Andrew M. Weiner, Editor-in-Chief
Jean-Charles Beugnot, Moshe Tur, Stella Foaleng Mafang, and Luc Thévenaz
Jean-Charles Beugnot,1 Moshe Tur,2 Stella Foaleng Mafang,1 and Luc Thévenaz1,*
1Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Institute of Electrical Engineering, STI-GR-SCI-LT Station 11, 1015 Lausanne, Switherland
2School of Electrical Engineering,Faculty of Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
A general analytic solution for Brillouin distributed sensing in optical fibers with sub-meter spatial resolution is obtained by solving the acoustical-optical coupled wave equations by a perturbation method. The Brillouin interaction of a triad of square pump pulses with a continuous signal is described, covering a wide range of pumping schemes. The model predicts how the acoustic wave, the signal amplitude and the optical gain spectral profile depend upon the pumping scheme. Sub-meter spatial resolution is demonstrated for bright-, dark- and π-shifted interrogating pump pulses, together with disturbing echo effects, and the results compare favorably with experimental data. This analytic solution is an excellent tool not only for optimizing the pumping scheme but also for post-processing the measured data to remove resolution degrading features.
© 2011 OSA
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(a) Brillouin amplifier configuration in a fiber segment of length Δz. (b) Pump coding waveform where α is purely real and β,γ are complex. The pump pulse duration T determines the spatial resolution.
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Signal gain at resonance in time domain for different pump waveforms, as calculated by plotting Eq. (6) with 2z0/Vg = 20ns, T = 5ns. (a) Intensity pulse (α = γ = 0 and β = 1); (b) bright pulse with a CW component (α = γ = 0.5 and β = 1); (c) dark pulse (α = γ = 1 and β = 0); and (d) π−phase pulse (α = γ = 1 and β = −1).
(a) Calculated (Eq. (A12) in (3)) 3D signal gain for a 1ns intensity pulse configuration (α = γ = 0, β = 1) and for an interacting fiber segment Δz = 1m, arbitrarily starting at t = 10ns; (b) Calculated Brillouin gain spectrum in a bright pulse configuration (β = 1) for different CW backgrounds at the end of the pulse: t = 11ns. The red line corresponds to a vertical cut through the spectrum of (a) at t = 11ns.
(a) 3D gain signal diagram in a dark pulse configuration (α = γ = 1, β = 0) as calculated from the full analytic solution of Eq. (A12) for an interacting fiber segment Δz = 1m and T = 1ns. The pulse enters the fiber at t = 10ns. The background Brillouin signal, introduced by the nonzero α or γ has been removed in this 3D diagram by subtraction and the polarity of the spectrum was inverted for clarity. (b) Time-domain plots of the Brillouin gain for different frequency detunings, Eq. (A12) (Here, the background Brillouin signal, mentioned above was not removed and the true polarity of the signal is shown). The observed oscillation frequencies are equal to the detuning values.
(a) Calculated (Eq. (A12) in (3)) 3D gain signal diagram for a 1ns π-phase pulse as a function of distance and frequency from a 1m long fiber segment. The plot has been vertically inverted and CW background were subtracted. (b) Calculated Brillouin gain spectrum at the end of pulse for three different pump pulse configuration for T = 1ns. Black line, π-phase β pulse (α = γ = 1, β = −1), red line, dark pulse (α = γ = 1, β = 0) and blue line, intensity pulse (α = γ = 0, β = 1). The dark-pulse spectrum and π-phase spectrum have been inverted for clarity. The π-phase shift technique provides the highest Brillouin signal.
(a) Experimental gain distribution with 0.5ns π−phase pump pulse. (b) Calculated gain distribution for the three concatentated fiber segments used in the experiment, as obtained from the full analytic solution in Eqs. (A10), (A12).
A distance-domain plot of the Brillouin gain at 10.73GHz, as obtained from the full analytic solution (average was not subtracted), see text for details.
(a) Experimental signal gain at 10.73 GHz and (b) signal spectrum at 10.7m. The blue and green lines correspond to acquired and processed data (Sec. 6), respectively. The scale is linear.
(a) Experimental gain distribution after filtering by the impulse response of Eq. (8).The scale is linear. (b) Effect of filtering on the frequency distribution along the fiber. The green and blue line corresponds to the original measured data and processed data, respectively.
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