Abstract

We succeeded in making a silver split-ring (SR) structure of approximately 130 nm in diameter on a glass substrate using a nanosphere lithography technique. The light scattering spectrum in visible near-infrared region of a single, isolated SR was measured using a microscope spectroscopy optical system. The electromagnetic field enhancement spectrum and distribution of the SR structure were simulated by the finite-difference time-domain method, and the excitation modes were clarified. The long wavelength peak in the light scattering spectra corresponded to a fundamental LC resonance mode excited by an incident electric field. It was shown that a single SR structure fabricated as abovementioned can operate as a resonator and generate a magnetic dipole.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced non-linear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  3. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3198–3200 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Okamoto, H. Koizumi, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and A. Otomo, “Nonlinear optical response of a CdS-coated Ag particle,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(6), 062003 (2008).
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2011 (1)

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1280–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Plasmonic split-ring resonators as dichroic nanophotonic DNA biosensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(48), 17615–17619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

T. Okamoto, H. Koizumi, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and A. Otomo, “Nonlinear optical response of a CdS-coated Ag particle,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(6), 062003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, “Fabrication of crescent-shaped optical antennas,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(17), 2131–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3198–3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced non-linear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bocchio, N.

H. Rochholz, N. Bocchio, and M. Kreiter, “Tuning resonances on crescent-shaped noble-metal nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Chettiar, U. K.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A. W.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Plasmonic split-ring resonators as dichroic nanophotonic DNA biosensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(48), 17615–17619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, J. M.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Plasmonic split-ring resonators as dichroic nanophotonic DNA biosensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(48), 17615–17619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cumming, D. R. S.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Plasmonic split-ring resonators as dichroic nanophotonic DNA biosensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(48), 17615–17619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De La Rue, R. M.

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Enkrich, C.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3198–3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, M.

T. Okamoto, H. Koizumi, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and A. Otomo, “Nonlinear optical response of a CdS-coated Ag particle,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(6), 062003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glidle, A.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Plasmonic split-ring resonators as dichroic nanophotonic DNA biosensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(48), 17615–17619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanarp, P.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haraguchi, M.

T. Okamoto, H. Koizumi, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and A. Otomo, “Nonlinear optical response of a CdS-coated Ag particle,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(6), 062003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced non-linear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, A.

Johnson, N. P.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Khokhar, A. Z.

Kildishev, A. V.

Klein, M. W.

Koizumi, H.

T. Okamoto, H. Koizumi, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and A. Otomo, “Nonlinear optical response of a CdS-coated Ag particle,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(6), 062003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, Th.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreiter, M.

H. Rochholz, N. Bocchio, and M. Kreiter, “Tuning resonances on crescent-shaped noble-metal nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, “Fabrication of crescent-shaped optical antennas,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(17), 2131–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lahiri, B.

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3198–3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMeekin, S. G.

Nordlander, P.

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1280–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, T.

T. Okamoto, H. Koizumi, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and A. Otomo, “Nonlinear optical response of a CdS-coated Ag particle,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(6), 062003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Otomo, A.

T. Okamoto, H. Koizumi, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and A. Otomo, “Nonlinear optical response of a CdS-coated Ag particle,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(6), 062003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced non-linear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced non-linear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rochholz, H.

H. Rochholz, N. Bocchio, and M. Kreiter, “Tuning resonances on crescent-shaped noble-metal nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, “Fabrication of crescent-shaped optical antennas,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(17), 2131–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shumaker-Parry, J. S.

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, “Fabrication of crescent-shaped optical antennas,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(17), 2131–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced non-linear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, D. S.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials,” Science 313(5786), 502–504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3198–3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.-K.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3198–3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuloaga, J.

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1280–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, “Fabrication of crescent-shaped optical antennas,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(17), 2131–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Okamoto, H. Koizumi, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and A. Otomo, “Nonlinear optical response of a CdS-coated Ag particle,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(6), 062003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced non-linear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Plasmonic split-ring resonators as dichroic nanophotonic DNA biosensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(48), 17615–17619 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

N. J. Phys. (1)

H. Rochholz, N. Bocchio, and M. Kreiter, “Tuning resonances on crescent-shaped noble-metal nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 9(3), 53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1280–1283 (2011).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the split-ring fabrication process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the optical system used for the measurement of the light scattering spectrum a single isolated SR. The insert defines the polarization axes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Computational model for the FDTD simulations. h is thickness of SR. The points g and e indicate the positions where the electric field enhancement spectrum was calculated. The magnetic field enhancement spectrum was calculated at point c. The point e is at a distance 10 nm from the edge of the SR.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Dark-field microscope and (b), (c) field-emission scanning electron microscope images of the SR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Light scattering spectra of a single SR. Scattering with incident Ex polarization is indicated by red circles and blue triangles indicate the results for Ey polarization. (b) Calculated electromagnetic field enhancement spectra of SR with a thickness of 22 nm. Other size parameters of SRR used for calculation applied the measured value in Fig. 4(c). The red and blue lines are simulation results for Ex and Ey polarization, respectively. The electric field enhancement spectrum for each polarization at point g is given by the solid line and that at point e by the dashed line. The magnetic field enhancement spectrum is indicated by points on a solid line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The measured light scattering spectrum (open circles) and calculated electric field enhancement spectra at the point g for Ex polarized incident light for various film thicknesses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Numerical results of the electromagnetic field distribution for Ex polarized incident light at a wavelength of 1025 nm. (a) The electric field distribution in the x-y plane. The magnetic field distribution in the (b) x-y, (c) x-z, and (d) y-z planes. The white arrows in indicate the vector field. The intensity is normalized to an incident intensity of unity. (e) Sketch of electric charge distribution and current in the SR. The charge concentration is indicated by red circles, the current by blue arrows, and the generated magnetic field direction in blue.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Numerical results of electromagnetic field distribution for Ey polarized incident light at a wavelength of 490 nm. (a)–(e) as per Fig. 7.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Numerical results of the electromagnetic field distribution for Ex polarized incident light at a wavelength of 580 nm. (a)–(e) as per Fig. 7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Numerical results of electromagnetic field distribution for Ey polarized incident light at a wavelength of 710 nm. (a)–(e) as per Fig. 7.

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