Abstract

A general analytic solution for Brillouin distributed sensing in optical fibers with sub-meter spatial resolution is obtained by solving the acoustical-optical coupled wave equations by a perturbation method. The Brillouin interaction of a triad of square pump pulses with a continuous signal is described, covering a wide range of pumping schemes. The model predicts how the acoustic wave, the signal amplitude and the optical gain spectral profile depend upon the pumping scheme. Sub-meter spatial resolution is demonstrated for bright-, dark- and π-shifted interrogating pump pulses, together with disturbing echo effects, and the results compare favorably with experimental data. This analytic solution is an excellent tool not only for optimizing the pumping scheme but also for post-processing the measured data to remove resolution degrading features.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

L. Thévenaz, “Brillouin distributed time-domain sensing in optical fibers: state of the art and perspectives,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3(1), 13–21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Foaleng Mafang, M. Tur, J.-C. Beugnot, and L. Thévenaz, “High spatial and spectral resolution long-range sensing using Brillouin echoes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2993–3003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

L. Thevenaz and J.-C. Beugnot, ““General analytical model for distributed Brillouin sensors with sub-meter spatial resolution”, Proceedings of 20th International Conference of Fiber Sensors, (SPIE, Edinburgh, United Kingdom),” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75036A, 75036A-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2005 (5)

2004 (1)

R. Bernini, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, “Accuracy Enhancement in Brillouin Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors Using Signal Processing Techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1143–1145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

I. Alasaarela, P. Karioja, and H. Kopola, “Comparison of distributed fiber optic sensing methods for localisation and quantity information measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41(1), 181–189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1992 (1)

R. Chu, M. Kanefsky, and J. Falk, “Numerical study of transient stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4653–4658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Afshar, S.

Alasaarela, I.

I. Alasaarela, P. Karioja, and H. Kopola, “Comparison of distributed fiber optic sensing methods for localisation and quantity information measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41(1), 181–189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21616–21625 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21616 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, X. Bao, L. Chen, Y. Li, J. Snoddy, and X. Zhang, “Using pulse with a dark base to achieve high spatial and frequency resolution for the distributed Brillouin sensor,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2707–2709 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-33-22-2707 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21616–21625 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21616 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ravet, X. Bao, Y. Li, A. Yale, V. P. Kolosha, and L. Chen, “Signal processing technique for distributed Brillouin sensing at centimeter spatial resolution,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 3610–3618 (2007).

V. P. Kalosha, E. A. Ponomarev, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “How to obtain high spectral resolution of SBS-based distributed sensing by using nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2071–2078 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-14-6-2071 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Bao, Y. Wan, L. Zou, and L. Chen, “Effect of optical phase on a distributed Brillouin sensor at centimeter spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 827–829 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&uri=ol-30-8-827 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar, X. Bao, L. Zou, and L. Chen, “Brillouin spectral deconvolution method for centimeter spatial resolution and high-accuracy strain measurement in Brillouin sensors,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 705–707 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-7-705 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wan, S. Afshar, L. Zou, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Subpeaks in the Brillouin loss spectra of distributed fiber-optic sensors,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1099–1101 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-10-1099 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar, G. A. Ferrier, X. Bao, and L. Chen, “Effect of the finite extinction ratio of an electro-optic modulator on the performance of distributed probe-pump Brillouin sensor systems,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1418–1420 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-16-1418 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Brown, M. D. DeMerchant, X. Bao, and T. W. Bremner, “Spatial Resolution Enhancement of Brillouin-Distributed Sensor Using a Novel Signal Processing Method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(7), 1179–1183 (1999), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-17-7-1179 .
[CrossRef]

X. Bao, A. Brown, M. Demerchant, and J. Smith, “Characterization of the Brillouin-loss spectrum of single-mode fibers by use of very short (<10-ns) pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 510–512 (1999), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-24-8-510 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernini, R.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering modeling for high-resolution, time-domain distributed sensing,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10397–10407 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-16-10397 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “A Simple Technique for Reducing Pump Depletion in Long-Range Distributed Brillouin Fiber Sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 633–634 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Bernini, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, “Accuracy Enhancement in Brillouin Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors Using Signal Processing Techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1143–1145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beugnot, J.-C.

S. Foaleng Mafang, M. Tur, J.-C. Beugnot, and L. Thévenaz, “High spatial and spectral resolution long-range sensing using Brillouin echoes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2993–3003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Thevenaz and J.-C. Beugnot, ““General analytical model for distributed Brillouin sensors with sub-meter spatial resolution”, Proceedings of 20th International Conference of Fiber Sensors, (SPIE, Edinburgh, United Kingdom),” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75036A, 75036A-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bremner, T. W.

Brown, A.

Brown, A. W.

Brown, K.

Cambon, P.

Chen, L.

W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21616–21625 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21616 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, X. Bao, L. Chen, Y. Li, J. Snoddy, and X. Zhang, “Using pulse with a dark base to achieve high spatial and frequency resolution for the distributed Brillouin sensor,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2707–2709 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-33-22-2707 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21616–21625 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21616 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ravet, X. Bao, Y. Li, A. Yale, V. P. Kolosha, and L. Chen, “Signal processing technique for distributed Brillouin sensing at centimeter spatial resolution,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 3610–3618 (2007).

V. P. Kalosha, E. A. Ponomarev, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “How to obtain high spectral resolution of SBS-based distributed sensing by using nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2071–2078 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-14-6-2071 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Bao, Y. Wan, L. Zou, and L. Chen, “Effect of optical phase on a distributed Brillouin sensor at centimeter spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 827–829 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&uri=ol-30-8-827 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar, X. Bao, L. Zou, and L. Chen, “Brillouin spectral deconvolution method for centimeter spatial resolution and high-accuracy strain measurement in Brillouin sensors,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 705–707 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-7-705 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wan, S. Afshar, L. Zou, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Subpeaks in the Brillouin loss spectra of distributed fiber-optic sensors,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1099–1101 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-10-1099 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar, G. A. Ferrier, X. Bao, and L. Chen, “Effect of the finite extinction ratio of an electro-optic modulator on the performance of distributed probe-pump Brillouin sensor systems,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1418–1420 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-16-1418 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, R.

R. Chu, M. Kanefsky, and J. Falk, “Numerical study of transient stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4653–4658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Colpitts, B. G.

Demerchant, M.

DeMerchant, M. D.

Falk, J.

R. Chu, M. Kanefsky, and J. Falk, “Numerical study of transient stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4653–4658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ferrier, G. A.

Foaleng Mafang, S.

S. Foaleng Mafang, M. Tur, J.-C. Beugnot, and L. Thévenaz, “High spatial and spectral resolution long-range sensing using Brillouin echoes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2993–3003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Thévenaz and S. Foaleng Mafang, ““Distributed fiber sensing using echoes”, Proceedings of 19th International Conference of Fiber Sensors, (SPIE, Perth, WA, Australia),” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70043N, 70043N-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

Jenkins, R. B.

Joseph, R. I.

Kalosha, V. P.

Kanefsky, M.

R. Chu, M. Kanefsky, and J. Falk, “Numerical study of transient stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4653–4658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Karioja, P.

I. Alasaarela, P. Karioja, and H. Kopola, “Comparison of distributed fiber optic sensing methods for localisation and quantity information measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41(1), 181–189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kolosha, V. P.

F. Ravet, X. Bao, Y. Li, A. Yale, V. P. Kolosha, and L. Chen, “Signal processing technique for distributed Brillouin sensing at centimeter spatial resolution,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 3610–3618 (2007).

Kopola, H.

I. Alasaarela, P. Karioja, and H. Kopola, “Comparison of distributed fiber optic sensing methods for localisation and quantity information measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41(1), 181–189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Le Floch, S.

Lecoeuche, V.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Minardo, A.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering modeling for high-resolution, time-domain distributed sensing,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10397–10407 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-16-10397 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “A Simple Technique for Reducing Pump Depletion in Long-Range Distributed Brillouin Fiber Sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 633–634 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Bernini, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, “Accuracy Enhancement in Brillouin Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors Using Signal Processing Techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1143–1145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pannell, C. N.

Ponomarev, E. A.

Ravet, F.

F. Ravet, X. Bao, Y. Li, A. Yale, V. P. Kolosha, and L. Chen, “Signal processing technique for distributed Brillouin sensing at centimeter spatial resolution,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 3610–3618 (2007).

Smith, J.

Snoddy, J.

Sova, R.

Thevenaz, L.

L. Thevenaz and J.-C. Beugnot, ““General analytical model for distributed Brillouin sensors with sub-meter spatial resolution”, Proceedings of 20th International Conference of Fiber Sensors, (SPIE, Edinburgh, United Kingdom),” Proc. SPIE 7503, 75036A, 75036A-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

S. Foaleng Mafang, M. Tur, J.-C. Beugnot, and L. Thévenaz, “High spatial and spectral resolution long-range sensing using Brillouin echoes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2993–3003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Thévenaz, “Brillouin distributed time-domain sensing in optical fibers: state of the art and perspectives,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3(1), 13–21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Thévenaz and S. Foaleng Mafang, ““Distributed fiber sensing using echoes”, Proceedings of 19th International Conference of Fiber Sensors, (SPIE, Perth, WA, Australia),” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70043N, 70043N-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

Wan, Y.

Wang, F.

Webb, D. J.

Yale, A.

F. Ravet, X. Bao, Y. Li, A. Yale, V. P. Kolosha, and L. Chen, “Signal processing technique for distributed Brillouin sensing at centimeter spatial resolution,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 3610–3618 (2007).

Zeni, L.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering modeling for high-resolution, time-domain distributed sensing,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10397–10407 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-16-10397 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “A Simple Technique for Reducing Pump Depletion in Long-Range Distributed Brillouin Fiber Sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 633–634 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Bernini, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, “Accuracy Enhancement in Brillouin Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors Using Signal Processing Techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1143–1145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zou, L.

Front. Optoelectron. China (1)

L. Thévenaz, “Brillouin distributed time-domain sensing in optical fibers: state of the art and perspectives,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3(1), 13–21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, and K. Brown, “Distributed Sensor Based on Dark-Pulse Brillouin Scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1501–1503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Bernini, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, “Accuracy Enhancement in Brillouin Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors Using Signal Processing Techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1143–1145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

F. Ravet, X. Bao, Y. Li, A. Yale, V. P. Kolosha, and L. Chen, “Signal processing technique for distributed Brillouin sensing at centimeter spatial resolution,” IEEE Sens. J. 6, 3610–3618 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Chu, M. Kanefsky, and J. Falk, “Numerical study of transient stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4653–4658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “A Simple Technique for Reducing Pump Depletion in Long-Range Distributed Brillouin Fiber Sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 633–634 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

I. Alasaarela, P. Karioja, and H. Kopola, “Comparison of distributed fiber optic sensing methods for localisation and quantity information measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41(1), 181–189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Y. Wan, S. Afshar, L. Zou, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Subpeaks in the Brillouin loss spectra of distributed fiber-optic sensors,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1099–1101 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-10-1099 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar, G. A. Ferrier, X. Bao, and L. Chen, “Effect of the finite extinction ratio of an electro-optic modulator on the performance of distributed probe-pump Brillouin sensor systems,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1418–1420 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-16-1418 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Bao, Y. Wan, L. Zou, and L. Chen, “Effect of optical phase on a distributed Brillouin sensor at centimeter spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 827–829 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?&uri=ol-30-8-827 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, X. Bao, L. Chen, Y. Li, J. Snoddy, and X. Zhang, “Using pulse with a dark base to achieve high spatial and frequency resolution for the distributed Brillouin sensor,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2707–2709 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-33-22-2707 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar, X. Bao, L. Zou, and L. Chen, “Brillouin spectral deconvolution method for centimeter spatial resolution and high-accuracy strain measurement in Brillouin sensors,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 705–707 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-7-705 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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