Abstract

We have studied transverse propagation of femtosecond pulse duration laser light through the microstructure of hexagonal lattice photonic crystal fibers. Our results provide insight in the role of the microstructure on the amount of optical power that reaches the core of the PCF, which is of particular importance for grating inscription applications. We developed a dedicated approach based on commercial FDTD software and defined a figure of merit, the transverse coupling efficiency, to evaluate the coupling process. We analyzed the propagation of femtosecond laser pulses to the core of a wide range of PCFs and studied the influence of the PCF orientation angle, the air hole pitch and air hole radius on the energy reaching the core. We have found that the transverse coupling efficiency can benefit from a dedicated design of the microstructured cladding and an accurate fiber orientation. We designed a dedicated PCF microstructure that enhances transverse coupling to the core at a wavelength of 800 nm.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Petrovic and T. Allsop, “Scattering of the laser writing beam in photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, K. Kalli, C. Koutsides, M. Komodromos, T. Nasilowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Point-by-point fiber Bragg grating inscription in free-standing step-index and photonic crystal fibers using near-IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1647–1649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wójcik, W. Urbańczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Napierała, T. Nasiłowski, E. Bereś-Pawlik, F. Berghmans, J. Wójcik, and H. Thienpont, “Extremely large-mode-area photonic crystal fibre with low bending loss,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15408–15418 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Point-by-point written fiber-Bragg gratings and their application in complex grating designs,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19844–19859 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Wang, H. Bartelt, M. Becker, S. Brueckner, J. Bergmann, J. Kobelke, and M. Rothhardt, “Fiber Bragg grating inscription in pure-silica and Ge-doped photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 1963–1968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pissadakis, M. Livitziis, and G. Tsibidis, “Investigation of the Bragg grating recording in all-silica, standard and microstructured optical fibres using 248 nm, 5 ps laser radiation,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Becker, J. Bergmann, S. Brückner, M. Franke, E. Lindner, M. W. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Fiber Bragg grating inscription combining DUV sub-picosecond laser pulses and two-beam interferometry,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19169–19178 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Brambilla, A. A. Fotiadi, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, “Two-photon photochemical long-period grating fabrication in pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2675–2677 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1170–1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

1999

1997

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

J. Petrovic and T. Allsop, “Scattering of the laser writing beam in photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anuszkiewicz, A.

Asatryan, A. A.

Bandyopadhyay, S.

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wójcik, W. Urbańczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, H. Bartelt, M. Becker, S. Brueckner, J. Bergmann, J. Kobelke, and M. Rothhardt, “Fiber Bragg grating inscription in pure-silica and Ge-doped photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 1963–1968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Becker, J. Bergmann, S. Brückner, M. Franke, E. Lindner, M. W. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Fiber Bragg grating inscription combining DUV sub-picosecond laser pulses and two-beam interferometry,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19169–19178 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wójcik, W. Urbańczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, H. Bartelt, M. Becker, S. Brueckner, J. Bergmann, J. Kobelke, and M. Rothhardt, “Fiber Bragg grating inscription in pure-silica and Ge-doped photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 1963–1968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Becker, J. Bergmann, S. Brückner, M. Franke, E. Lindner, M. W. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Fiber Bragg grating inscription combining DUV sub-picosecond laser pulses and two-beam interferometry,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19169–19178 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1170–1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beres-Pawlik, E.

Berghmans, F.

M. Napierała, T. Nasiłowski, E. Bereś-Pawlik, F. Berghmans, J. Wójcik, and H. Thienpont, “Extremely large-mode-area photonic crystal fibre with low bending loss,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15408–15418 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, K. Kalli, C. Koutsides, M. Komodromos, T. Nasilowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Point-by-point fiber Bragg grating inscription in free-standing step-index and photonic crystal fibers using near-IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1647–1649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wójcik, W. Urbańczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, J.

Birks, T. A.

Botten, L. C.

Bouwmans, G.

Brambilla, G.

Broeng, J.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brückner, S.

Brueckner, S.

Canning, J.

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chah, K.

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chojetzki, C.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cook, K.

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Waele, W.

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Degrieck, J.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1170–1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fotiadi, A. A.

Franke, M.

Geernaert, T.

T. Geernaert, K. Kalli, C. Koutsides, M. Komodromos, T. Nasilowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Point-by-point fiber Bragg grating inscription in free-standing step-index and photonic crystal fibers using near-IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1647–1649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wójcik, W. Urbańczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Smelser, S. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5377–5386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groothoff, N.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holdsworth, J.

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jovanovic, N.

Kakarantzas, G.

Kalli, K.

Kan, D. J.

Khrushchev, I.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1170–1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klimek, J.

Knight, J.

Kobelke, J.

Komodromos, M.

Koutsides, C.

Lindner, E.

Liu, X.

Livitziis, M.

S. Pissadakis, M. Livitziis, and G. Tsibidis, “Investigation of the Bragg grating recording in all-silica, standard and microstructured optical fibres using 248 nm, 5 ps laser radiation,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Lu, F.

Luyckx, G.

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Makara, M.

Marshall, G. D.

Martelli, C.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1170–1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martynkien, T.

Meltz, G.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mergo, P.

Mihailov, S.

Mihailov, S. J.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Napierala, M.

Nasilowski, T.

M. Napierała, T. Nasiłowski, E. Bereś-Pawlik, F. Berghmans, J. Wójcik, and H. Thienpont, “Extremely large-mode-area photonic crystal fibre with low bending loss,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15408–15418 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wójcik, W. Urbańczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, K. Kalli, C. Koutsides, M. Komodromos, T. Nasilowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Point-by-point fiber Bragg grating inscription in free-standing step-index and photonic crystal fibers using near-IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1647–1649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

Nikogosyan, D. N.

Olszewski, J.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Percival, R.

Petrovic, J.

J. Petrovic and T. Allsop, “Scattering of the laser writing beam in photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pissadakis, S.

S. Pissadakis, M. Livitziis, and G. Tsibidis, “Investigation of the Bragg grating recording in all-silica, standard and microstructured optical fibres using 248 nm, 5 ps laser radiation,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, A.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poturaj, K.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rothhardt, M.

Rothhardt, M. W.

Russell, P.

Russell, P. S.

Skorupski, K.

Slattery, S. A.

Smelser, C.

Smelser, C. W.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfeld, C.

Spälter, S.

Statkiewicz, G.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

Steel, M. J.

Stevenson, M.

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

Szczurowski, M. K.

Szpulak, M.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tarnowski, K.

Terryn, H.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wójcik, W. Urbańczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wójcik, W. Urbańczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, K. Kalli, C. Koutsides, M. Komodromos, T. Nasilowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Point-by-point fiber Bragg grating inscription in free-standing step-index and photonic crystal fibers using near-IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1647–1649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Napierała, T. Nasiłowski, E. Bereś-Pawlik, F. Berghmans, J. Wójcik, and H. Thienpont, “Extremely large-mode-area photonic crystal fibre with low bending loss,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15408–15418 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsibidis, G.

S. Pissadakis, M. Livitziis, and G. Tsibidis, “Investigation of the Bragg grating recording in all-silica, standard and microstructured optical fibres using 248 nm, 5 ps laser radiation,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

T. Geernaert, K. Kalli, C. Koutsides, M. Komodromos, T. Nasilowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Point-by-point fiber Bragg grating inscription in free-standing step-index and photonic crystal fibers using near-IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1647–1649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wójcik, W. Urbańczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Paepegem, W.

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Voet, E.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W.

Wang, Y.

Westbrook, P. S.

Williams, R. J.

Windeler, R. S.

Withford, M. J.

Wojcik, J.

T. Geernaert, K. Kalli, C. Koutsides, M. Komodromos, T. Nasilowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Point-by-point fiber Bragg grating inscription in free-standing step-index and photonic crystal fibers using near-IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1647–1649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation geometry in LUMERICAL FDTD and MATLAB post-processed data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Core field intensity dependence versus PCF ESM-12-01 orientation angle for transverse illumination with 125 fs length pulses at 267 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM pictures of the ESM-12-01 and our PCF used as a model for simulations [24]. The doped region can be seen as a light gray region in the center of microstructure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of Transverse coupling efficiency (TCE) dependence on orientation angle for ideal and imported SEM A1 at 800 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the Transverse Coupling Efficiency (TCE) on the orientation angle for the hexagonal lattice PCF with air hole pitch Λ of 3.46 µm and three values of air hole radius R at 800 nm. TCE calculations are done for a) doped and b) non-photosensitive PCF models.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Change of the TCE with the air hole pitch for the hexagonal lattice PCFs oriented at 30° for two different values of the filling factor at 800 nm. TCE calculations are done for a) doped and b) non-photosensitive PCF models.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Change of the TCE with the air hole radius for the hexagonal lattice PCFs at 30° (ΓM) orientation angle for two values of air hole pitch at 800 nm. TCE calculations are done for a) doped and b) non-photosensitive PCF models.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Illustration of optimized PCF with Gaussian beam and corresponding normalized intensity distribution in the core part when illuminated by 125 fs pulse at 800 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Still from a movie illustrating 125 fs Gaussian beam propagation through the optimized PCF at 800 nm (Media 1).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Statistical Data for Transverse Coupling Efficiency (TCE) Dependence on PCF Orientation Angle for Hexagonal Lattice PCF with Six Air Hole Rows

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