Abstract

We report an experimental study of picosecond pulse propagation through a 4-mm-long Si nanophotonic wire with normal dispersion, at excitation wavelengths from 1775 to 2250 nm. This wavelength range crosses the mid-infrared two-photon absorption edge of Si at ~2200 nm. Significant reduction in nonlinear loss due to two-photon absorption is measured as excitation wavelengths approach 2200 nm. At high input power, self-phase modulation is clearly demonstrated by the development of power-dependant spectral fringes. Asymmetry and blue-shift in the appearance of the spectral fringes at 1775 nm versus 2200 nm is further shown to originate from a strong reduction in the intra-pulse density of two-photon absorption-generated free carriers and the associated free-carrier dispersion. Analysis of experimental data and comparison with numerical simulations illustrates that the two-photon absorption coefficient β TPA obtained here from nanophotonic wire measurements is in reasonable agreement with prior measurements of bulk silicon crystals, and that bulk Si values of the nonlinear refractive index n 2 can be confidently incorporated in the modeling of pulse propagation in deeply-scaled waveguide structures.

© 2011 OSA

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2010

H. Ji, M. Galili, H. Hu, M. H. Pu, L. K. Oxenlowe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28-Tb/s Demultiplexing of an OTDM DPSK Data Signal Using a Silicon Waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1762–1764 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. P. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, and R. M. Osgood, “All-Optical Format Conversion of NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK in a Silicon Nanowire Utilizing Either XPM or FWM and Resulting in a Receiver Sensitivity Gain of similar to 2.5 dB,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 234–249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111–021113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, “Soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 391–393 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. W. Hsieh, X. G. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1135–1146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 15(10), 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, “Optical solitons in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7682–7688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical regeneration on a silicon chip,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7802–7809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. W. Hsieh, X. G. Chen, X. P. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C. Y. Chou, F. N. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15242–15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. J. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, C. M. Wynn, S. T. Palmacci, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “All silicon infrared photodiodes: photo response and effects of processing temperature,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16886–16895 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. S. Rong, Y. H. Kuo, A. S. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1182–1188 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5524–5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dekker, A. Driessen, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, J. Niehusmann, and M. Forst, “Ultrafast Kerr-induced all-optical wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using 1.55 mum femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8336–8346 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Panoiu, X. F. Chen, and R. M. Osgood., “Modulation instability in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3609–3611 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. W. Hsieh, X. G. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12380–12387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 160–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and A. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, O. M. Stafsudd, and B. Jalali, “Nonlinear absorption in silicon and the prospects of mid-infrared silicon Raman lasers,” Physica. Status. Solidi. a-Applications. and Materials Science 203, 38–40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-insulator waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(6), 320–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. R. A. Priem, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. K. Tsang, “Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7298–7303 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1991

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well wave-guides,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Alic, N.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N. C.

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well wave-guides,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asher, W.

Assefa, S.

Astar, W.

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. P. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, and R. M. Osgood, “All-Optical Format Conversion of NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK in a Silicon Nanowire Utilizing Either XPM or FWM and Resulting in a Receiver Sensitivity Gain of similar to 2.5 dB,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 234–249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. P. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, and R. M. Osgood, “Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowire,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12987–12999 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Bhat, R.

H. K. Tsang, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. Leblanc, N. C. Andreadakis, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum-well wave-guides,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3992–3994 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boggio, J. M. C.

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W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. P. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, and R. M. Osgood, “Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowire,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12987–12999 (2009).
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I. W. Hsieh, X. G. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12380–12387 (2006).
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H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
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J. D. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, “Optical solitons in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7682–7688 (2007).
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H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
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H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
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H. S. Rong, Y. H. Kuo, A. S. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1182–1188 (2006).
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X. P. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical properties of Si nanophotonic wire with h × w = 220 nm × 600 nm. Mode profile of the quasi-TE00 mode (a) at 1550 nm, (b) at 2200 nm. The dotted lines illustrate the boundary of the Si wire. The colormap/colorbar defines the normalized amplitude of the Ex field component. (c) Wavelength-dependent second-order dispersion (black curve) and effective nonlinearity parameter (blue curve). Inset: SEM cross-section of the Si nanophotonic wire.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup. (b) Si nanophotonic wire propagation loss across the telecommunication bands and the mid-IR region, and coupling loss between lensed fiber and SiOxNy mode converter in the mid-IR region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental power-dependent transmission spectra as a function of pump center wavelength: (a) 1775 nm, (b) 1988 nm, (c) 2200 nm, (d) 2250 nm. Center wavelengths of the input pulse are indicated by the dashed line. The power levels indicated by the labels within each panel refer to the peak power at the input of the Si nanophotonic wire. Spectra have been vertically offset relative to each other by 10 dB for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristics of the nonlinear power transmission through the Si nanophotonic wire at four different input wavelengths. (a) Output peak power versus input peak power. (b) Reciprocal transmission coefficient versus input peak power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of SPM fringe asymmetry and spectral blue-shift between 1775 nm and 2200 nm input wavelengths, using experimental and simulated data. (a) Experimental spectrum at 1775 nm wavelength with coupled peak power of 15.2 W. (b) Experimental spectrum at 2200 nm wavelength with peak coupled power of 5.7 W. (c) Simulated spectrum corresponding to conditions at 1775 nm. (d) Simulated spectrum corresponding to conditions at 2200 nm. The additional black dashed spectrum is a simulation performed for an input peak power condition of 15.2 W (not accessible in the experiments), in order to contrast the symmetric output at 2200 nm against that at 1775 nm in (c).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of the TPA Coefficient β TPA Extracted from Experimental Data in Fig. 4

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters Used in Pulse Propagation Simulations at Wavelengths of 1775 nm and 2200 nm

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