Abstract

In this work, we demonstrate experimentally the use of an array of gold nanodisks on functionalized silicon for chemosensing purposes. The metallic nanostructures are designed to display a very strong plasmonic resonance in the infrared regime, which results in highly sensitive sensing. Unlike usual experiments which are based on the functionalization of the metal surface, we functionalized here the silicon substrate. This silicon surface was modified chemically by buildup of an organosilane self-assembled monolayer (SAM) containing isocyanate as functional group. These groups allow for an easy surface regeneration by simple heating, thanks to the thermally reversible interaction isocyanate-analyte, which allows the cyclic use of the sensor. The technique showed a high sensitivity to surface binding events in gas and allowed the surface regeneration by heating of the sensor at 150°C. A relative wavelength shift ∆λmax0 = 0.027 was obtained when the saturation level was reached.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “Determination of environmental organic pollutants with a portable optical immunosensor,” Talanta 69(2), 359–364 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Q. Yu, S. Chen, A. D. Taylor, J. Homola, B. Hock, and S. Jiang, “Detection of low-molecular-weight domoic acid using surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 193–201 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. X. Cui, F. Yang, Y. Sha, and X. Yang, “Real-time immunoassay of ferritin using surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Talanta 60(1), 53–61 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

R. Gradess, R. Abargues, A. Habbou, J. Canet-Ferrer, E. Pedrueza, A. Russell, J. L. Valdés, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Ag-PVA nanocomposites thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(48), 9233–9240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, Y. Liu, Z. Ke, and J. Yin, “Preparation of a blocked isocyanate compound and its grafting onto styrene-b-(ethylene-co-1-buteno)-b-styrene triblock copolymer,” Eur. Polym. J. 45(1), 191–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 158–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Shankaran, K. Matsumoto, K. Toko, and N. Miura, “Development and comparison of two immunoassays for the detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 71–79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “Determination of environmental organic pollutants with a portable optical immunosensor,” Talanta 69(2), 359–364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Q. Yu, S. Chen, A. D. Taylor, J. Homola, B. Hock, and S. Jiang, “Detection of low-molecular-weight domoic acid using surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 193–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, S. J. Sim, S. M. Cho, and J. Lee, “Characterization of a self-assembled monolayer of thiol on a gold surface and the fabrication of a biosensor chip based on surface plasmon resonance for detecting anti-GAD antibody,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1422–1427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Senaratne, L. Andruzzi, and C. K. Ober, “Self-assembled monolayers and polymer brushes in biotechnology: current applications and future perspectives,” Biomacromolecules 6(5), 2427–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

S. S. Mark, N. Sandhyarani, C. Zhu, C. Campagnolo, and C. A. Batt, “Dendrimer-functionalized self-assembled monolayers as a surface plasmon resonance sensor surface,” Langmuir 20(16), 6808–6817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, “Near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensing on a silicon platform,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(2-3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. S. Spencer and G. L. Nyberg, “Adsorption of silane and methylsilane on gold surfaces,” Surf. Sci. 573(2), 151–168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

X. Cui, F. Yang, Y. Sha, and X. Yang, “Real-time immunoassay of ferritin using surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Talanta 60(1), 53–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of metallic nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54(1), 331–366 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. Kato, C. M. Dooling, K. Shinbo, T. H. Richardson, F. Kaneko, R. Tregonning, M. O. Vysotsky, and C. Hunter, “Surface plasmon resonance properties and gas response in porphyrin Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Eng. Aspects 198–200, 811–816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

K. Suyama, H. Iriyama, M. Shirai, and M. Tsunooka, “Curing systems using photolysis of carbamoyloxyimino groups and thermally regenerated isocyanate groups,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14(2), 155–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Cosnier, “Biomolecule immobilization on electrode surfaces by entrapment or attachment to electrochemically polymerized films. A review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 14(5), 443–456 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

N. Miura, K. Ogata, G. Sakai, T. Uda, and N. Yamazoe, “Detection of morphine in ppb range by using SPR (Surface-plasmon resonance) immunosensor,” Chem. Lett. 26(8), 713–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abargues, R.

R. Gradess, R. Abargues, A. Habbou, J. Canet-Ferrer, E. Pedrueza, A. Russell, J. L. Valdés, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Ag-PVA nanocomposites thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(48), 9233–9240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andruzzi, L.

W. Senaratne, L. Andruzzi, and C. K. Ober, “Self-assembled monolayers and polymer brushes in biotechnology: current applications and future perspectives,” Biomacromolecules 6(5), 2427–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basilio, L. I.

Batt, C. A.

S. S. Mark, N. Sandhyarani, C. Zhu, C. Campagnolo, and C. A. Batt, “Dendrimer-functionalized self-assembled monolayers as a surface plasmon resonance sensor surface,” Langmuir 20(16), 6808–6817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhalla, V.

V. Bhalla, S. Carrara, C. Stagni, and B. Samorì, “Chip cleaning and regeneration for electrochemical sensor arrays,” Thin Solid Films 518(12), 3360–3366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

Brener, I.

Brolo, A. G.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Calle, A.

E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “Determination of environmental organic pollutants with a portable optical immunosensor,” Talanta 69(2), 359–364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campagnolo, C.

S. S. Mark, N. Sandhyarani, C. Zhu, C. Campagnolo, and C. A. Batt, “Dendrimer-functionalized self-assembled monolayers as a surface plasmon resonance sensor surface,” Langmuir 20(16), 6808–6817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canet-Ferrer, J.

R. Gradess, R. Abargues, A. Habbou, J. Canet-Ferrer, E. Pedrueza, A. Russell, J. L. Valdés, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Ag-PVA nanocomposites thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(48), 9233–9240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carrara, S.

V. Bhalla, S. Carrara, C. Stagni, and B. Samorì, “Chip cleaning and regeneration for electrochemical sensor arrays,” Thin Solid Films 518(12), 3360–3366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Q. Yu, S. Chen, A. D. Taylor, J. Homola, B. Hock, and S. Jiang, “Detection of low-molecular-weight domoic acid using surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 193–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. M.

J. W. Lee, S. J. Sim, S. M. Cho, and J. Lee, “Characterization of a self-assembled monolayer of thiol on a gold surface and the fabrication of a biosensor chip based on surface plasmon resonance for detecting anti-GAD antibody,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1422–1427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, K. R.

Cosnier, S.

S. Cosnier, “Biomolecule immobilization on electrode surfaces by entrapment or attachment to electrochemically polymerized films. A review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 14(5), 443–456 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, X.

X. Cui, F. Yang, Y. Sha, and X. Yang, “Real-time immunoassay of ferritin using surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Talanta 60(1), 53–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dooling, C. M.

K. Kato, C. M. Dooling, K. Shinbo, T. H. Richardson, F. Kaneko, R. Tregonning, M. O. Vysotsky, and C. Hunter, “Surface plasmon resonance properties and gas response in porphyrin Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Eng. Aspects 198–200, 811–816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of metallic nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54(1), 331–366 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobi, K. V.

D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 158–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gradess, R.

R. Gradess, R. Abargues, A. Habbou, J. Canet-Ferrer, E. Pedrueza, A. Russell, J. L. Valdés, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Ag-PVA nanocomposites thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(48), 9233–9240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Habbou, A.

R. Gradess, R. Abargues, A. Habbou, J. Canet-Ferrer, E. Pedrueza, A. Russell, J. L. Valdés, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Ag-PVA nanocomposites thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(48), 9233–9240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haes, A. J.

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hock, B.

Q. Yu, S. Chen, A. D. Taylor, J. Homola, B. Hock, and S. Jiang, “Detection of low-molecular-weight domoic acid using surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 193–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

Q. Yu, S. Chen, A. D. Taylor, J. Homola, B. Hock, and S. Jiang, “Detection of low-molecular-weight domoic acid using surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 193–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, C.

K. Kato, C. M. Dooling, K. Shinbo, T. H. Richardson, F. Kaneko, R. Tregonning, M. O. Vysotsky, and C. Hunter, “Surface plasmon resonance properties and gas response in porphyrin Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Eng. Aspects 198–200, 811–816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iriyama, H.

K. Suyama, H. Iriyama, M. Shirai, and M. Tsunooka, “Curing systems using photolysis of carbamoyloxyimino groups and thermally regenerated isocyanate groups,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14(2), 155–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Q. Yu, S. Chen, A. D. Taylor, J. Homola, B. Hock, and S. Jiang, “Detection of low-molecular-weight domoic acid using surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 193–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, “Near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensing on a silicon platform,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(2-3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, F.

K. Kato, C. M. Dooling, K. Shinbo, T. H. Richardson, F. Kaneko, R. Tregonning, M. O. Vysotsky, and C. Hunter, “Surface plasmon resonance properties and gas response in porphyrin Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Eng. Aspects 198–200, 811–816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, C. M. Dooling, K. Shinbo, T. H. Richardson, F. Kaneko, R. Tregonning, M. O. Vysotsky, and C. Hunter, “Surface plasmon resonance properties and gas response in porphyrin Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Eng. Aspects 198–200, 811–816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kavanagh, K. L.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ke, Z.

L. Yin, Y. Liu, Z. Ke, and J. Yin, “Preparation of a blocked isocyanate compound and its grafting onto styrene-b-(ethylene-co-1-buteno)-b-styrene triblock copolymer,” Eur. Polym. J. 45(1), 191–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lechuga, L. M.

E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “Determination of environmental organic pollutants with a portable optical immunosensor,” Talanta 69(2), 359–364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. W. Lee, S. J. Sim, S. M. Cho, and J. Lee, “Characterization of a self-assembled monolayer of thiol on a gold surface and the fabrication of a biosensor chip based on surface plasmon resonance for detecting anti-GAD antibody,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1422–1427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Lee, S. J. Sim, S. M. Cho, and J. Lee, “Characterization of a self-assembled monolayer of thiol on a gold surface and the fabrication of a biosensor chip based on surface plasmon resonance for detecting anti-GAD antibody,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1422–1427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of metallic nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54(1), 331–366 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

L. Yin, Y. Liu, Z. Ke, and J. Yin, “Preparation of a blocked isocyanate compound and its grafting onto styrene-b-(ethylene-co-1-buteno)-b-styrene triblock copolymer,” Eur. Polym. J. 45(1), 191–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luong, J. H. T.

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, “Near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensing on a silicon platform,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(2-3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malinsky, M. D.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mark, S. S.

S. S. Mark, N. Sandhyarani, C. Zhu, C. Campagnolo, and C. A. Batt, “Dendrimer-functionalized self-assembled monolayers as a surface plasmon resonance sensor surface,” Langmuir 20(16), 6808–6817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martínez-Pastor, J. P.

R. Gradess, R. Abargues, A. Habbou, J. Canet-Ferrer, E. Pedrueza, A. Russell, J. L. Valdés, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Ag-PVA nanocomposites thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(48), 9233–9240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, K.

D. R. Shankaran, K. Matsumoto, K. Toko, and N. Miura, “Development and comparison of two immunoassays for the detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 71–79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mauriz, E.

E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “Determination of environmental organic pollutants with a portable optical immunosensor,” Talanta 69(2), 359–364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, M.

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, “Near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensing on a silicon platform,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(2-3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miura, N.

D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 158–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Shankaran, K. Matsumoto, K. Toko, and N. Miura, “Development and comparison of two immunoassays for the detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 71–79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Miura, K. Ogata, G. Sakai, T. Uda, and N. Yamazoe, “Detection of morphine in ppb range by using SPR (Surface-plasmon resonance) immunosensor,” Chem. Lett. 26(8), 713–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Montoya, A.

E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “Determination of environmental organic pollutants with a portable optical immunosensor,” Talanta 69(2), 359–364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nyberg, G. L.

M. J. S. Spencer and G. L. Nyberg, “Adsorption of silane and methylsilane on gold surfaces,” Surf. Sci. 573(2), 151–168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ober, C. K.

W. Senaratne, L. Andruzzi, and C. K. Ober, “Self-assembled monolayers and polymer brushes in biotechnology: current applications and future perspectives,” Biomacromolecules 6(5), 2427–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogata, K.

N. Miura, K. Ogata, G. Sakai, T. Uda, and N. Yamazoe, “Detection of morphine in ppb range by using SPR (Surface-plasmon resonance) immunosensor,” Chem. Lett. 26(8), 713–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Patskovsky, S.

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, “Near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensing on a silicon platform,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(2-3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pedrueza, E.

R. Gradess, R. Abargues, A. Habbou, J. Canet-Ferrer, E. Pedrueza, A. Russell, J. L. Valdés, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Ag-PVA nanocomposites thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(48), 9233–9240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peters, D. W.

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, T. H.

K. Kato, C. M. Dooling, K. Shinbo, T. H. Richardson, F. Kaneko, R. Tregonning, M. O. Vysotsky, and C. Hunter, “Surface plasmon resonance properties and gas response in porphyrin Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Eng. Aspects 198–200, 811–816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, A.

R. Gradess, R. Abargues, A. Habbou, J. Canet-Ferrer, E. Pedrueza, A. Russell, J. L. Valdés, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Ag-PVA nanocomposites thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(48), 9233–9240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, G.

N. Miura, K. Ogata, G. Sakai, T. Uda, and N. Yamazoe, “Detection of morphine in ppb range by using SPR (Surface-plasmon resonance) immunosensor,” Chem. Lett. 26(8), 713–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Samorì, B.

V. Bhalla, S. Carrara, C. Stagni, and B. Samorì, “Chip cleaning and regeneration for electrochemical sensor arrays,” Thin Solid Films 518(12), 3360–3366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sandhyarani, N.

S. S. Mark, N. Sandhyarani, C. Zhu, C. Campagnolo, and C. A. Batt, “Dendrimer-functionalized self-assembled monolayers as a surface plasmon resonance sensor surface,” Langmuir 20(16), 6808–6817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Senaratne, W.

W. Senaratne, L. Andruzzi, and C. K. Ober, “Self-assembled monolayers and polymer brushes in biotechnology: current applications and future perspectives,” Biomacromolecules 6(5), 2427–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sha, Y.

X. Cui, F. Yang, Y. Sha, and X. Yang, “Real-time immunoassay of ferritin using surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Talanta 60(1), 53–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shankaran, D. R.

D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 158–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Shankaran, K. Matsumoto, K. Toko, and N. Miura, “Development and comparison of two immunoassays for the detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 71–79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, D. J.

Shinbo, K.

K. Kato, C. M. Dooling, K. Shinbo, T. H. Richardson, F. Kaneko, R. Tregonning, M. O. Vysotsky, and C. Hunter, “Surface plasmon resonance properties and gas response in porphyrin Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Eng. Aspects 198–200, 811–816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shirai, M.

K. Suyama, H. Iriyama, M. Shirai, and M. Tsunooka, “Curing systems using photolysis of carbamoyloxyimino groups and thermally regenerated isocyanate groups,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14(2), 155–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sim, S. J.

J. W. Lee, S. J. Sim, S. M. Cho, and J. Lee, “Characterization of a self-assembled monolayer of thiol on a gold surface and the fabrication of a biosensor chip based on surface plasmon resonance for detecting anti-GAD antibody,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1422–1427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, M. B.

Spencer, M. J. S.

M. J. S. Spencer and G. L. Nyberg, “Adsorption of silane and methylsilane on gold surfaces,” Surf. Sci. 573(2), 151–168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stagni, C.

V. Bhalla, S. Carrara, C. Stagni, and B. Samorì, “Chip cleaning and regeneration for electrochemical sensor arrays,” Thin Solid Films 518(12), 3360–3366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suyama, K.

K. Suyama, H. Iriyama, M. Shirai, and M. Tsunooka, “Curing systems using photolysis of carbamoyloxyimino groups and thermally regenerated isocyanate groups,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14(2), 155–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. D.

Q. Yu, S. Chen, A. D. Taylor, J. Homola, B. Hock, and S. Jiang, “Detection of low-molecular-weight domoic acid using surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 193–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toko, K.

D. R. Shankaran, K. Matsumoto, K. Toko, and N. Miura, “Development and comparison of two immunoassays for the detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 71–79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tregonning, R.

K. Kato, C. M. Dooling, K. Shinbo, T. H. Richardson, F. Kaneko, R. Tregonning, M. O. Vysotsky, and C. Hunter, “Surface plasmon resonance properties and gas response in porphyrin Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Eng. Aspects 198–200, 811–816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsunooka, M.

K. Suyama, H. Iriyama, M. Shirai, and M. Tsunooka, “Curing systems using photolysis of carbamoyloxyimino groups and thermally regenerated isocyanate groups,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14(2), 155–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Uda, T.

N. Miura, K. Ogata, G. Sakai, T. Uda, and N. Yamazoe, “Detection of morphine in ppb range by using SPR (Surface-plasmon resonance) immunosensor,” Chem. Lett. 26(8), 713–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valdés, J. L.

R. Gradess, R. Abargues, A. Habbou, J. Canet-Ferrer, E. Pedrueza, A. Russell, J. L. Valdés, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Ag-PVA nanocomposites thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(48), 9233–9240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vysotsky, M. O.

K. Kato, C. M. Dooling, K. Shinbo, T. H. Richardson, F. Kaneko, R. Tregonning, M. O. Vysotsky, and C. Hunter, “Surface plasmon resonance properties and gas response in porphyrin Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Eng. Aspects 198–200, 811–816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Warne, L. K.

Willets, K. A.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamazoe, N.

N. Miura, K. Ogata, G. Sakai, T. Uda, and N. Yamazoe, “Detection of morphine in ppb range by using SPR (Surface-plasmon resonance) immunosensor,” Chem. Lett. 26(8), 713–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

X. Cui, F. Yang, Y. Sha, and X. Yang, “Real-time immunoassay of ferritin using surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Talanta 60(1), 53–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Cui, F. Yang, Y. Sha, and X. Yang, “Real-time immunoassay of ferritin using surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Talanta 60(1), 53–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

L. Yin, Y. Liu, Z. Ke, and J. Yin, “Preparation of a blocked isocyanate compound and its grafting onto styrene-b-(ethylene-co-1-buteno)-b-styrene triblock copolymer,” Eur. Polym. J. 45(1), 191–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, Y. Liu, Z. Ke, and J. Yin, “Preparation of a blocked isocyanate compound and its grafting onto styrene-b-(ethylene-co-1-buteno)-b-styrene triblock copolymer,” Eur. Polym. J. 45(1), 191–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yonzon, C. R.

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Q. Yu, S. Chen, A. D. Taylor, J. Homola, B. Hock, and S. Jiang, “Detection of low-molecular-weight domoic acid using surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 193–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

S. S. Mark, N. Sandhyarani, C. Zhu, C. Campagnolo, and C. A. Batt, “Dendrimer-functionalized self-assembled monolayers as a surface plasmon resonance sensor surface,” Langmuir 20(16), 6808–6817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (2)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of metallic nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54(1), 331–366 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biomacromolecules (1)

W. Senaratne, L. Andruzzi, and C. K. Ober, “Self-assembled monolayers and polymer brushes in biotechnology: current applications and future perspectives,” Biomacromolecules 6(5), 2427–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

S. Cosnier, “Biomolecule immobilization on electrode surfaces by entrapment or attachment to electrochemically polymerized films. A review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 14(5), 443–456 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Lee, S. J. Sim, S. M. Cho, and J. Lee, “Characterization of a self-assembled monolayer of thiol on a gold surface and the fabrication of a biosensor chip based on surface plasmon resonance for detecting anti-GAD antibody,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(7), 1422–1427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Lett. (1)

N. Miura, K. Ogata, G. Sakai, T. Uda, and N. Yamazoe, “Detection of morphine in ppb range by using SPR (Surface-plasmon resonance) immunosensor,” Chem. Lett. 26(8), 713–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng. Aspects (1)

K. Kato, C. M. Dooling, K. Shinbo, T. H. Richardson, F. Kaneko, R. Tregonning, M. O. Vysotsky, and C. Hunter, “Surface plasmon resonance properties and gas response in porphyrin Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Eng. Aspects 198–200, 811–816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Polym. J. (1)

L. Yin, Y. Liu, Z. Ke, and J. Yin, “Preparation of a blocked isocyanate compound and its grafting onto styrene-b-(ethylene-co-1-buteno)-b-styrene triblock copolymer,” Eur. Polym. J. 45(1), 191–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

R. Gradess, R. Abargues, A. Habbou, J. Canet-Ferrer, E. Pedrueza, A. Russell, J. L. Valdés, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Ag-PVA nanocomposites thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(48), 9233–9240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Suyama, H. Iriyama, M. Shirai, and M. Tsunooka, “Curing systems using photolysis of carbamoyloxyimino groups and thermally regenerated isocyanate groups,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14(2), 155–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

S. S. Mark, N. Sandhyarani, C. Zhu, C. Campagnolo, and C. A. Batt, “Dendrimer-functionalized self-assembled monolayers as a surface plasmon resonance sensor surface,” Langmuir 20(16), 6808–6817 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanomedicine (Lond) (1)

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (4)

Q. Yu, S. Chen, A. D. Taylor, J. Homola, B. Hock, and S. Jiang, “Detection of low-molecular-weight domoic acid using surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 193–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, “Near-infrared surface plasmon resonance sensing on a silicon platform,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 97(2-3), 409–414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 158–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Shankaran, K. Matsumoto, K. Toko, and N. Miura, “Development and comparison of two immunoassays for the detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 71–79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

M. J. S. Spencer and G. L. Nyberg, “Adsorption of silane and methylsilane on gold surfaces,” Surf. Sci. 573(2), 151–168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talanta (2)

E. Mauriz, A. Calle, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “Determination of environmental organic pollutants with a portable optical immunosensor,” Talanta 69(2), 359–364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Cui, F. Yang, Y. Sha, and X. Yang, “Real-time immunoassay of ferritin using surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Talanta 60(1), 53–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

V. Bhalla, S. Carrara, C. Stagni, and B. Samorì, “Chip cleaning and regeneration for electrochemical sensor arrays,” Thin Solid Films 518(12), 3360–3366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Geometric depiction of four gold nanodisks arranged in a square array on a silicon substrate. (b) Simulated and measured power transmission spectra normalized to the transmittivity of the substrate (c) Top and side views of the simulated electric field magnitude (color) and electric current density inside the metal (arrows) for the designed nanodisks at their resonance frequency, excited with normal incident light whose electric field is polarized along the x-direction. Side view uses a logarithmic scale in the field magnitude. The dashed line in each view indicates the cutplane shown in the other view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the fabricated sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured IR transmission spectra before and after chemical modification of the silicon surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission spectra at different exposure times to ethylenediamine vapour. (b) Saturation curve showing the resonance shift as a function of exposure time, and fitting to the Langmuir model. The spectrum at 45 min is not shown for the sake of clarity

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra after the functionalization of the silicon surface (black curve), after sensing of ethylenediamine (red curve) and after heating at 150°C (dashed curve). Note that the power transmission levels differs from previous results due to the sample being from a different fabrication run.

Metrics