Abstract

The generation of isolated attosecond hard x-ray pulse has been studied under the enhanced self-amplified spontaneous emission (ESASE) scheme with the density and energy modulation of an electron bunch. It is demonstrated in simulation that an isolated attosecond hard x-ray pulse of a high contrast ratio can be produced by adjusting a driver laser wavelength and the energy distribution of an electron bunch. An isolated attosecond pulse of ~146 attosecond full-width half-maximum (FWHM) at 0.1 nm wavelength is obtained with a saturation length of 34 meter for the electron beam parameters of Korean X-ray Free Electron laser.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Lee, Y. H. Cha, M. S. Shin, B. H. Kim, and D. E. Kim, “Relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering as attosecond x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(2), 026502 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. E. Kim, H. Lee, S. Chung, and K. Lee, “Attosecond keV x-ray pulses driven by Thomson scattering in a tight focus regime,” N. J. Phys. 11(6), 063050 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Y. Chung, M. Yoon, and D. E. Kim, “Generation of attosecond x-ray and gamma-ray via Compton backscattering,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7853–7861 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. A. Zholents and W. M. Fawley, “Proposal for intense attosecond radiation from an x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 224801 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. A. Zholents, “Method of an enhanced self-amplified spontaneous emission for x-ray free electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8(4), 040701 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. A. Zholents and M. S. Zolotorev, “Attosecond x-ray pulses produced by ultra short transverse slicing via laser electron beam interaction,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025005 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. A. Zholents and G. Penn, “Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8(5), 050704 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “A new technique to generate 100 GW-level attosecond x-ray pulses from the x-ray SASE FELs,” Opt. Commun. 239(1–3), 161–172 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “Terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology –key to generation of GW-level attosecond pulses in x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Commun. 237(1-3), 153–164 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Bonifacio, L. D. S. Souza, P. Pierini, and E. T. Scharlemann, “Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 296(1-3), 787–790 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. H. Yu, “Generation of intense uv radiation by subharmonically seeded single-pass free-electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 44(8), 5178–5193 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Wu and L. H. Yu, “Coherent hard x-ray production by cascading stages of high gain harmonic generation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 475(1-3), 104–111 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Allaria and G. De Ninno, “Soft-x-ray coherent radiation using a single-cascade free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 014801 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Stupakov, “Using the beam-echo effect for generation of short-wavelength radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(7), 074801 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. Xiang and G. Stupakov, “Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 030702 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Laser acceleration-focused laser http://www.slac.stanford.edu/~achao/LaserAccelerationFocussed.pdf .
  27. H.-S. Kang and S.-H. Nam, in Proceedings of the 32nd International FEL 2010 Conference (Malmo, Sweden, Aug. 23–27, 2010), http://fel2010.maxlab.lu.se/ .
  28. M. Borland, “Elegant: A flexible SSD-compliant code for accelerator simulation,” http://www.aps.anl.gov .
  29. S. Reiche, “GENESIS 1.3: a fully 3D time-dependent FEL simulation code Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 429, 243–248 (1999), http://pbpl.physics.ucla.edu/~reiche/ .

2009

D. E. Kim, H. Lee, S. Chung, and K. Lee, “Attosecond keV x-ray pulses driven by Thomson scattering in a tight focus regime,” N. J. Phys. 11(6), 063050 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chung, M. Yoon, and D. E. Kim, “Generation of attosecond x-ray and gamma-ray via Compton backscattering,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7853–7861 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stupakov, “Using the beam-echo effect for generation of short-wavelength radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(7), 074801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Xiang and G. Stupakov, “Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 030702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. A. Zholents and M. S. Zolotorev, “Attosecond x-ray pulses produced by ultra short transverse slicing via laser electron beam interaction,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Allaria and G. De Ninno, “Soft-x-ray coherent radiation using a single-cascade free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 014801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. A. Zholents and G. Penn, “Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8(5), 050704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zholents, “Method of an enhanced self-amplified spontaneous emission for x-ray free electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8(4), 040701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “A new technique to generate 100 GW-level attosecond x-ray pulses from the x-ray SASE FELs,” Opt. Commun. 239(1–3), 161–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “Terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology –key to generation of GW-level attosecond pulses in x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Commun. 237(1-3), 153–164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zholents and W. M. Fawley, “Proposal for intense attosecond radiation from an x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 224801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, Y. H. Cha, M. S. Shin, B. H. Kim, and D. E. Kim, “Relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering as attosecond x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(2), 026502 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu and L. H. Yu, “Coherent hard x-ray production by cascading stages of high gain harmonic generation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 475(1-3), 104–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1991

L. H. Yu, “Generation of intense uv radiation by subharmonically seeded single-pass free-electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 44(8), 5178–5193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

R. Bonifacio, L. D. S. Souza, P. Pierini, and E. T. Scharlemann, “Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 296(1-3), 787–790 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Allaria, E.

E. Allaria and G. De Ninno, “Soft-x-ray coherent radiation using a single-cascade free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 014801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonifacio, R.

R. Bonifacio, L. D. S. Souza, P. Pierini, and E. T. Scharlemann, “Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 296(1-3), 787–790 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cha, Y. H.

K. Lee, Y. H. Cha, M. S. Shin, B. H. Kim, and D. E. Kim, “Relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering as attosecond x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(2), 026502 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, S.

D. E. Kim, H. Lee, S. Chung, and K. Lee, “Attosecond keV x-ray pulses driven by Thomson scattering in a tight focus regime,” N. J. Phys. 11(6), 063050 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. Y.

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Ninno, G.

E. Allaria and G. De Ninno, “Soft-x-ray coherent radiation using a single-cascade free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 014801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fawley, W. M.

A. A. Zholents and W. M. Fawley, “Proposal for intense attosecond radiation from an x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 224801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbertson, S.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendel, S.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kabachnik, N. M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, S. D.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B. H.

K. Lee, Y. H. Cha, M. S. Shin, B. H. Kim, and D. E. Kim, “Relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering as attosecond x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(2), 026502 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. E.

S. Y. Chung, M. Yoon, and D. E. Kim, “Generation of attosecond x-ray and gamma-ray via Compton backscattering,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7853–7861 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Kim, H. Lee, S. Chung, and K. Lee, “Attosecond keV x-ray pulses driven by Thomson scattering in a tight focus regime,” N. J. Phys. 11(6), 063050 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, Y. H. Cha, M. S. Shin, B. H. Kim, and D. E. Kim, “Relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering as attosecond x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(2), 026502 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kompa, K. L.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

D. E. Kim, H. Lee, S. Chung, and K. Lee, “Attosecond keV x-ray pulses driven by Thomson scattering in a tight focus regime,” N. J. Phys. 11(6), 063050 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

D. E. Kim, H. Lee, S. Chung, and K. Lee, “Attosecond keV x-ray pulses driven by Thomson scattering in a tight focus regime,” N. J. Phys. 11(6), 063050 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, Y. H. Cha, M. S. Shin, B. H. Kim, and D. E. Kim, “Relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering as attosecond x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(2), 026502 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashiko, H.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, E.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papadogiannis, N. A.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penn, G.

A. A. Zholents and G. Penn, “Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8(5), 050704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pierini, P.

R. Bonifacio, L. D. S. Souza, P. Pierini, and E. T. Scharlemann, “Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 296(1-3), 787–790 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saldin, E. L.

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “Terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology –key to generation of GW-level attosecond pulses in x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Commun. 237(1-3), 153–164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “A new technique to generate 100 GW-level attosecond x-ray pulses from the x-ray SASE FELs,” Opt. Commun. 239(1–3), 161–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scharlemann, E. T.

R. Bonifacio, L. D. S. Souza, P. Pierini, and E. T. Scharlemann, “Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 296(1-3), 787–790 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schneidmiller, E. A.

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “Terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology –key to generation of GW-level attosecond pulses in x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Commun. 237(1-3), 153–164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “A new technique to generate 100 GW-level attosecond x-ray pulses from the x-ray SASE FELs,” Opt. Commun. 239(1–3), 161–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, H.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakya, M. M.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, M. S.

K. Lee, Y. H. Cha, M. S. Shin, B. H. Kim, and D. E. Kim, “Relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering as attosecond x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(2), 026502 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souza, L. D. S.

R. Bonifacio, L. D. S. Souza, P. Pierini, and E. T. Scharlemann, “Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 296(1-3), 787–790 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stupakov, G.

G. Stupakov, “Using the beam-echo effect for generation of short-wavelength radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(7), 074801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Xiang and G. Stupakov, “Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 030702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, T.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, K.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu and L. H. Yu, “Coherent hard x-ray production by cascading stages of high gain harmonic generation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 475(1-3), 104–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, D.

D. Xiang and G. Stupakov, “Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 030702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, M.

Yu, L. H.

J. Wu and L. H. Yu, “Coherent hard x-ray production by cascading stages of high gain harmonic generation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 475(1-3), 104–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Yu, “Generation of intense uv radiation by subharmonically seeded single-pass free-electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 44(8), 5178–5193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurkov, M. V.

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “Terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology –key to generation of GW-level attosecond pulses in x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Commun. 237(1-3), 153–164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “A new technique to generate 100 GW-level attosecond x-ray pulses from the x-ray SASE FELs,” Opt. Commun. 239(1–3), 161–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zholents, A. A.

A. A. Zholents and M. S. Zolotorev, “Attosecond x-ray pulses produced by ultra short transverse slicing via laser electron beam interaction,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zholents, “Method of an enhanced self-amplified spontaneous emission for x-ray free electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8(4), 040701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zholents and G. Penn, “Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8(5), 050704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zholents and W. M. Fawley, “Proposal for intense attosecond radiation from an x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 224801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolotorev, M. S.

A. A. Zholents and M. S. Zolotorev, “Attosecond x-ray pulses produced by ultra short transverse slicing via laser electron beam interaction,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys.

M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Hofstetter, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Kim, H. Lee, S. Chung, and K. Lee, “Attosecond keV x-ray pulses driven by Thomson scattering in a tight focus regime,” N. J. Phys. 11(6), 063050 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zholents and M. S. Zolotorev, “Attosecond x-ray pulses produced by ultra short transverse slicing via laser electron beam interaction,” N. J. Phys. 10(2), 025005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

J. Wu and L. H. Yu, “Coherent hard x-ray production by cascading stages of high gain harmonic generation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 475(1-3), 104–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Bonifacio, L. D. S. Souza, P. Pierini, and E. T. Scharlemann, “Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 296(1-3), 787–790 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “A new technique to generate 100 GW-level attosecond x-ray pulses from the x-ray SASE FELs,” Opt. Commun. 239(1–3), 161–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, “Terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology –key to generation of GW-level attosecond pulses in x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Commun. 237(1-3), 153–164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

L. H. Yu, “Generation of intense uv radiation by subharmonically seeded single-pass free-electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 44(8), 5178–5193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

K. Lee, Y. H. Cha, M. S. Shin, B. H. Kim, and D. E. Kim, “Relativistic nonlinear Thomson scattering as attosecond x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(2), 026502 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. A. Zholents and W. M. Fawley, “Proposal for intense attosecond radiation from an x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(22), 224801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Allaria and G. De Ninno, “Soft-x-ray coherent radiation using a single-cascade free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 014801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stupakov, “Using the beam-echo effect for generation of short-wavelength radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(7), 074801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams

D. Xiang and G. Stupakov, “Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12(3), 030702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zholents, “Method of an enhanced self-amplified spontaneous emission for x-ray free electron lasers,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8(4), 040701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zholents and G. Penn, “Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8(5), 050704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Laser acceleration-focused laser http://www.slac.stanford.edu/~achao/LaserAccelerationFocussed.pdf .

H.-S. Kang and S.-H. Nam, in Proceedings of the 32nd International FEL 2010 Conference (Malmo, Sweden, Aug. 23–27, 2010), http://fel2010.maxlab.lu.se/ .

M. Borland, “Elegant: A flexible SSD-compliant code for accelerator simulation,” http://www.aps.anl.gov .

S. Reiche, “GENESIS 1.3: a fully 3D time-dependent FEL simulation code Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 429, 243–248 (1999), http://pbpl.physics.ucla.edu/~reiche/ .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ESASE scheme for attosecond pulse generation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The longitudinal energy distribution [(a), (b), (c)] and instantaneous current profile (d), (e), (f)] of electron bunch along the bunch length before wiggler, after wiggler, and after chicane. The average current is 3 kA and the bunch length is ~20 μm. The simulation has been done with a laser power 13 GW, λL = 1200 nm and 7.5 fs FWHM pulse duration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The longitudinal energy distribution of electron bunch before wiggler; (b) - (f), the current profile after chicane for different laser parameter, (b) λL = 800 nm & τ (FWHM) = 5 fs, (c) λL = 1200 nm & τ (FWHM) = 5 fs, (d) λL = 1200 nm & τ (FWHM) = 7.5 fs, (e) λL = 1600 nm & τ (FWHM) = 10 fs, (f) λL = 2200 nm & τ (FWHM) = 14 fs. The laser power is 26 GW. The average current is 6 kA and total bunch length is ~12 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized horizontal emittance (black line) and vertical emittance (red line) of the electron bunch along the bunch length, (a) before wiggler, (b) after the chicane. The average current is 6 kA and total bunch length is ~12 μm. The laser power is 26 GW, λL = 1200 nm and 7.5 fs FWHM pulse duration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The longitudinal energy distribution [(a), (b), (c)] and instantaneous current profile [(d), (e), (f)] along the bunch length before wiggler, after wiggler, and after chicane. The average current is 4 kA and the bunch length is ~16 μm. The laser power is 13 GW, λL = 1200 nm and 7.5 fs FWHM pulse duration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The longitudinal energy distribution [(a), (b), (c)] and instantaneous current profile [(d), (e), (f)] along the bunch length before wiggler, after wiggler and after chicane. The average current of electron bunch is 6 kA and the bunch length is ~12 μm. The laser power is 13 GW, λL = 1200 nm and 7.5 fs FWHM pulse duration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Atto-second XFEL of 0.1 nm SASE output: (a) radiation power (averaged over beam slices) versus electron-bunch length at z = 34 meter (inset figure shows main peak power in a linear scale), (b) maximum radiation power due to main peak and two side peaks along undulator length.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ B y = B 0 cos k w z B z = 0

Metrics