Abstract

This study demonstrates a new approach for evaluating the properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) conducting glass and identifying defects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). A swept-source OCT system was implemented to scan the ITO conducting glass to enable two-dimensional or three-dimensional imaging. With OCT scanning, the defects can be clearly identified at various depths. Several parameters in addition to morphological information can be estimated simultaneously, including the thickness of the glass substrate, the refractive index, reflection coefficient, and transmission coefficient, all of which can be used to evaluate the quality of ITO conducting glass. This study developed a modified method for evaluating the refractive index of glass substrates without having to perform multiple scans as well as a segmentation algorithm to separate the interfaces. The results show the potential of OCT as an imaging tool for the inspection of defects in ITO conducting glass.

© 2011 OSA

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

B.-S. Chiou and J.-H. Tsai, “B. S. Chiou, J. H. Tsai, “Antireflection coating for ITO films deposited on glass substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 10(7), 491–495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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1995

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20(21), 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kido, N. Kishi, and H. Takahashi, “Optical charge-sensing method for testing and characterizing thin-film transistor arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(4), 993–1001 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

J. Manifacier, “Thin metallic oxides as transparent conductors,” Thin Solid Films 90(3), 297–308 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Akiba, M.

Araki, T.

Aretz, H. T.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, S.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20(21), 2258–2260 (1995).
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Brezinski, M. E.

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Chan, K. P.

Chang, C. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Chen, H. M.

Chen, T.

Chiang, C. P.

Chiou, B.-S.

B.-S. Chiou and J.-H. Tsai, “B. S. Chiou, J. H. Tsai, “Antireflection coating for ITO films deposited on glass substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 10(7), 491–495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choma, M.

Chong, C.

de Boer, J.

Duker, J.

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Flotte, T.

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Fujimoto, J. G.

Ghim, Y. S.

Gorczynska, I.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haruna, M.

Hashimoto, M.

Hee, M. R.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20(21), 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hensick, T.

Hirai, A.

Hitzenberger, C.

Hong, Y.

Hori, Y.

Houser, S. L.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, I. J.

C. W. Lu, I. J. Hsu, H. C. Wang, M. T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, and M. L. Yang, “Application of optical coherence tomography to monitoring the subsurface morphology of archaic jades,” IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan 301, 308 (2003).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Isenberg, G.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J.

Jang, I. K.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J. Y.

Kauffman, C. R.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khandekar, N.

Kido, T.

T. Kido, N. Kishi, and H. Takahashi, “Optical charge-sensing method for testing and characterizing thin-film transistor arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(4), 993–1001 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. J.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. W.

Kishi, N.

T. Kido, N. Kishi, and H. Takahashi, “Optical charge-sensing method for testing and characterizing thin-film transistor arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(4), 993–1001 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.

Kowalczyk, A.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, C. K.

Lee, H. C.

Leitgeb, R.

Lie, H.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C. W.

C. W. Lu, I. J. Hsu, H. C. Wang, M. T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, and M. L. Yang, “Application of optical coherence tomography to monitoring the subsurface morphology of archaic jades,” IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan 301, 308 (2003).

Madjarova, V.

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Manifacier, J.

J. Manifacier, “Thin metallic oxides as transparent conductors,” Thin Solid Films 90(3), 297–308 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, H.

Matsumoto, H.

Matsumoto, M.

Mitsuyama, T.

Miura, M.

Morosawa, A.

Na, J.

Nassif, N.

Ohmi, M.

Pan, Y.

Park, B.

Pierce, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

Rollins, A. M.

Sakai, S.

Sakai, T.

Sarunic, M.

Schlendorf, K. H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

Southern, J. F.

Spronk, R.

Srinivasan, V.

Stenger, J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugawara, T.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajiri, H.

Takahashi, H.

T. Kido, N. Kishi, and H. Takahashi, “Optical charge-sensing method for testing and characterizing thin-film transistor arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(4), 993–1001 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takai, M.

O. Yavas and M. Takai, “High-speed maskless laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2558–2560 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20(21), 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, J.-H.

B.-S. Chiou and J.-H. Tsai, “B. S. Chiou, J. H. Tsai, “Antireflection coating for ITO films deposited on glass substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 10(7), 491–495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. T.

Tsai, M. T.

C. W. Lu, I. J. Hsu, H. C. Wang, M. T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, and M. L. Yang, “Application of optical coherence tomography to monitoring the subsurface morphology of archaic jades,” IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan 301, 308 (2003).

Wang, H. C.

C. W. Lu, I. J. Hsu, H. C. Wang, M. T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, and M. L. Yang, “Application of optical coherence tomography to monitoring the subsurface morphology of archaic jades,” IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan 301, 308 (2003).

Wang, Y. M.

Willis, J. E.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolohojian, S.

Yabushita, H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.

Yang, C. C.

Yang, C. C.

C. W. Lu, I. J. Hsu, H. C. Wang, M. T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, and M. L. Yang, “Application of optical coherence tomography to monitoring the subsurface morphology of archaic jades,” IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan 301, 308 (2003).

Yang, M. L.

C. W. Lu, I. J. Hsu, H. C. Wang, M. T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, and M. L. Yang, “Application of optical coherence tomography to monitoring the subsurface morphology of archaic jades,” IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan 301, 308 (2003).

Yasui, T.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yavas, O.

O. Yavas and M. Takai, “High-speed maskless laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2558–2560 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. H.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

,โ€ IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan

C. W. Lu, I. J. Hsu, H. C. Wang, M. T. Tsai, C. C. Yang, and M. L. Yang, “Application of optical coherence tomography to monitoring the subsurface morphology of archaic jades,” IEEE, Taipei, Taiwan 301, 308 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Yavas and M. Takai, “High-speed maskless laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(18), 2558–2560 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Circulation

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107(1), 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Kido, N. Kishi, and H. Takahashi, “Optical charge-sensing method for testing and characterizing thin-film transistor arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(4), 993–1001 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the SS-OCT system used for scanning ITO conducting glass. SS: swept-source, PC: optical polarization controller, CIR: optical circulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of ITO conducting glass. (a) 3D OCT image of defective ITO conducting glass, (b) an en-face image of the top surface extracted from (a), (c) an en-face image of the bottom surface extracted from (a), and (d) image of normal ITO conducting glass obtained using a Microscope with a 10x objective lens. The scale bar in the figure represents 1 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

2D OCT images obtained from: (a) the reflective mirror; and (b) ITO conducting glass placed on the mirror. (c) A-mode scan profiles indicated by red dashed lines in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flow diagram of segmentation algorithm and data process for properties evaluation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Refractive index distribution of ITO conducting glass evaluated from 3D OCT data of Fig. 2(a). (b) Thickness distribution of glass substrate evaluated from 3D OCT data of Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distributions of reflection coefficient (a) and transmission coefficient (b) evaluated from 3D OCT data of Fig. 2(a).

Equations (3)

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O P D G = n k L
O S M = ( n โˆ’ n 0 ) k L
R = ( n โˆ’ 1 n + 1 ) 2 and T = 4 n ( n + 1 ) 2

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