Abstract

This paper investigates terahertz detectors fabricated in a low-cost 130 nm silicon CMOS technology. We show that the detectors consisting of a nMOS field effect transistor as rectifying element and an integrated bow-tie coupling antenna achieve a record responsivity above 5 kV/W and a noise equivalent power below 10 pW/Hz0.5 in the important atmospheric window around 300 GHz and at room temperature. We demonstrate furthermore that the same detectors are efficient for imaging in a very wide frequency range from ~0.27 THz up to 1.05 THz. These results pave the way towards high sensitivity focal plane arrays in silicon for terahertz imaging.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/87/193507/1 .
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, S. Boubanga-Tombet, W. Knap, T. Nishimura, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, G. M. Tsymbalov, and V. V. Popov, “Room temperature detection of sub-terahertz radiation in double-grating-gate transistors,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6024–6032 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-6024 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  9. E. Ojefors, N. Baktash, Y. Zhao, and U. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging detectors in a 65-nm CMOS SOI technology,” in Proceedings of 36th European Solid-State Circuits Conference (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).
  13. A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAP/105/114511/1 .
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Perenzoni, M. Perenzoni, L. Gonzo, A. D. Capobianco, and F. Sacchetto, “Analysis and design of a CMOS-based terahertz sensor and readout,” Proc. SPIE 7726, 772618, 772618-12 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7726/772618/1 .
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Dobroiu, M. Yamashita, Y. N. Ohshima, Y. Morita, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz imaging system based on a backward-wave oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 43(30), 5637–5646 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Lisauskas, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, E. Oejefors, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150J, 72150J-11 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7215/72150J/1 .
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAP/105/114511/1 .
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, E. Oejefors, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150J, 72150J-11 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7215/72150J/1 .
[CrossRef]

E. Ojefors, U. Pfeiffer, A. Lisauskas, and H. Roskos, “A 0.65 THz focal-plane array in a quarter-micron CMOS process technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 44(7), 1968–1976 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, T. Nishimura, and E. Sano, “A grating-bicoupled plasma-wave photomixer with resonant-cavity enhanced structure,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4815–4825 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-11-4815 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/87/193507/1 .
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Dobroiu, M. Yamashita, Y. N. Ohshima, Y. Morita, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz imaging system based on a backward-wave oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 43(30), 5637–5646 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. J.

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/87/193507/1 .
[CrossRef]

Boeuf, F.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolìvar, P. H.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAP/105/114511/1 .
[CrossRef]

Boubanga, S.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boubanga-Tombet, S.

Brunel, L. C.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, A. D.

D. Perenzoni, M. Perenzoni, L. Gonzo, A. D. Capobianco, and F. Sacchetto, “Analysis and design of a CMOS-based terahertz sensor and readout,” Proc. SPIE 7726, 772618, 772618-12 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7726/772618/1 .
[CrossRef]

Coquillat, D.

D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, S. Boubanga-Tombet, W. Knap, T. Nishimura, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, G. M. Tsymbalov, and V. V. Popov, “Room temperature detection of sub-terahertz radiation in double-grating-gate transistors,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6024–6032 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-6024 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dobroiu, A.

Dyakonov, M.

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dyakonova, N.

D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, S. Boubanga-Tombet, W. Knap, T. Nishimura, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, G. M. Tsymbalov, and V. V. Popov, “Room temperature detection of sub-terahertz radiation in double-grating-gate transistors,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6024–6032 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-6024 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

El Fatimy, A.

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Fateev, D. V.

Fenouillet-Beranger, C.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gallon, C.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glaab, D.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAP/105/114511/1 .
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, E. Oejefors, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150J, 72150J-11 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7215/72150J/1 .
[CrossRef]

Gonzo, L.

D. Perenzoni, M. Perenzoni, L. Gonzo, A. D. Capobianco, and F. Sacchetto, “Analysis and design of a CMOS-based terahertz sensor and readout,” Proc. SPIE 7726, 772618, 772618-12 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7726/772618/1 .
[CrossRef]

Grine, A. D.

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/87/193507/1 .
[CrossRef]

Hanabe, M.

Hu, X.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kachorovskii, V.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karpierz, K.

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Kasalynas, I.

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Kawase, K.

Khan, M.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knap, W.

D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, S. Boubanga-Tombet, W. Knap, T. Nishimura, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, G. M. Tsymbalov, and V. V. Popov, “Room temperature detection of sub-terahertz radiation in double-grating-gate transistors,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6024–6032 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-6024 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/87/193507/1 .
[CrossRef]

Lisauskas, A.

E. Ojefors, U. Pfeiffer, A. Lisauskas, and H. Roskos, “A 0.65 THz focal-plane array in a quarter-micron CMOS process technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 44(7), 1968–1976 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, E. Oejefors, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150J, 72150J-11 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7215/72150J/1 .
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAP/105/114511/1 .
[CrossRef]

Lü, J.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lusakowski, J.

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maude, D.

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maude, D. K.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meziani, Y.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meziani, Y. M.

D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, S. Boubanga-Tombet, W. Knap, T. Nishimura, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, G. M. Tsymbalov, and V. V. Popov, “Room temperature detection of sub-terahertz radiation in double-grating-gate transistors,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6024–6032 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-6024 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Morita, Y.

Nadar, S.

Nishimura, T.

Oejefors, E.

A. Lisauskas, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, E. Oejefors, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150J, 72150J-11 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7215/72150J/1 .
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, Y. N.

Ojefors, E.

E. Ojefors, U. Pfeiffer, A. Lisauskas, and H. Roskos, “A 0.65 THz focal-plane array in a quarter-micron CMOS process technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 44(7), 1968–1976 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Öjefors, E.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAP/105/114511/1 .
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

Otsuji, T.

Perenzoni, D.

D. Perenzoni, M. Perenzoni, L. Gonzo, A. D. Capobianco, and F. Sacchetto, “Analysis and design of a CMOS-based terahertz sensor and readout,” Proc. SPIE 7726, 772618, 772618-12 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7726/772618/1 .
[CrossRef]

Perenzoni, M.

D. Perenzoni, M. Perenzoni, L. Gonzo, A. D. Capobianco, and F. Sacchetto, “Analysis and design of a CMOS-based terahertz sensor and readout,” Proc. SPIE 7726, 772618, 772618-12 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7726/772618/1 .
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, U.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAP/105/114511/1 .
[CrossRef]

E. Ojefors, U. Pfeiffer, A. Lisauskas, and H. Roskos, “A 0.65 THz focal-plane array in a quarter-micron CMOS process technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 44(7), 1968–1976 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, U. R.

A. Lisauskas, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, E. Oejefors, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150J, 72150J-11 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7215/72150J/1 .
[CrossRef]

Polischuk, O. V.

Popov, V. V.

Reno, J. L.

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/87/193507/1 .
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H.

E. Ojefors, U. Pfeiffer, A. Lisauskas, and H. Roskos, “A 0.65 THz focal-plane array in a quarter-micron CMOS process technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 44(7), 1968–1976 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

A. Lisauskas, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, E. Oejefors, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150J, 72150J-11 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7215/72150J/1 .
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAP/105/114511/1 .
[CrossRef]

Rumyantsev, S.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sacchetto, F.

D. Perenzoni, M. Perenzoni, L. Gonzo, A. D. Capobianco, and F. Sacchetto, “Analysis and design of a CMOS-based terahertz sensor and readout,” Proc. SPIE 7726, 772618, 772618-12 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7726/772618/1 .
[CrossRef]

Sakowicz, M.

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Sano, E.

Saylor, C. A.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seliuta, D.

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Shaner, E. A.

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/87/193507/1 .
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

V. V. Popov, D. V. Fateev, O. V. Polischuk, and M. S. Shur, “Enhanced electromagnetic coupling between terahertz radiation and plasmons in a grating-gate transistor structure on membrane substrate,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16771–16776 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-16-16771 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skotnicki, T.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tauk, R.

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teppe, F.

D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, S. Boubanga-Tombet, W. Knap, T. Nishimura, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, G. M. Tsymbalov, and V. V. Popov, “Room temperature detection of sub-terahertz radiation in double-grating-gate transistors,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6024–6032 (2010), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-6024 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsymbalov, G. M.

Valusis, G.

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Wanke, M. C.

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/87/193507/1 .
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Tauk, F. Teppe, S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, C. Fenouillet-Beranger, D. K. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effect transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/87/193507/1 .
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits (1)

E. Ojefors, U. Pfeiffer, A. Lisauskas, and H. Roskos, “A 0.65 THz focal-plane array in a quarter-micron CMOS process technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 44(7), 1968–1976 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. Knap, V. Kachorovskii, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J. Lü, R. Gaska, M. Shur, G. Simin, X. Hu, M. Khan, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation in field effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 9346–9353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114511 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAP/105/114511/1 .
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves (1)

W. Knap, M. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. El Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. Perenzoni, M. Perenzoni, L. Gonzo, A. D. Capobianco, and F. Sacchetto, “Analysis and design of a CMOS-based terahertz sensor and readout,” Proc. SPIE 7726, 772618, 772618-12 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7726/772618/1 .
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, D. Glaab, H. G. Roskos, E. Oejefors, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150J, 72150J-11 (2009), http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/7215/72150J/1 .
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

U. Pfeiffer, E. Ojefors, A. Lisauskas, D. Glaab, F. Voltolina, V. Nzogang, P. Bolivar, and H. Roskos, “A CMOS focal-plane array for terahertz imaging,” in Proceedings of 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (2008), pp. 1 –3.

E. Ojefors, N. Baktash, Y. Zhao, and U. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz imaging detectors in a 65-nm CMOS SOI technology,” in Proceedings of 36th European Solid-State Circuits Conference (2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Micrograph of the test chip with differently designed THz detectors and test structures. The detector pitch is 210 µm. (b) Schematic views of different detectors and their characteristics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental set-up for detector characterization and transmission mode imaging of objects. For responsivity measurements and imaging of the source beam, the detector is moved through the focal point F2 with a motorized X,Y translation stage. For transmission imaging of objects the detector stays immobile in F2, while the object is moved through the focal point F1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured characteristics of different detectors as a function of gate bias V gs at 292 GHz. 125/ 370 µm denotes the substrate thickness. (a) Voltage Responsivity. (b) Noise equivalent power. Inset: raster scan image of the source beam at 292 GHz with FWHM contour with C14 on the 125 µm substrate. ΔU is the photo-induced drain-source voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Responsivity as a function of frequency for C14, 125 µm substrate for V gs = 0.2 V. Triangles are measured points, the solid line is a guide for the eye. Inset: raster scan image of the source beam at 1050 GHz with FWHM contour.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph and 292 GHz transmission mode image of a chocolate bar with a metallic needle inside. The THz image consists of 225x300 scanned points and the used detector was C14 on the 125 µm substrate.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ U ( x )   = U a 2 4 U 0 [ 1 exp ( 2 x / l c ) ] ,
R v = Δ U P det = i m a g e Δ U d x   ​ d y P b e a m A det ,
N E P = 4 k T R d s / R v ,

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