on surfaces,” Sensors 9(8), 6298–6311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, S.

S. Balasubramanian, I. B. Sorokulova, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Lytic phage as a specific and selective probe for detection of Staphylococcus aureus-A surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic study,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 948–955 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Nanduri, S. Balasubramanian, S. Sista, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of β-galactosidase,” Anal. Chim. Acta 589(2), 166–172 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbaree, J. M.

S. Huang, S.-Q. Li, H. Yang, M. Johnson, J. Wan, I. Chen, V. A. Petrenko, J. M. Barbaree, and B. A. Chin, “Optimization of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor performance,” Sens. Transducers J. 3, 87–96 (2008).

Bekaert, K.

B. Van Dorst, J. Mehta, K. Bekaert, E. Rouah-Martin, W. De Coen, P. Dubruel, R. Blust, and J. Robbens, “Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: a review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1178–1194 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

Bentley, W. E.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blanch, A. R.

C. Garcia-Aljaro, X. Munoz-Berbel, A. T. A. Jenkins, A. R. Blanch, and F. X. Munoz, “Surface plasmon resonance assay for real-time monitoring of somatic coliphages in wastewaters,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(13), 4054–4058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blust, R.

B. Van Dorst, J. Mehta, K. Bekaert, E. Rouah-Martin, W. De Coen, P. Dubruel, R. Blust, and J. Robbens, “Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: a review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1178–1194 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bock, W. J.

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, and J. Chen, “Increasing sensitivity of arc-induced long-period gratings – pushing the fabrication technique towards its limits,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(1), 015201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, and P. Mikulic, “Comparative study of long-period gratings written in a boron co-doped fiber by an electric arc and UV irradiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(2), 025309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4-7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brovko, L.

A. Singh, N. Glass, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of bacteriophages on gold surfaces for the specific capture of pathogens,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3645–3651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gervais, M. Gel, B. Allain, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Zourob, R. Mandeville, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of biotinylated bacteriophages on biosensor surfaces,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, B. J.

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. B. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, “Bacteria detection using disposable optical leaky waveguide sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(2), 293–302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucholtz, F.

Buosciolo, A.

Campopiano, S.

Chen, I.

S. Huang, S.-Q. Li, H. Yang, M. Johnson, J. Wan, I. Chen, V. A. Petrenko, J. M. Barbaree, and B. A. Chin, “Optimization of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor performance,” Sens. Transducers J. 3, 87–96 (2008).

Chen, J.

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, and J. Chen, “Increasing sensitivity of arc-induced long-period gratings – pushing the fabrication technique towards its limits,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(1), 015201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

A. D. Taylor, Q. Yu, S. Chen, J. Homola, and S. Jiang, “Comparison of E. coli O157:H7 preparation methods used for detection with surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 202–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chin, B. A.

S. Huang, S.-Q. Li, H. Yang, M. Johnson, J. Wan, I. Chen, V. A. Petrenko, J. M. Barbaree, and B. A. Chin, “Optimization of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor performance,” Sens. Transducers J. 3, 87–96 (2008).

Cooper, K. L.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

Cutolo, A.

Davies, E.

Davis, C. C.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Coen, W.

B. Van Dorst, J. Mehta, K. Bekaert, E. Rouah-Martin, W. De Coen, P. Dubruel, R. Blust, and J. Robbens, “Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: a review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1178–1194 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLisa, M. P.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, C.

Z. Gu, Y. Xu, C. Deng, and J. Zhang, “Dual peak resonance and transmission spectrum characteristics in a coated long-period fiber grating,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dubruel, P.

B. Van Dorst, J. Mehta, K. Bekaert, E. Rouah-Martin, W. De Coen, P. Dubruel, R. Blust, and J. Robbens, “Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: a review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1178–1194 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Evoy, S.

A. Singh, N. Glass, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of bacteriophages on gold surfaces for the specific capture of pathogens,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3645–3651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gervais, M. Gel, B. Allain, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Zourob, R. Mandeville, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of biotinylated bacteriophages on biosensor surfaces,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fielden, P. R.

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. B. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, “Bacteria detection using disposable optical leaky waveguide sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(2), 293–302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Aljaro, C.

C. Garcia-Aljaro, X. Munoz-Berbel, A. T. A. Jenkins, A. R. Blanch, and F. X. Munoz, “Surface plasmon resonance assay for real-time monitoring of somatic coliphages in wastewaters,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(13), 4054–4058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gel, M.

L. Gervais, M. Gel, B. Allain, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Zourob, R. Mandeville, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of biotinylated bacteriophages on biosensor surfaces,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gervais, L.

L. Gervais, M. Gel, B. Allain, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Zourob, R. Mandeville, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of biotinylated bacteriophages on biosensor surfaces,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

Glass, N.

A. Singh, N. Glass, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of bacteriophages on gold surfaces for the specific capture of pathogens,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3645–3651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goddard, N. J.

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. B. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, “Bacteria detection using disposable optical leaky waveguide sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(2), 293–302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grabarczyk, J.

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4-7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, M.

A. Singh, N. Glass, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of bacteriophages on gold surfaces for the specific capture of pathogens,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3645–3651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gervais, M. Gel, B. Allain, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Zourob, R. Mandeville, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of biotinylated bacteriophages on biosensor surfaces,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Z.

Z. Gu, Y. Xu, C. Deng, and J. Zhang, “Dual peak resonance and transmission spectrum characteristics in a coated long-period fiber grating,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.-G.

Heflin, J. R.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hine, A.

Homola, J.

A. D. Taylor, Q. Yu, S. Chen, J. Homola, and S. Jiang, “Comparison of E. coli O157:H7 preparation methods used for detection with surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 202–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

X. Shu and D. Huang, “Highly sensitive chemical sensor based on the measurement of the separation of dual resonant peaks in a 100-mm-period fiber grating,” Opt. Commun. 171(1-3), 65–69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, S.-Q. Li, H. Yang, M. Johnson, J. Wan, I. Chen, V. A. Petrenko, J. M. Barbaree, and B. A. Chin, “Optimization of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor performance,” Sens. Transducers J. 3, 87–96 (2008).

Hughes, M.

Jang, H. S.

Jenkins, A. T. A.

C. Garcia-Aljaro, X. Munoz-Berbel, A. T. A. Jenkins, A. R. Blanch, and F. X. Munoz, “Surface plasmon resonance assay for real-time monitoring of somatic coliphages in wastewaters,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(13), 4054–4058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

A. D. Taylor, Q. Yu, S. Chen, J. Homola, and S. Jiang, “Comparison of E. coli O157:H7 preparation methods used for detection with surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 202–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M.

S. Huang, S.-Q. Li, H. Yang, M. Johnson, J. Wan, I. Chen, V. A. Petrenko, J. M. Barbaree, and B. A. Chin, “Optimization of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor performance,” Sens. Transducers J. 3, 87–96 (2008).

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Kim, D. W.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. P.

Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4-7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O. J.

Lakhtakia, A.

I. Abdulhalim, M. Zourob, and A. Lakhtakia, “Surface plasmon resonance for biosensing: a mini-review,” Electromagnetics 28(3), 214–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, M. F.

A. Shabani, M. Zourob, B. Allain, C. A. Marquette, M. F. Lawrence, and R. Mandeville, “Bacteriophage-modified microarrays for the direct impedimetric detection of bacteria,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9475–9482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.-Q.

S. Huang, S.-Q. Li, H. Yang, M. Johnson, J. Wan, I. Chen, V. A. Petrenko, J. M. Barbaree, and B. A. Chin, “Optimization of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor performance,” Sens. Transducers J. 3, 87–96 (2008).

Liu, J. L.

M. J. Archer and J. L. Liu, “Bacteriophage T4 nanoparticles as materials in sensor applications: variables that influence their organization and assembly on surfaces,” Sensors 9(8), 6298–6311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malachovska, V.

Mandeville, R.

A. Shabani, M. Zourob, B. Allain, C. A. Marquette, M. F. Lawrence, and R. Mandeville, “Bacteriophage-modified microarrays for the direct impedimetric detection of bacteria,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9475–9482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gervais, M. Gel, B. Allain, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Zourob, R. Mandeville, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of biotinylated bacteriophages on biosensor surfaces,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manzillo, P. F.

Marquette, C. A.

A. Shabani, M. Zourob, B. Allain, C. A. Marquette, M. F. Lawrence, and R. Mandeville, “Bacteriophage-modified microarrays for the direct impedimetric detection of bacteria,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9475–9482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonnell, M. B.

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. B. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, “Bacteria detection using disposable optical leaky waveguide sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(2), 293–302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, J.

B. Van Dorst, J. Mehta, K. Bekaert, E. Rouah-Martin, W. De Coen, P. Dubruel, R. Blust, and J. Robbens, “Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: a review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1178–1194 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikulic, P.

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, and J. Chen, “Increasing sensitivity of arc-induced long-period gratings – pushing the fabrication technique towards its limits,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(1), 015201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, and P. Mikulic, “Comparative study of long-period gratings written in a boron co-doped fiber by an electric arc and UV irradiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(2), 025309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, S.

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. B. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, “Bacteria detection using disposable optical leaky waveguide sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(2), 293–302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munoz, F. X.

C. Garcia-Aljaro, X. Munoz-Berbel, A. T. A. Jenkins, A. R. Blanch, and F. X. Munoz, “Surface plasmon resonance assay for real-time monitoring of somatic coliphages in wastewaters,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(13), 4054–4058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munoz-Berbel, X.

C. Garcia-Aljaro, X. Munoz-Berbel, A. T. A. Jenkins, A. R. Blanch, and F. X. Munoz, “Surface plasmon resonance assay for real-time monitoring of somatic coliphages in wastewaters,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(13), 4054–4058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanduri, V.

V. Nanduri, S. Balasubramanian, S. Sista, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of β-galactosidase,” Anal. Chim. Acta 589(2), 166–172 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Nanduri, I. B. Sorokulova, A. M. Samoylov, A. L. Simonian, V. A. Petrenko, and V. Vodyanoy, “Phage as a molecular recognition element in biosensors immobilized by physical adsorption,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 986–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. N.

Patrick, H. J.

Petrenko, V. A.

S. Huang, S.-Q. Li, H. Yang, M. Johnson, J. Wan, I. Chen, V. A. Petrenko, J. M. Barbaree, and B. A. Chin, “Optimization of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor performance,” Sens. Transducers J. 3, 87–96 (2008).

V. Nanduri, I. B. Sorokulova, A. M. Samoylov, A. L. Simonian, V. A. Petrenko, and V. Vodyanoy, “Phage as a molecular recognition element in biosensors immobilized by physical adsorption,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 986–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pilevar, S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilla, P.

Ramachandran, S.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robbens, J.

B. Van Dorst, J. Mehta, K. Bekaert, E. Rouah-Martin, W. De Coen, P. Dubruel, R. Blust, and J. Robbens, “Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: a review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1178–1194 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouah-Martin, E.

B. Van Dorst, J. Mehta, K. Bekaert, E. Rouah-Martin, W. De Coen, P. Dubruel, R. Blust, and J. Robbens, “Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: a review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1178–1194 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samoylov, A. M.

V. Nanduri, I. B. Sorokulova, A. M. Samoylov, A. L. Simonian, V. A. Petrenko, and V. Vodyanoy, “Phage as a molecular recognition element in biosensors immobilized by physical adsorption,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 986–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shabani, A.

A. Shabani, M. Zourob, B. Allain, C. A. Marquette, M. F. Lawrence, and R. Mandeville, “Bacteriophage-modified microarrays for the direct impedimetric detection of bacteria,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9475–9482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiloach, M.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu and D. Huang, “Highly sensitive chemical sensor based on the measurement of the separation of dual resonant peaks in a 100-mm-period fiber grating,” Opt. Commun. 171(1-3), 65–69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sim, S. J.

Simonian, A. L.

V. Nanduri, I. B. Sorokulova, A. M. Samoylov, A. L. Simonian, V. A. Petrenko, and V. Vodyanoy, “Phage as a molecular recognition element in biosensors immobilized by physical adsorption,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 986–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Balasubramanian, I. B. Sorokulova, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Lytic phage as a specific and selective probe for detection of Staphylococcus aureus-A surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic study,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 948–955 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Nanduri, S. Balasubramanian, S. Sista, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of β-galactosidase,” Anal. Chim. Acta 589(2), 166–172 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, A.

A. Singh, N. Glass, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of bacteriophages on gold surfaces for the specific capture of pathogens,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3645–3651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sirkis, J. S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sista, S.

V. Nanduri, S. Balasubramanian, S. Sista, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of β-galactosidase,” Anal. Chim. Acta 589(2), 166–172 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smietana, M.

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, and J. Chen, “Increasing sensitivity of arc-induced long-period gratings – pushing the fabrication technique towards its limits,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(1), 015201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, and P. Mikulic, “Comparative study of long-period gratings written in a boron co-doped fiber by an electric arc and UV irradiation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(2), 025309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4-7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorokulova, I. B.

V. Nanduri, I. B. Sorokulova, A. M. Samoylov, A. L. Simonian, V. A. Petrenko, and V. Vodyanoy, “Phage as a molecular recognition element in biosensors immobilized by physical adsorption,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 986–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Balasubramanian, I. B. Sorokulova, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Lytic phage as a specific and selective probe for detection of Staphylococcus aureus-A surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic study,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 948–955 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugden, K.

Suter, J. D.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Szmidt, J.

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4-7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. D.

A. D. Taylor, Q. Yu, S. Chen, J. Homola, and S. Jiang, “Comparison of E. coli O157:H7 preparation methods used for detection with surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 202–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tolba, M.

A. Singh, N. Glass, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of bacteriophages on gold surfaces for the specific capture of pathogens,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3645–3651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gervais, M. Gel, B. Allain, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Zourob, R. Mandeville, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of biotinylated bacteriophages on biosensor surfaces,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Cott, K.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Dorst, B.

B. Van Dorst, J. Mehta, K. Bekaert, E. Rouah-Martin, W. De Coen, P. Dubruel, R. Blust, and J. Robbens, “Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: a review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1178–1194 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vodyanoy, V.

V. Nanduri, I. B. Sorokulova, A. M. Samoylov, A. L. Simonian, V. A. Petrenko, and V. Vodyanoy, “Phage as a molecular recognition element in biosensors immobilized by physical adsorption,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 986–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vodyanoy, V. J.

S. Balasubramanian, I. B. Sorokulova, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Lytic phage as a specific and selective probe for detection of Staphylococcus aureus-A surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic study,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 948–955 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Nanduri, S. Balasubramanian, S. Sista, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of β-galactosidase,” Anal. Chim. Acta 589(2), 166–172 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, J.

S. Huang, S.-Q. Li, H. Yang, M. Johnson, J. Wan, I. Chen, V. A. Petrenko, J. M. Barbaree, and B. A. Chin, “Optimization of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor performance,” Sens. Transducers J. 3, 87–96 (2008).

Wang, A.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Z. Gu, Y. Xu, C. Deng, and J. Zhang, “Dual peak resonance and transmission spectrum characteristics in a coated long-period fiber grating,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

S. Huang, S.-Q. Li, H. Yang, M. Johnson, J. Wan, I. Chen, V. A. Petrenko, J. M. Barbaree, and B. A. Chin, “Optimization of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor performance,” Sens. Transducers J. 3, 87–96 (2008).

Yu, Q.

A. D. Taylor, Q. Yu, S. Chen, J. Homola, and S. Jiang, “Comparison of E. coli O157:H7 preparation methods used for detection with surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 202–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Z. Gu, Y. Xu, C. Deng, and J. Zhang, “Dual peak resonance and transmission spectrum characteristics in a coated long-period fiber grating,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(8), 085701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, K.

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zourob, M.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, M. Zourob, and A. Lakhtakia, “Surface plasmon resonance for biosensing: a mini-review,” Electromagnetics 28(3), 214–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shabani, M. Zourob, B. Allain, C. A. Marquette, M. F. Lawrence, and R. Mandeville, “Bacteriophage-modified microarrays for the direct impedimetric detection of bacteria,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9475–9482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gervais, M. Gel, B. Allain, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Zourob, R. Mandeville, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of biotinylated bacteriophages on biosensor surfaces,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. B. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, “Bacteria detection using disposable optical leaky waveguide sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(2), 293–302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

A. Shabani, M. Zourob, B. Allain, C. A. Marquette, M. F. Lawrence, and R. Mandeville, “Bacteriophage-modified microarrays for the direct impedimetric detection of bacteria,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9475–9482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

V. Nanduri, S. Balasubramanian, S. Sista, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of β-galactosidase,” Anal. Chim. Acta 589(2), 166–172 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Opto-fluidic micro-ring resonator for sensitive label-free viral detection,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 356–360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

C. Garcia-Aljaro, X. Munoz-Berbel, A. T. A. Jenkins, A. R. Blanch, and F. X. Munoz, “Surface plasmon resonance assay for real-time monitoring of somatic coliphages in wastewaters,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(13), 4054–4058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (5)

A. Singh, N. Glass, M. Tolba, L. Brovko, M. Griffiths, and S. Evoy, “Immobilization of bacteriophages on gold surfaces for the specific capture of pathogens,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3645–3651 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. B. McDonnell, and N. J. Goddard, “Bacteria detection using disposable optical leaky waveguide sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(2), 293–302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Van Dorst, J. Mehta, K. Bekaert, E. Rouah-Martin, W. De Coen, P. Dubruel, R. Blust, and J. Robbens, “Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: a review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(4), 1178–1194 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Balasubramanian, I. B. Sorokulova, V. J. Vodyanoy, and A. L. Simonian, “Lytic phage as a specific and selective probe for detection of Staphylococcus aureus-A surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic study,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 948–955 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic showing the main steps of the experiment (Phage, BSA and Bacteria are not to scale). Between these steps the LPG samples were rinsed with PBS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resonance wavelength shift induced by small changes in next. Results are shown for water/glycerin solutions as well as PBS. The inset shows transmission spectra for selected next. Traced resonance is marked by arrow.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resonance wavelength shifts, referred to initial value for water surrounding the samples, at various stages of the bacteria experiment compared for sample with and without phages adsorbed to the surface of LPG. In the case of phages, BSA and bacteria, time of the procedure was given, where for PBS consecutive rinsing cycles are marked.

Equations (2)

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λ r e s m = ( n e f f 01 n e f f 0 m ) Λ
d λ r e s m d n e x t = λ r e s m d λ r e s m d Λ n e f f 01 n e f f 0 m u m 2 λ r e s m 3 n e x t 8 π r c l 3 n c l ( n e f f 01 n e f f 0 m ) ( n c l 2 n e x t 2 ) 3 2

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