Abstract

We designed and built a fast scanning peripheral Hartmann-Shack (HS) wave-front sensor to measure the off-axis wave-front aberrations in the human eye. The new instrument is capable of measuring the optical quality over the central 80° horizontal visual field in 1.8 seconds with an angular resolution of 1°. The subject has an open field of view without any moving elements in the line-of-sight and the head is kept in place by a head-chin rest. The same efficiency, reliability and measurement quality as the current static HS sensor were found but with much higher acquisition speed and comfort for the patients. This instrument has the potential to facilitate and improve future research on the peripheral optical quality of the eye in large groups of subjects.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10(2), 201–212 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Guirao and P. Artal, “Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye,” Vision Res. 39(2), 207–217 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1103–1114 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Lundström, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Peripheral optical errors and their change with accommodation differ between emmetropic and myopic eyes,” J. Vis. 9(6), 17, 1–11 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Hoogerheide, F. Rempt, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Acquired myopia in young pilots,” Ophthalmologica 163(4), 209–215 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. N. Charman and H. Radhakrishnan, “Peripheral refraction and the development of refractive error: a review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(4), 321–338 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(11), 1046–1052 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(10), 2134–2143 (1997).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye wave aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(3), 497–506 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Unwrapping Hartmann-Shack images from highly aberrated eyes using an iterative B-spline based extrapolation method,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 81(5), 383–388 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Population distribution of wavefront aberrations in the peripheral human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(10), 2192–2198 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(3), 569–577 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(6), 1109–1114 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Population distribution of wavefront aberrations in the peripheral human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(10), 2192–2198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Tabernero and F. Schaeffel, “Fast scanning photoretinoscope for measuring peripheral refraction as a function of accommodation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(10), 2206–2210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Lundström, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Peripheral optical errors and their change with accommodation differ between emmetropic and myopic eyes,” J. Vis. 9(6), 17, 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Prado, J. Arines, S. Bará, S. Manzanera, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Changes of ocular aberrations with gaze,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 264–271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

D. A. Atchison, N. Pritchard, and K. L. Schmid, “Peripheral refraction along the horizontal and vertical visual fields in myopia,” Vision Res. 46(8-9), 1450–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Unwrapping Hartmann-Shack images from highly aberrated eyes using an iterative B-spline based extrapolation method,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 81(5), 383–388 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. Gustafsson and P. Unsbo, “Eccentric correction for off-axis vision in central visual field loss,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(7), 535–541 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

1999

A. Guirao and P. Artal, “Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye,” Vision Res. 39(2), 207–217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(10), 2134–2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35(7), 939–947 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1987

1971

J. Hoogerheide, F. Rempt, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Acquired myopia in young pilots,” Ophthalmologica 163(4), 209–215 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Peripheral retinoscopy and the skiagram,” Ophthalmologica 162(1), 1–10 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aragon, J. L.

Arines, J.

P. Prado, J. Arines, S. Bará, S. Manzanera, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Changes of ocular aberrations with gaze,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 264–271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

P. Prado, J. Arines, S. Bará, S. Manzanera, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Changes of ocular aberrations with gaze,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 264–271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Peripheral optical errors and their change with accommodation differ between emmetropic and myopic eyes,” J. Vis. 9(6), 17, 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, N. Gorceix, J. Gustafsson, P. Unsbo, and P. Artal, “Effect of optical correction and remaining aberrations on peripheral resolution acuity in the human eye,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12654–12661 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye wave aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(3), 497–506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martín, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(8), 1388–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao and P. Artal, “Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye,” Vision Res. 39(2), 207–217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35(7), 939–947 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10(2), 201–212 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(6), 1109–1114 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison, N. Pritchard, and K. L. Schmid, “Peripheral refraction along the horizontal and vertical visual fields in myopia,” Vision Res. 46(8-9), 1450–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ayala, D. B.

Bará, S.

P. Prado, J. Arines, S. Bará, S. Manzanera, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Changes of ocular aberrations with gaze,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 264–271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bescós, J.

Bradley, A.

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(10), 2134–2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

Brainard, D. H.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman and H. Radhakrishnan, “Peripheral refraction and the development of refractive error: a review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(4), 321–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Radhakrishnan and W. N. Charman, “Peripheral refraction measurement: does it matter if one turns the eye or the head?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 28(1), 73–82 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombo, E.

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35(7), 939–947 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dainty, C.

Deng, C.

Derrington, A. M.

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35(7), 939–947 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedtke, C.

Ferguson, R. D.

Goelz, S.

Goncharov, A. V.

Gorceix, N.

Guirao, A.

A. Guirao and P. Artal, “Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye,” Vision Res. 39(2), 207–217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, J.

Hammer, D. X.

Ho, A.

Hofer, H.

Hoogenboom, W. P. H.

J. Hoogerheide, F. Rempt, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Acquired myopia in young pilots,” Ophthalmologica 163(4), 209–215 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Peripheral retinoscopy and the skiagram,” Ophthalmologica 162(1), 1–10 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogerheide, J.

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Peripheral retinoscopy and the skiagram,” Ophthalmologica 162(1), 1–10 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hoogerheide, F. Rempt, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Acquired myopia in young pilots,” Ophthalmologica 163(4), 209–215 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundström, L.

L. Lundström, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Peripheral optical errors and their change with accommodation differ between emmetropic and myopic eyes,” J. Vis. 9(6), 17, 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Population distribution of wavefront aberrations in the peripheral human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(10), 2192–2198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(11), 1046–1052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, N. Gorceix, J. Gustafsson, P. Unsbo, and P. Artal, “Effect of optical correction and remaining aberrations on peripheral resolution acuity in the human eye,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12654–12661 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(3), 569–577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Unwrapping Hartmann-Shack images from highly aberrated eyes using an iterative B-spline based extrapolation method,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 81(5), 383–388 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manns, F.

Manzanera, S.

McMahon, M. J.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mira-Agudelo, A.

P. Prado, J. Arines, S. Bará, S. Manzanera, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Changes of ocular aberrations with gaze,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 264–271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Peripheral optical errors and their change with accommodation differ between emmetropic and myopic eyes,” J. Vis. 9(6), 17, 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Navarro, R.

D. R. Williams, P. Artal, R. Navarro, M. J. McMahon, and D. H. Brainard, “Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1103–1114 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10(2), 201–212 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nowakowski, M.

Patel, A. H.

Prado, P.

P. Prado, J. Arines, S. Bará, S. Manzanera, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Changes of ocular aberrations with gaze,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 264–271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, P. M.

Pritchard, N.

D. A. Atchison, N. Pritchard, and K. L. Schmid, “Peripheral refraction along the horizontal and vertical visual fields in myopia,” Vision Res. 46(8-9), 1450–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, H.

W. N. Charman and H. Radhakrishnan, “Peripheral refraction and the development of refractive error: a review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(4), 321–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Radhakrishnan and W. N. Charman, “Peripheral refraction measurement: does it matter if one turns the eye or the head?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 28(1), 73–82 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rempt, F.

J. Hoogerheide, F. Rempt, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Acquired myopia in young pilots,” Ophthalmologica 163(4), 209–215 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Peripheral retinoscopy and the skiagram,” Ophthalmologica 162(1), 1–10 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santamaría, J.

Schaeffel, F.

Schmid, K. L.

D. A. Atchison, N. Pritchard, and K. L. Schmid, “Peripheral refraction along the horizontal and vertical visual fields in myopia,” Vision Res. 46(8-9), 1450–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, M. T.

Singer, B.

Tabernero, J.

Thibos, L.

Thibos, L. N.

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(10), 2134–2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

Unsbo, P.

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Population distribution of wavefront aberrations in the peripheral human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(10), 2192–2198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(3), 569–577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(11), 1046–1052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, N. Gorceix, J. Gustafsson, P. Unsbo, and P. Artal, “Effect of optical correction and remaining aberrations on peripheral resolution acuity in the human eye,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12654–12661 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Unwrapping Hartmann-Shack images from highly aberrated eyes using an iterative B-spline based extrapolation method,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 81(5), 383–388 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gustafsson and P. Unsbo, “Eccentric correction for off-axis vision in central visual field loss,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(7), 535–541 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vargas-Martín, F.

Wang, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(10), 2134–2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

Wei, X.

Williams, D. R.

Zhong, Z.

Zou, W.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

Y. Z. Wang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Effects of refractive error on detection acuity and resolution acuity in peripheral vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(10), 2134–2143 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Population distribution of wavefront aberrations in the peripheral human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(10), 2192–2198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Tabernero and F. Schaeffel, “Fast scanning photoretinoscope for measuring peripheral refraction as a function of accommodation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(10), 2206–2210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(11), A265–A277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Navarro, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, “Modulation transfer of the human eye as a function of retinal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10(2), 201–212 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(6), 1109–1114 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martín, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(8), 1388–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye wave aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(3), 497–506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Transformation of Zernike coefficients: scaled, translated, and rotated wavefronts with circular and elliptical pupils,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(3), 569–577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Vis.

L. Lundström, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Peripheral optical errors and their change with accommodation differ between emmetropic and myopic eyes,” J. Vis. 9(6), 17, 1–11 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.

W. N. Charman and H. Radhakrishnan, “Peripheral refraction and the development of refractive error: a review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(4), 321–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Radhakrishnan and W. N. Charman, “Peripheral refraction measurement: does it matter if one turns the eye or the head?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 28(1), 73–82 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Prado, J. Arines, S. Bará, S. Manzanera, A. Mira-Agudelo, and P. Artal, “Changes of ocular aberrations with gaze,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29(3), 264–271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmologica

F. Rempt, J. Hoogerheide, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Peripheral retinoscopy and the skiagram,” Ophthalmologica 162(1), 1–10 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hoogerheide, F. Rempt, and W. P. H. Hoogenboom, “Acquired myopia in young pilots,” Ophthalmologica 163(4), 209–215 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Optom. Vis. Sci.

L. Lundström and P. Unsbo, “Unwrapping Hartmann-Shack images from highly aberrated eyes using an iterative B-spline based extrapolation method,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 81(5), 383–388 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lundström, J. Gustafsson, and P. Unsbo, “Vision evaluation of eccentric refractive correction,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(11), 1046–1052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gustafsson and P. Unsbo, “Eccentric correction for off-axis vision in central visual field loss,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(7), 535–541 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

P. Artal, A. M. Derrington, and E. Colombo, “Refraction, aliasing, and the absence of motion reversals in peripheral vision,” Vision Res. 35(7), 939–947 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guirao and P. Artal, “Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye,” Vision Res. 39(2), 207–217 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1460 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic side view of the optical design of the HS wavefront sensor scanner.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic side (left) and front (right) view of the HS-scanner showing the layout of the instrument. The arrows show the direction of possible movement of the ophthalmic bench.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shows an example of the operation of the instrument in real time. The video is 1.42 MB, QuickTime mov-format (size 640 x 480) (Media 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calibration of the system using trial lenses. The power of the trial lens is plotted on the X-axis and the measured defocus on the Y-axis. This calibration is only done at 0°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Instrument aberrations as a function of eccentricity: defocus and astigmatism in diopters. The results of five entire scans are plotted along with the mean of those scans. To compensate this variation, an angular reference file containing the instrumental aberrations is used when elaborating measured data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of mean spherical equivalent (M) between the static system (blue circles) and scanning system (black crosses) for 3 subjects with different refraction. The X-axis contains the eccentricity [°] and the Y-axis M [D]. The scale of the Y-axis is for all equal but slightly moved.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

On the left the correlation plot for all measurements is given with the measured mean sphere (M) of the static system versus that of the scanning system. The right figure shows the correlation plot for all the measured higher order RMS (3rd-4th order, 4 mm pupil) of the static system versus that of the scanning system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The wavefront plot of the higher order RMS values measured at three different eccentricities is shown. The values are in µm and are calculated for a 4 mm pupil. Each set of wavefront maps for one eccentricity have the same scale and colour normalization.

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