Abstract

We report the relationship between the initial glass composition and the resulting microstructural changes after direct femtosecond laser waveguide writing with a 1 kHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser system. A zinc polyphosphate glass composition with an oxygen to phosphorus ratio of 3.25 has demonstrated positive refractive index changes induced inside the focal volume of a focusing microscope objective for laser pulse energies that can achieve intensities above the modification threshold. The permanent photo-induced changes can be used for direct fabrication of optical waveguides using single scan writing techniques. Changes to the localized glass network structure that produce positive changes in the refractive index of zinc phosphate glasses upon femtosecond laser irradiation have been studied using scanning confocal micro-Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy.

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  1. D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in Si02 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. J. Weber, “Science and technology of laser glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1-3), 208–222 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964–965 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2626–2628 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser–photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Esser, D. Mahlmann, D. Wortmann, and J. Gottmann, “Interference microscopy of femtosecond laser written waveguides in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 453–457 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1900–1902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. K. Brow, “Review: the structure of simple phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 263–264,1–28 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. K. Brow, D. R. Tallant, S. T. Myers, and C. C. Phifer, “The short-range structure of zinc polyphosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191(1-2), 45–55 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. K. Brow, “Nature of alumina in phosphate glass: I, properties of sodium aluminophosphate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(4), 913 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. K. Brow, J. Kirkpatrick, and G. Turner, “Nature of alumina in phosphate glass: II, Structure of sodium aluminophosphate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(4), 1919 (1993).
  24. J. T. Krause and C. R. Kurkjian, “Vibrational anomalies in inorganic glass formers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 51(4), 226–227 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Popović, D. de Waal, and J. C. A. Boeyens, “Correlation between Raman wavenumbers and P—O bond lengths in crystalline inorganic phosphates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 2–11 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(5), 1037–1040 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Esser, D. Mahlmann, D. Wortmann, and J. Gottmann, “Interference microscopy of femtosecond laser written waveguides in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 453–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser–photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Popović, D. de Waal, and J. C. A. Boeyens, “Correlation between Raman wavenumbers and P—O bond lengths in crystalline inorganic phosphates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 2–11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(5), 1037–1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. K. Brow, “Review: the structure of simple phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 263–264,1–28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

R. K. Brow, D. R. Tallant, S. T. Myers, and C. C. Phifer, “The short-range structure of zinc polyphosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191(1-2), 45–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in Si02 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. K. Brow, “Nature of alumina in phosphate glass: I, properties of sodium aluminophosphate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(4), 913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brow, J. Kirkpatrick, and G. Turner, “Nature of alumina in phosphate glass: II, Structure of sodium aluminophosphate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(4), 1919 (1993).

1990

M. J. Weber, “Science and technology of laser glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1-3), 208–222 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1968

J. T. Krause and C. R. Kurkjian, “Vibrational anomalies in inorganic glass formers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 51(4), 226–227 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser–photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser–photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berdejo, V.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boeyens, J. C. A.

L. Popović, D. de Waal, and J. C. A. Boeyens, “Correlation between Raman wavenumbers and P—O bond lengths in crystalline inorganic phosphates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 2–11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brow, R. K.

R. K. Brow, “Review: the structure of simple phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 263–264,1–28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brow, D. R. Tallant, S. T. Myers, and C. C. Phifer, “The short-range structure of zinc polyphosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191(1-2), 45–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brow, “Nature of alumina in phosphate glass: I, properties of sodium aluminophosphate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(4), 913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brow, J. Kirkpatrick, and G. Turner, “Nature of alumina in phosphate glass: II, Structure of sodium aluminophosphate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(4), 1919 (1993).

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2626–2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1900–1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(5), 1037–1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Waal, D.

L. Popović, D. de Waal, and J. C. A. Boeyens, “Correlation between Raman wavenumbers and P—O bond lengths in crystalline inorganic phosphates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 2–11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, P.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser–photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, G.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1900–1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Della Valle, G.

Du, D.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in Si02 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser–photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Esser, D.

D. Esser, D. Mahlmann, D. Wortmann, and J. Gottmann, “Interference microscopy of femtosecond laser written waveguides in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 453–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrer, A.

Fletcher, L. B.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gawelda, W.

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

D. Esser, D. Mahlmann, D. Wortmann, and J. Gottmann, “Interference microscopy of femtosecond laser written waveguides in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 453–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, J. S.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(5), 1037–1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T.

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(5), 1037–1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T. R.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Killi, A.

Kirkpatrick, J.

R. K. Brow, J. Kirkpatrick, and G. Turner, “Nature of alumina in phosphate glass: II, Structure of sodium aluminophosphate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(4), 1919 (1993).

Kluge, M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in Si02 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krause, J. T.

J. T. Krause and C. R. Kurkjian, “Vibrational anomalies in inorganic glass formers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 51(4), 226–227 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(5), 1037–1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurkjian, C. R.

J. T. Krause and C. R. Kurkjian, “Vibrational anomalies in inorganic glass formers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 51(4), 226–227 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2626–2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, M.

Little, D. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in Si02 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mahlmann, D.

D. Esser, D. Mahlmann, D. Wortmann, and J. Gottmann, “Interference microscopy of femtosecond laser written waveguides in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 453–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser–photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser–photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Mourou, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in Si02 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Myers, S. T.

R. K. Brow, D. R. Tallant, S. T. Myers, and C. C. Phifer, “The short-range structure of zinc polyphosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191(1-2), 45–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2626–2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1900–1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phifer, C. C.

R. K. Brow, D. R. Tallant, S. T. Myers, and C. C. Phifer, “The short-range structure of zinc polyphosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191(1-2), 45–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polli, D.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, L.

L. Popović, D. de Waal, and J. C. A. Boeyens, “Correlation between Raman wavenumbers and P—O bond lengths in crystalline inorganic phosphates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 2–11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puerto, D.

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1900–1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rebolledo, M. A.

Reichman, W. B.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S. H.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(5), 1037–1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruiz de la Cruz, A.

Schaffer, C.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, J.

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in Si02 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, N.

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2626–2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taccheo, S.

Tallant, D. R.

R. K. Brow, D. R. Tallant, S. T. Myers, and C. C. Phifer, “The short-range structure of zinc polyphosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191(1-2), 45–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G.

R. K. Brow, J. Kirkpatrick, and G. Turner, “Nature of alumina in phosphate glass: II, Structure of sodium aluminophosphate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(4), 1919 (1993).

Vallés, J. A.

Watanabe, W.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Science and technology of laser glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1-3), 208–222 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Witcher, J. J.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser–photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wortmann, D.

D. Esser, D. Mahlmann, D. Wortmann, and J. Gottmann, “Interference microscopy of femtosecond laser written waveguides in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 453–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, J.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

D. Esser, D. Mahlmann, D. Wortmann, and J. Gottmann, “Interference microscopy of femtosecond laser written waveguides in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 453–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in Si02 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38(17), 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser–photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

R. K. Brow, “Nature of alumina in phosphate glass: I, properties of sodium aluminophosphate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(4), 913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brow, J. Kirkpatrick, and G. Turner, “Nature of alumina in phosphate glass: II, Structure of sodium aluminophosphate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(4), 1919 (1993).

J. T. Krause and C. R. Kurkjian, “Vibrational anomalies in inorganic glass formers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 51(4), 226–227 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, J. S. Hayden, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of color centers generated in phosphate glasses after exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(5), 1037–1040 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Sol.

R. K. Brow, “Review: the structure of simple phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 263–264,1–28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

R. K. Brow, D. R. Tallant, S. T. Myers, and C. C. Phifer, “The short-range structure of zinc polyphosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191(1-2), 45–55 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Science and technology of laser glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1-3), 208–222 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Raman Spectrosc.

L. Popović, D. de Waal, and J. C. A. Boeyens, “Correlation between Raman wavenumbers and P—O bond lengths in crystalline inorganic phosphates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 2–11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscope images of fs-modified zinc phosphate glass written with fs-laser fluences of 8 J/cm2 (1) 30ZnO-10Al2O3-60P2O5 glass (2) 50ZnO-50P2O5 glass (3) 55ZnO-45P2O5 glass (4) 60ZnO-40P2O5 glass (5) 65ZnO-35P2O5; (a) white light images of the modification along the waveguide direction (b) Transmission white light images of the modification cross section (c) 660 nm transmission near field images (d) Waveguide near field output guiding profile for 60ZnO-40P2O5 glass (e) Waveguide far field output profile for 60ZnO-40P2O5 glass.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) Fluorescence spectra of modified and unmodified 30ZnO-10Al2O3-60P2O5 glass for various fs-laser fluences (b) Maximum change in intensity of POHC fluorescence as a function of the maximum 1209 cm−1 Raman mode shift for various glass compositions modified with a fs-laser fluence of 43 J/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Spectral profile of the 1209 cm−1 Raman mode of modified and unmodified 30ZnO-10Al2O3-60P2O5 glass for various fs-laser fluences (b) Color map of shifts in the relative spectral position of the 1209 cm−1 Raman peak as a function of the spatial position for 30ZnO-10Al2O3-60P2O5 glass modified with a fs-laser fluence of 43 J/cm2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectra of unmodified bulk phosphate glasses (1) 30ZnO-10Al2O3-60P2O5 glass (2) 50ZnO-50P2O5 glass (3) 55ZnO-45P2O5 glass (4) 60ZnO-40P2O5 glass (5) 65ZnO-35P2O5; (a) in chain PO2 and OPO bending (b) (POP) symmetric stretch (bridging oxygen), Q2 species (c) P-O stretch, Q1 chain terminator (d) (PO2) symmetric stretch (non-bridging oxygen), Q2 species.

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