Abstract

We report on passive mode-locking of a Ti:sapphire laser employing a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA) specially designed and fabricated for wavelengths near 800 nm. Mode-locked pulses as short as 62 fs were generated at a repetition rate of 99.4 MHz. We achieved output powers from the SWCNT-SA mode-locked laser as high as 600 mW with a slope efficiency of 26%. The characteristics of SWCNT-SA-assisted mode-locking were compared with those of Kerr-lens mode-locking without SWCNT-SA.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

2007

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “S, Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, E. Wu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Passive mode locking in a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 505–508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 51–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. S. Strano, C. A. Dyke, M. L. Usrey, P. W. Barone, M. J. Allen, H. Shan, C. Kittrell, R. H. Hauge, J. M. Tour, and R. E. Smalley, “Electronic structure control of single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization,” Science 301(5639), 1519–1522 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, J. K. Jabczynski, K. Kopczynski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1. 34 μm Q-switched and mode locked by a V3+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 194(4-6), 429–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, “Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 171–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Chen, S. W. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, “High-power diode-pumped Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YVO(4) laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1442–1444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1996

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1991

Agnesi, A.

A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, J. K. Jabczynski, K. Kopczynski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1. 34 μm Q-switched and mode locked by a V3+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 194(4-6), 429–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aguiló, M.

Allen, M. J.

M. S. Strano, C. A. Dyke, M. L. Usrey, P. W. Barone, M. J. Allen, H. Shan, C. Kittrell, R. H. Hauge, J. M. Tour, and R. E. Smalley, “Electronic structure control of single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization,” Science 301(5639), 1519–1522 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angelow, G.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barone, P. W.

M. S. Strano, C. A. Dyke, M. L. Usrey, P. W. Barone, M. J. Allen, H. Shan, C. Kittrell, R. H. Hauge, J. M. Tour, and R. E. Smalley, “Electronic structure control of single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization,” Science 301(5639), 1519–1522 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellancourt, A.-R.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carvajal, J. J.

Chen, Y.-F.

Cho, W. B.

Choi, S. Y.

Díaz, F.

Dyke, C. A.

M. S. Strano, C. A. Dyke, M. L. Usrey, P. W. Barone, M. J. Allen, H. Shan, C. Kittrell, R. H. Hauge, J. M. Tour, and R. E. Smalley, “Electronic structure control of single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization,” Science 301(5639), 1519–1522 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, M.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Furuki, M.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gallmann, L.

Giesen, A.

Grange, R.

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

Guandalini, A.

A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, J. K. Jabczynski, K. Kopczynski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1. 34 μm Q-switched and mode locked by a V3+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 194(4-6), 429–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “S, Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haiml, M.

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hauge, R. H.

M. S. Strano, C. A. Dyke, M. L. Usrey, P. W. Barone, M. J. Allen, H. Shan, C. Kittrell, R. H. Hauge, J. M. Tour, and R. E. Smalley, “Electronic structure control of single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization,” Science 301(5639), 1519–1522 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, G. Zhang, U. Keller, and A. Giesen, “Femtosecond Yb:YAG laser using semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 20(23), 2402–2404 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwaniuk, D.

Iwasa, I.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jabczynski, J. K.

A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, J. K. Jabczynski, K. Kopczynski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1. 34 μm Q-switched and mode locked by a V3+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 194(4-6), 429–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jablonski, M.

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kamaraju, N.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “S, Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kean, P. N.

Keller, U.

Khudyakov, D. V.

Kittrell, C.

M. S. Strano, C. A. Dyke, M. L. Usrey, P. W. Barone, M. J. Allen, H. Shan, C. Kittrell, R. H. Hauge, J. M. Tour, and R. E. Smalley, “Electronic structure control of single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization,” Science 301(5639), 1519–1522 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, “Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 171–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kopczynski, K.

A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, J. K. Jabczynski, K. Kopczynski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1. 34 μm Q-switched and mode locked by a V3+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 194(4-6), 429–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, S.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “S, Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “S, Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Lobach, A. S.

Maas, D. J. H.

Marchese, S. V.

Mateos, X.

Matuschek, N.

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24(9), 631–633 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mierczyk, Z.

A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, J. K. Jabczynski, K. Kopczynski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1. 34 μm Q-switched and mode locked by a V3+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 194(4-6), 429–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitsu, H.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miura, T.

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, “Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 171–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

Nadtochenko, V. A.

Nakagawa, T.

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, “Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 171–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H.

S. Zhang, E. Wu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Passive mode locking in a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 505–508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perebeinos, V.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Pujol, M. C.

Rao, C. N. R.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “S, Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reali, G.

A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, J. K. Jabczynski, K. Kopczynski, and Z. Mierczyk, “Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1. 34 μm Q-switched and mode locked by a V3+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 194(4-6), 429–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rivier, S.

Rotermund, F.

Rudin, B.

Rytz, D.

Sato, Y.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, V.

Schmidt, A.

Set, S. Y.

Shan, H.

M. S. Strano, C. A. Dyke, M. L. Usrey, P. W. Barone, M. J. Allen, H. Shan, C. Kittrell, R. H. Hauge, J. M. Tour, and R. E. Smalley, “Electronic structure control of single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization,” Science 301(5639), 1519–1522 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

Smalley, R. E.

M. S. Strano, C. A. Dyke, M. L. Usrey, P. W. Barone, M. J. Allen, H. Shan, C. Kittrell, R. H. Hauge, J. M. Tour, and R. E. Smalley, “Electronic structure control of single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization,” Science 301(5639), 1519–1522 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sood, A. K.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “S, Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. E.

Steinmeyer, G.

Strano, M. S.

M. S. Strano, C. A. Dyke, M. L. Usrey, P. W. Barone, M. J. Allen, H. Shan, C. Kittrell, R. H. Hauge, J. M. Tour, and R. E. Smalley, “Electronic structure control of single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization,” Science 301(5639), 1519–1522 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Südmeyer, T.

Sugaya, T.

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, “Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 171–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

Takada, H.

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, “Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 171–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Tatsuura, S.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tian, M.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Z. Zhang, T. Nakagawa, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Sugaya, T. Miura, and K. Kobayashi, “Low-loss broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 171–175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tour, J. M.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characteristics of transmission-type SWCNT-SA at 800 nm: (a) linear transmission spectrum and nonlinear dynamics (inset) and (b) nonlinear absorption.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration of the Ti:sapphire laser mode-locked by KLM and SWCNT-SA (dashed box): L: focusing lens with f = 100 mm; Ti:sa: 4-mm-long Ti:sapphire crystal; M1-M4: HR-coated concave mirrors with a ROC = −100 mm; P1 and P2: SF10 prisms; OC: 10% output coupler; SA: SWCNT-SA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average output powers in the mode-locked (ML) regime versus incident pump powers of the KLM and the SWCNT-SA mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with a linear fit to the data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SWCNT-SA mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser: (a) spectrum and autocorrelation trace with sech2 pulse shape fit (inset) and (b) spectral tuning.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

RF spectrum of the fundamental beat note in 200 kHz and 1 GHz (inset) span.

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