Abstract

The multidimensional channel capacity studies indicate that the employment of multiple photon degrees of freedom—such as subcarrier, amplitude, phase, polarization, and space—can improve the spectral efficiency by several orders of magnitude higher than that claimed in any fiber-optic experiment reported to date. This dramatic increase in spectral efficiency through multiple photon degrees of freedom can provide revolutionary capabilities for future optical networks. Moreover, photons can carry both spin angular momentum (SAM) associated with polarization, and orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated with the azimuthal phase of the complex electric field. Because OAM eigenstates are orthogonal, an arbitrary number of bits per photon can be transmitted in principle. The ability to generate the OAM modes, such as Bessel modes, in multimode fibers (MMFs) will allow realization of fiber-optic communication networks with ultra-high bits-per-photon efficiencies. To this end, we propose here a spatial-domain-based multidimensional coded-modulation scheme as an enabling technology for multi-Tb/s serial optical transport. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed scheme, we show that an eight-dimensional (8D) spatial-domain-based coded modulation scheme outperforms a prior-art 128-point 4D scheme by 3.88 dB at BER of 10−8 while providing 120 Gb/s higher aggregate information bit rate. The proposed 8D scheme also outperforms its conventional polarization-multiplexed QAM counterpart by even a larger, and indeed striking, margin of 8.39 dB (also at the BER of 10−8).

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

S. Murshid and J. Iqbal, “Array of concentric CMOS photodiodes for detection and de-multiplexing of spatially modulated optical channels,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(6), 764–769 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Djordjevic, M. Arabaci, and L. Minkov, “Next generation FEC for high-capacity communication in optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3518–3530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

J. McDonough, “Moving standards to 100 GbE and beyond,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(11), 6–9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1984 (1)

M. Cvijetic, “Dual-mode optical fibers with zero intermodal dispersion,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 307–317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. Sakai, K. Kitayama, M. Ikeda, Y. Kato, and K. Tatsuya, “Design considerations of broadband dual-mode optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 26(9), 658–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Pulse propagation in two-mode waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 1785–1791 (1972).

Anguita, J. A.

Arabaci, M.

Barnett, S.

Batshon, H. G.

Bostak, J. S.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Butrie, T.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

Courtial, J.

Cvijetic, M.

M. Cvijetic, “Dual-mode optical fibers with zero intermodal dispersion,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 307–317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dentai, A. G.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Djordjevic, I.

Djordjevic, I. B.

Dominic, V. G.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P. W.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Gasulla, I.

Gibson, G.

Grossman, B.

S. Murshid, B. Grossman, and P. Narakorn, “Spatial domain multiplexing: a new dimension in fiber optic multiplexing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(8), 1030–1036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, M. S.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I.

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huan-Shang Tsai, M. F.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

J. Sakai, K. Kitayama, M. Ikeda, Y. Kato, and K. Tatsuya, “Design considerations of broadband dual-mode optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 26(9), 658–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, J.

S. Murshid and J. Iqbal, “Array of concentric CMOS photodiodes for detection and de-multiplexing of spatially modulated optical channels,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(6), 764–769 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joyner, C. H.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

J. Sakai, K. Kitayama, M. Ikeda, Y. Kato, and K. Tatsuya, “Design considerations of broadband dual-mode optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 26(9), 658–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kauffman, M.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kish,

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

J. Sakai, K. Kitayama, M. Ikeda, Y. Kato, and K. Tatsuya, “Design considerations of broadband dual-mode optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 26(9), 658–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, D. J. H.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Pulse propagation in two-mode waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 1785–1791 (1972).

Mathis, S. K.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, A.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

McDonough, J.

J. McDonough, “Moving standards to 100 GbE and beyond,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(11), 6–9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mehuys, F. A.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. H.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minkov, L.

Missey, M. J.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M. L.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murshid, S.

S. Murshid and J. Iqbal, “Array of concentric CMOS photodiodes for detection and de-multiplexing of spatially modulated optical channels,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(6), 764–769 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Murshid, B. Grossman, and P. Narakorn, “Spatial domain multiplexing: a new dimension in fiber optic multiplexing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(8), 1030–1036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, S.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagarajan, R.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Narakorn, P.

S. Murshid, B. Grossman, and P. Narakorn, “Spatial domain multiplexing: a new dimension in fiber optic multiplexing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(8), 1030–1036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neifeld, M. A.

Nilsson, A. C.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

Pas’ko, V.

Pennypacker, S. C.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, J.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peters, F. H.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pleumeekers, J. L.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reffle, D. G.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, J.

J. Sakai, K. Kitayama, M. Ikeda, Y. Kato, and K. Tatsuya, “Design considerations of broadband dual-mode optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 26(9), 658–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Salvatore, R. A.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Savchenkova, E. A.

Schlenker, R. K.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, T.

Schneider, R. P.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D.

Tatsuya, K.

J. Sakai, K. Kitayama, M. Ikeda, Y. Kato, and K. Tatsuya, “Design considerations of broadband dual-mode optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 26(9), 658–665 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. B.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vasic, B. V.

Vasnetsov, M.

Wang, T.

Webjorn, M.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D. F.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Conceptual diagram of a future MMF-supported network. (b) Block diagram of a multimode compatible passive optical device. (c) Block diagram of multimode compatible EDFA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Illustration of spatial-domain-based N-dimensional modulation. An electro-optical modulator (EO MOD) can be a 1D (MZM), a 2D (I/Q-modulator), or a 4D modulator (see [7]). (b) Details of an optical 2D modulator, i.e., I/Q-modulator. EO MOD: electro-optical modulator. MZM: Mach-Zehnder Modulator. DAC: Digital-to-analog converter. LPF: Low-pass filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) System configuration and (b) transmitter configuration for the proposed multidimensional LDPC-coded OAM-based modulation scheme for transmission over MMFs. (c) Conceptual diagram for achieving 4 TbE using the proposed scheme with five OAM modes to define a five-dimensional modulation and four amplitudes per dimension, i.e. 2 channel bits per OAM mode (see Eq. (9)). (In (c), only one polarization branch is shown.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) LDPC-coding based receiver configuration with direct detection, (d) LDPC coding based receiver configuration with coherent detection, where COH DET stands for a balanced coherent detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

BER performance of spatial-mode-based LDPC-coded multidimensional modulation schemes per single band and per single polarization.

Equations (9)

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L = 1 4 π c V E × A   d V + 1 4 π c V k = x , y , z E k ( r × ) A k   d V ,
u m , p ( r , ϕ , z ) = 2 p ! π ( p + | m | ) ! 1 w ( z ) [ r 2 w ( z ) ] | m | L p m ( 2 r 2 w 2 ( z ) ) e r 2 w 2 ( z ) e j k r 2 z 2 ( z 2 + z R 2 ) e j ( 2 p + | m | + 1 ) tan 1 z z R e j m ϕ ,
( u m , p , u n , p ) = u m , p * ( r , ϕ , z ) u n , p ( r , ϕ , z ) r d r d ϕ = { | u m , p | 2 r d r d ϕ ,     n = m ,                                                       0 ,       n m .
1 1 P p m ( x ) P p n ( x ) 1 x 2 d x = {                           0 ,       m n , ( p + m ) ! m ( p m ) ! ,     m = n 0 ,                                     ,       m = n = 0.
e = e ^ ± exp ( ± j m ϕ ) F m ( R ) exp ( j β z ) ,
E z = A J m ( p ρ ) exp ( j m ϕ ) exp ( j β z ) ;       ρ a
C ( X , Y ) = ( N / 2 ) log ( 1 + σ x 2 / σ z 2 ) bits per channel use ,
s i = C N j = 1 N φ i , j Φ j ,
2 × log 2 ( M N )   ch . bits ch . sym . × R s   ch . sym . s × r   info . bits ch . bits =              2 × N   modes info . sym . × log 2 ( M )   info . bits mode × R i   info . sym s ,

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