Abstract

Second and third-order monolithically integrated coupled ring bandpass filters are demonstrated in the InP-InGaAsP material system with active semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and current injection phase modulators (PMs). Such integration achieves a high level of tunability and precise generation of optical filters in the RF domain at telecom wavelengths while simultaneously compensating for device insertion loss. Passband bandwidth tunability of 3.9 GHz to 7.1 GHz and stopband extinction up to 40 dB are shown for third-order filters. Center frequency tunability over a full free spectral range (FSR) is demonstrated, allowing for the placement of a filter anywhere in the telecom C-band. A Z-transform representation of coupled resonator filters is derived and compared with experimental results. A theoretical description of filter tunability is presented.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, A. Khilo, F. X. Kärtner, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Reconfigurable multi-channel second-order silicon microring-resonator filterbanks for on-chip WDM systems,” Opt. Express 19(1), 306–316 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Parker, E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, and L. A. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar inductively coupled plasma for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

J. Park, T. Lee, D. Lee, S. Kim, W. Hwang, and Y. Chung, “Widely tunable coupled-ring-reflector filter based on planar polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 988–990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Saeung and P. P. Yupapin, “Generalized analysis of multiple ring resonator filters: modeling by using graphical approach,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(10), 465–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

J. W. Raring, M. N. Sysak, A. T. Pedretti, M. Dummer, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, S. P. Denbaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Advanced integration schemes for high-functionality/high-performance photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260H, 61260H-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 122–154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Simon, P. Doussiere, P. Lamouler, I. Valiente, and R. Riou, “Travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier with reduced nonlinear distortions,” Electron. Lett. 30(1), 49–50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. Darcie, R. Jopson, and R. Tkach, “Intermodulation distortion in optical amplifiers from carrier-density modulation,” Electron. Lett. 23(25), 1392–1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Asghari, M.

Baney, D. M.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 122–154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Banwell, T.

Barton, J. S.

J. W. Raring, M. N. Sysak, A. T. Pedretti, M. Dummer, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, S. P. Denbaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Advanced integration schemes for high-functionality/high-performance photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260H, 61260H-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Beattie, J.

Bovington, J.

H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. D. Peters, Z. Wang, J. Bovington, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated microwave photonic filter on a hybrid silicon platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3213–3219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. D. Peters, Z. Wang, J. Bovington, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated microwave photonic filter on a hybrid silicon platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3213–3219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

Carothers, D.

Chen, H.-W.

H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. D. Peters, Z. Wang, J. Bovington, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated microwave photonic filter on a hybrid silicon platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3213–3219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chin, M.-K.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

J. Park, T. Lee, D. Lee, S. Kim, W. Hwang, and Y. Chung, “Widely tunable coupled-ring-reflector filter based on planar polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 988–990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

J. S. Parker, E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, and L. A. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar inductively coupled plasma for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Raring, M. N. Sysak, A. T. Pedretti, M. Dummer, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, S. P. Denbaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Advanced integration schemes for high-functionality/high-performance photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260H, 61260H-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dahlem, M. S.

Darcie, T.

T. Darcie, R. Jopson, and R. Tkach, “Intermodulation distortion in optical amplifiers from carrier-density modulation,” Electron. Lett. 23(25), 1392–1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Darmawan, S.

Denbaars, S. P.

J. W. Raring, M. N. Sysak, A. T. Pedretti, M. Dummer, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, S. P. Denbaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Advanced integration schemes for high-functionality/high-performance photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260H, 61260H-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Doussiere, P.

J. Simon, P. Doussiere, P. Lamouler, I. Valiente, and R. Riou, “Travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier with reduced nonlinear distortions,” Electron. Lett. 30(1), 49–50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dummer, M.

J. W. Raring, M. N. Sysak, A. T. Pedretti, M. Dummer, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, S. P. Denbaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Advanced integration schemes for high-functionality/high-performance photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260H, 61260H-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. D. Peters, Z. Wang, J. Bovington, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated microwave photonic filter on a hybrid silicon platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3213–3219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Gallion, P.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 122–154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

M. Rasras, K. Tu, D. Gill, Y. Chen, A. White, S. Patel, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. Kimerling, “Demonstration of a tunable microwave-photonic notch filter using low-loss silicon ring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(12), 2105–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guzzon, R. S.

J. S. Parker, E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, and L. A. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar inductively coupled plasma for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, C. W.

Hryniewicz, J. V.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W.

J. Park, T. Lee, D. Lee, S. Kim, W. Hwang, and Y. Chung, “Widely tunable coupled-ring-reflector filter based on planar polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 988–990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Johnson, F. G.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jopson, R.

T. Darcie, R. Jopson, and R. Tkach, “Intermodulation distortion in optical amplifiers from carrier-density modulation,” Electron. Lett. 23(25), 1392–1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Khilo, A.

Kim, S.

J. Park, T. Lee, D. Lee, S. Kim, W. Hwang, and Y. Chung, “Widely tunable coupled-ring-reflector filter based on planar polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 988–990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

King, O.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lamouler, P.

J. Simon, P. Doussiere, P. Lamouler, I. Valiente, and R. Riou, “Travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier with reduced nonlinear distortions,” Electron. Lett. 30(1), 49–50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Landobasa, Y. M.

Lee, D.

J. Park, T. Lee, D. Lee, S. Kim, W. Hwang, and Y. Chung, “Widely tunable coupled-ring-reflector filter based on planar polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 988–990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. C.

Lee, T.

J. Park, T. Lee, D. Lee, S. Kim, W. Hwang, and Y. Chung, “Widely tunable coupled-ring-reflector filter based on planar polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 988–990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. D. Peters, Z. Wang, J. Bovington, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated microwave photonic filter on a hybrid silicon platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3213–3219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

Luff, J. B.

Menendez, R.

Michel, J.

Nicholes, S. C.

J. S. Parker, E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, and L. A. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar inductively coupled plasma for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Norberg, E. J.

J. S. Parker, E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, and L. A. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar inductively coupled plasma for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, B.

Park, J.

J. Park, T. Lee, D. Lee, S. Kim, W. Hwang, and Y. Chung, “Widely tunable coupled-ring-reflector filter based on planar polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 988–990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parker, J. S.

J. S. Parker, E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, and L. A. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar inductively coupled plasma for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, D.

Patel, S.

Pedretti, A. T.

J. W. Raring, M. N. Sysak, A. T. Pedretti, M. Dummer, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, S. P. Denbaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Advanced integration schemes for high-functionality/high-performance photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260H, 61260H-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peters, J. D.

H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. D. Peters, Z. Wang, J. Bovington, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated microwave photonic filter on a hybrid silicon platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3213–3219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

Qian, W.

Raring, J. W.

J. W. Raring, M. N. Sysak, A. T. Pedretti, M. Dummer, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, S. P. Denbaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Advanced integration schemes for high-functionality/high-performance photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260H, 61260H-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rasras, M.

Riou, R.

J. Simon, P. Doussiere, P. Lamouler, I. Valiente, and R. Riou, “Travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier with reduced nonlinear distortions,” Electron. Lett. 30(1), 49–50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saeung, P.

P. Saeung and P. P. Yupapin, “Generalized analysis of multiple ring resonator filters: modeling by using graphical approach,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(10), 465–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seiferth, F.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.

J. Simon, P. Doussiere, P. Lamouler, I. Valiente, and R. Riou, “Travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier with reduced nonlinear distortions,” Electron. Lett. 30(1), 49–50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Skogen, E. J.

J. W. Raring, M. N. Sysak, A. T. Pedretti, M. Dummer, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, S. P. Denbaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Advanced integration schemes for high-functionality/high-performance photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260H, 61260H-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

Sysak, M. N.

J. W. Raring, M. N. Sysak, A. T. Pedretti, M. Dummer, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, S. P. Denbaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Advanced integration schemes for high-functionality/high-performance photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260H, 61260H-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R.

T. Darcie, R. Jopson, and R. Tkach, “Intermodulation distortion in optical amplifiers from carrier-density modulation,” Electron. Lett. 23(25), 1392–1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Toliver, P.

Trakalo, M.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K.

Tucker, R. S.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 122–154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Valiente, I.

J. Simon, P. Doussiere, P. Lamouler, I. Valiente, and R. Riou, “Travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier with reduced nonlinear distortions,” Electron. Lett. 30(1), 49–50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. D. Peters, Z. Wang, J. Bovington, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated microwave photonic filter on a hybrid silicon platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3213–3219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, A.

Woodward, T. K.

Yupapin, P. P.

P. Saeung and P. P. Yupapin, “Generalized analysis of multiple ring resonator filters: modeling by using graphical approach,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(10), 465–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Simon, P. Doussiere, P. Lamouler, I. Valiente, and R. Riou, “Travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier with reduced nonlinear distortions,” Electron. Lett. 30(1), 49–50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Darcie, R. Jopson, and R. Tkach, “Intermodulation distortion in optical amplifiers from carrier-density modulation,” Electron. Lett. 23(25), 1392–1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Park, T. Lee, D. Lee, S. Kim, W. Hwang, and Y. Chung, “Widely tunable coupled-ring-reflector filter based on planar polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 988–990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. D. Peters, Z. Wang, J. Bovington, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated microwave photonic filter on a hybrid silicon platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3213–3219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

J. S. Parker, E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, and L. A. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar inductively coupled plasma for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 011016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 122–154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

P. Saeung and P. P. Yupapin, “Generalized analysis of multiple ring resonator filters: modeling by using graphical approach,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(10), 465–472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. W. Raring, M. N. Sysak, A. T. Pedretti, M. Dummer, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, S. P. Denbaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Advanced integration schemes for high-functionality/high-performance photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260H, 61260H-20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

E. Norberg, R. Guzzon, and L. Coldren, “Programmable photonic filters fabricated with deeply etched waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE Photonics Society, Newport beach, CA, 2009), pp. 163–166.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Whiley-Interscience, 2002), Chap. 6.

R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, J. S. Parker, and L. A. Coldren, “Highly programmable optical filters integrated in InP-InGaAsP with tunable inter-ring coupling,” Conf. Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics (Optical Society of America, Monterey, CA, 2010).

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Whiley-Interscience, 1999), Chap. 3.

R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, J. S. Parker, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated programmable photonic microwave filter with tunable inter-ring coupling,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Microwave Photonics (IEEE, Montreal, Canada, 2010).

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Whiley-Interscience, 1999), Chap. 1.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Signal flow graphs of 2nd order ring filters. (a) Cascaded case with no feedback from the 2nd ring to the 1st ring. (b) Coupled case with feedback. c and t are amplitude coupling and transmission values for the couplers, the ϕ’s are the added phase from phase modulators, and the A’s are the multiplicative gain through a waveguide section.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal flow graph for a 3rd order coupled ring filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical filter shapes and pole-zero plots for a 3rd order coupled ring filters showing variation with (a) tuning inter-ring coupling, (b) tuning the intrinsic pole magnitude of the 1st and 3rd rings, and (c) tuning the intrinsic pole magnitude of the 2nd ring. In all cases, the blue filter is the same, employing an inter-ring coupling value of 0.15, and intrinsic pole magnitudes of 0.7 for rings 1 and 3, and 0.73 for ring 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of our proposed 3rd order coupled ring unit cell with SOAs in red, phase modulators (PMs) in yellow, and MZI tunable couplers in blue. The feed-forward waveguide on the left forms an MZI with the path through the rings.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of (a) a fabricated, mounted, and wire-bonded unit cell; and (b) input/output waveguides of a deeply-etched MMI coupler.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured coupled-ring 3rd order bandpass filters with theoretical fits and their respective pole locations. The three filters are for coupling values of 25.5%, 15.6%, and 8.41%, producing bandwidths of 7.06, 5.50, and 3.90 GHz and extinction ratios of 30, 35, and 40 dB. The theoretical fits are good, indicating that the device was operating in the linear regime.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the measurement setup. A broadband ASE source is band-limited by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter and then propagated through the device under test (DUT). The response is viewed on an ESA after heterodyne down conversion by a tunable laser.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Measured 2nd order coupled ring filters showing tunability in frequency. The overall response is normalized to 0 dB, but the relative amplitudes of the filters are real. The unit cell itself had a throughput optical gain during this test of ~3 dB. (b) PM currents required in each of the two rings in order to tune the filter. The large shift in the ring 2 phase current at 25 GHz occurred when the next longitudinal mode (located 1 FSR away) was utilized, demonstrating the smooth tunability of filters across multiple FSRs. In this way, filters can be placed anywhere in the telecom C-band.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optically measured MZI zero filters. (a) Showing tunability in extinction by equalizing the gain through each of the MZI’s two waveguide paths. While the filters are normalized in passband amplitude, the filter frequency was re-normalized in real-time using on-chip PMs. (b) Showing tunability in frequency across a full FSR. The parasitic loss of the phase modulators is demonstrated in this measurement as an increase in the extinction of the zero filter as the loss equalizes the optical amplitude in the two waveguides of the MZI.

Equations (14)

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z = e = j ω n e j β L U
β = 2 π n e f f λ
H c a s c a d e d ( z ) = c 1 c 2 c 3 c 4 A 2 A 3 z 1 1 B 1 z 1 + B 2 z 2
H c o u p l e d ( z ) = j c 1 c 2 c 3 A 2 A 3 z 1 1 D 1 z 1 + D 2 z 2
B 1 = t 1 t 2 A 1 A 2 e j φ 1 + t 3 t 4 A 3 A 4 e j φ 2
B 2 = t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 e j ( φ 1 + φ 2 )
D 1 = t 1 t 2 A 1 A 2 e j φ 1 + t 2 t 3 A 3 A 4 e j φ 2
D 2 = t 1 t 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 e j ( φ 1 + φ 2 ) .
A i = e Γ g i α a 2 L S O A e α p 2 ( L 2 L S O A )
p r , 1 = t 1 t 2 A 1 A 2 e j φ 1
p r , 2 = t 2 t 3 A 3 A 4 e j φ 2
p c o u p l e d , ± = 1 2 ( p r , 1 + p r , 2 ) ± 1 2 j 4 p r , 1 p r , 2 1 C 2 ( p r , 1 + p r , 2 ) 2
| p c o u p l e d , ± | = p r , 1 p r , 2 1 C 2
p c o u p l e d , ± = tan 1 C 2 1 C 2

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