Abstract

A three-stage high conversion efficiency optical parametric amplifier (OPA) with passively stabilized carrier-envelope phase (CEP) is presented. After passing through an argon-filled hollow fiber and the dispersion compensator for pulse compression, CEP stabilized 0.7 mJ, 1.5 cycle laser pulses at 1.75 μm center wavelength are obtained. Terahertz (THz) emission spectroscopy is adopted to determine the value of CEP, indicating an excellent long-term CEP stability.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, B. E. Schmidt, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and F. Legaré, “Mechanism of hollow-core-fiber infrared-supercontinuum compression with bulk material,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B112–B117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kobayashi and A. Baltuška, “Sub-5 fs pulse generation from a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(11), 1671–1682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104(24), 5660–5694 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. H. Zewail, “Laser femtochemistry,” Science 242(4886), 1645–1653 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ališauskas, S.

Apolonski, A.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

Baltuška, A.

O. D. Mücke, S. Ališauskas, A. J. Verhoef, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, V. Smilgevicius, J. Pocius, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, and N. Forget, “Self-compression of millijoule 1.5 microm pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2498–2500 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi and A. Baltuška, “Sub-5 fs pulse generation from a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(11), 1671–1682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Béjot, P.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, B. E. Schmidt, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and F. Legaré, “Mechanism of hollow-core-fiber infrared-supercontinuum compression with bulk material,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

Bisson, E.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blaga, C. I.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Butkus, R.

Calegari, F.

Catoire, F.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

Chen, M.-C.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chirla, R.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Colosimo, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Danielius, R.

De Silvestri, S.

Deng, Y.

Dimauro, L. F.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dörner, R.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doumy, G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ergler, T.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forget, N.

Fuji, T.

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gasilov, S.

Gerrity, M.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giguère, M.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gimpel, H.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giniunas, L.

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, N.

Ishizuki, H.

Ivanov, M.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

P. Béjot, B. E. Schmidt, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and F. Legaré, “Mechanism of hollow-core-fiber infrared-supercontinuum compression with bulk material,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-μJ pulses at 2.1-μm carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express 17(1), 62–69 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-1-62 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-μJ pulses at 2.1-μm carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express 17(1), 62–69 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-1-62 .
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A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kobayashi and A. Baltuška, “Sub-5 fs pulse generation from a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(11), 1671–1682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-μJ pulses at 2.1-μm carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express 17(1), 62–69 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-1-62 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Yakovlev, M. Ivanov, and F. Krausz, “Enhanced phase-matching for generation of soft X-ray harmonics and attosecond pulses in atomic gases,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15351–15364 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15351 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kreß, M.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Legaré, F.

P. Béjot, B. E. Schmidt, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and F. Legaré, “Mechanism of hollow-core-fiber infrared-supercontinuum compression with bulk material,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Légaré, F.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S. R.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löffler, T.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loh, Z.-H.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzoni, C.

March, A. M.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, G.

Metzger, T.

Morgner, U.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Muller, H. G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Paulus, G. G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pervak, V.

Pfeifer, T.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pocius, J.

Popmintchev, D.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, T.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 459–478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pugžlys, A.

Rohringer, N.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roskos, H. G.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

Santra, R.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. E.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, B. E. Schmidt, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and F. Legaré, “Mechanism of hollow-core-fiber infrared-supercontinuum compression with bulk material,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seaberg, M.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shiner, A. D.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smilgevicius, V.

Stagira, S.

Sun, F. G.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Tate, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teisset, C.

Thomson, M. D.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trallero-Herrero, C.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
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Verhoef, A. J.

Villeneuve, D. M.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
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Vozzi, C.

Wheeler, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
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Wiersma, D. A.

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 459–478 (1999).
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Wirth, A.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
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B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
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P. Béjot, B. E. Schmidt, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and F. Legaré, “Mechanism of hollow-core-fiber infrared-supercontinuum compression with bulk material,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063828 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Yakovlev, M. Ivanov, and F. Krausz, “Enhanced phase-matching for generation of soft X-ray harmonics and attosecond pulses in atomic gases,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15351–15364 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15351 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 972–989 (2003).
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A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104(24), 5660–5694 (2000).
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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zherebtsov, S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zrost, K.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8μm laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121109 (2010).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Baltuška, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 459–478 (1999).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the generation of high energy self-phase-stabilized pulses: VND, variable neutral density filter; HWP, half-wavelength waveplate; Sp, sapphire plate; TD, time delay crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field beam profile of 1.44 μm (a) and 1.8 μm (b) laser when the signal pulses of OPA2 are used to seed OPA3; Near-field beam profile of 1.44 μm (c) and 1.8 μm (d) laser when the idler pulses of OPA2 are used to seed OPA3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The spectra of the input (shaded) and the output pulses from the hollow fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured SHG-FROG trace of the compressed pulses. (b) Measured (shaded) and retrieved (black) spectral intensity and retrieved phase (blue), (c) Retrieved temporal intensity (black) and phase (blue). (d) The black curve is the temporal intensity profile corresponding to the measured spectrum and retrieved spectral phase, the red curve is the ideal Fourier-limit intensity profile corresponding to the measured spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup for CEP characterization by nonlinear spectral interferometry: VND, variable neutral density filter; WLC, white light continuum; SHG, second harmonic generation; TD, time delay crystal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CEP fringes (a) and phase drift (b) of the 1.8 μm pulses before the hollow fiber. CEP fringes (c) and phase drift (d) of the compressed pulses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal THz waveforms measured by adjusting the CEP of few-cycle IR pulses in a step of 0.2πusing thin fused silica wedges.

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