Abstract

Using numerical simulations, we report an observation of a novel tunable ultra-deep subwavelength nanolithography technique using a surface plasmon resonant cavity formed by a metallic grating and a metallic thin-film layer separated by a photoresist layer. The tuning capability is implemented by varying the cavity length, from which surface plasmon interferometric patterns with inherently higher optical resolution than that of conventional surface plasmon techniques are generated in the cavity of photoresist layer. The physical origin of the tunability is analytically confirmed by the dispersion relation derived from the cavity system.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3142–3149 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. P. Silverman, “Challenges and progress in x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3137–3141 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit,” Science 280(5369), 1583–1586 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Melngailis, A. A. Mondelli, and L. Ivan Berry III andR. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 927–957 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-Pen” nanolithography,” Science 283(5402), 661–663 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. C. McAlpine, R. S. Friedman, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanoimprint lithography for hybrid plastic electronics,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 443–445 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. J. Blaikie and S. J. McNab, “Evanescent interferometric lithography,” Appl. Opt. 40(10), 1692–1698 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3055–3065 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-100 nm lithography using ultrashort wavelength of surface plasmons,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3475–3478 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 462–466 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Projecting deep-subwavelength patterns from diffraction-limited masks using metal-dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Xu, Y. Zhao, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Sub-diffraction-limited interference photolithography with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13579–13584 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. X. Yang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Breaking the feature sizes down to sub-22 nm by plasmonic interference lithography using dielectric-metal multilayer,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21560–21565 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. J. Blaikie, M. M. Alkaisi, S. J. McNab, and D. O. S. Melville, “Nanoscale optical patterning using evanescent fields and surface plasmons,” Int. J. Nanoscience 3(4 & 5), 405–417 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Numerical simulation of surface-plasmon-assisted nanolithography,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6964–6973 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. D. Arnold and R. J. Blaikie, “Subwavelength optical imaging of evanescent fields using reflections from plasmonic slabs,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11542–11552 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. Yang, L. Fang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Deep subwavelength photolithography based on surface plasmon polariton resonance with metallic grating waveguide heterostructure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045001 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2003), Chap.4, pp.352–355.

2010 (1)

X. Yang, L. Fang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Deep subwavelength photolithography based on surface plasmon polariton resonance with metallic grating waveguide heterostructure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

X. Yang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Breaking the feature sizes down to sub-22 nm by plasmonic interference lithography using dielectric-metal multilayer,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21560–21565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 462–466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Projecting deep-subwavelength patterns from diffraction-limited masks using metal-dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Sub-diffraction-limited interference photolithography with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13579–13584 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (4)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Numerical simulation of surface-plasmon-assisted nanolithography,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6964–6973 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-100 nm lithography using ultrashort wavelength of surface plasmons,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3475–3478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Blaikie, M. M. Alkaisi, S. J. McNab, and D. O. S. Melville, “Nanoscale optical patterning using evanescent fields and surface plasmons,” Int. J. Nanoscience 3(4 & 5), 405–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3055–3065 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. McAlpine, R. S. Friedman, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanoimprint lithography for hybrid plastic electronics,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 443–445 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-Pen” nanolithography,” Science 283(5402), 661–663 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Silverman, “Challenges and progress in x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3137–3141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit,” Science 280(5369), 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Melngailis, A. A. Mondelli, and L. Ivan Berry III andR. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 927–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Melngailis, A. A. Mondelli, and L. Ivan Berry III andR. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 927–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alkaisi, M. M.

R. J. Blaikie, M. M. Alkaisi, S. J. McNab, and D. O. S. Melville, “Nanoscale optical patterning using evanescent fields and surface plasmons,” Int. J. Nanoscience 3(4 & 5), 405–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ambati, M.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-100 nm lithography using ultrashort wavelength of surface plasmons,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3475–3478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, M. D.

Attwood, D.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bates, A. K.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, K. K.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit,” Science 280(5369), 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaikie, R. J.

Bloomstein, T. M.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carcenac, F.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. C.

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Numerical simulation of surface-plasmon-assisted nanolithography,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6964–6973 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A. P.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit,” Science 280(5369), 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couraud, L.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cui, J.

T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Sub-diffraction-limited interference photolithography with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13579–13584 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtin, J. E.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, N. H.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit,” Science 280(5369), 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Downs, D. K.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Du, C.

Durant, S.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-100 nm lithography using ultrashort wavelength of surface plasmons,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3475–3478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, L.

X. Yang, L. Fang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Deep subwavelength photolithography based on surface plasmon polariton resonance with metallic grating waveguide heterostructure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-100 nm lithography using ultrashort wavelength of surface plasmons,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3475–3478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fedynyshyn, T. H.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Q.

X. Yang, L. Fang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Deep subwavelength photolithography based on surface plasmon polariton resonance with metallic grating waveguide heterostructure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, R. S.

M. C. McAlpine, R. S. Friedman, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanoimprint lithography for hybrid plastic electronics,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 443–445 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gwyn, C. W.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, D. E.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.

R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-Pen” nanolithography,” Science 283(5402), 661–663 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishihara, T.

Ivan Berry, L.

J. Melngailis, A. A. Mondelli, and L. Ivan Berry III andR. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 927–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. S.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit,” Science 280(5369), 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunz, R. R.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Launois, H.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lebib, A.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 462–466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liberman, V.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

M. C. McAlpine, R. S. Friedman, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanoimprint lithography for hybrid plastic electronics,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 443–445 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 462–466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Projecting deep-subwavelength patterns from diffraction-limited masks using metal-dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

X. Yang, L. Fang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Deep subwavelength photolithography based on surface plasmon polariton resonance with metallic grating waveguide heterostructure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Breaking the feature sizes down to sub-22 nm by plasmonic interference lithography using dielectric-metal multilayer,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21560–21565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Sub-diffraction-limited interference photolithography with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13579–13584 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3055–3065 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Sub-diffraction-limited interference photolithography with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13579–13584 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manin-Ferlazzo, L.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McAlpine, M. C.

M. C. McAlpine, R. S. Friedman, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanoimprint lithography for hybrid plastic electronics,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 443–445 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

R. J. Blaikie, M. M. Alkaisi, S. J. McNab, and D. O. S. Melville, “Nanoscale optical patterning using evanescent fields and surface plasmons,” Int. J. Nanoscience 3(4 & 5), 405–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Blaikie and S. J. McNab, “Evanescent interferometric lithography,” Appl. Opt. 40(10), 1692–1698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mejias, M.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Melngailis, J.

J. Melngailis, A. A. Mondelli, and L. Ivan Berry III andR. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 927–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Melville, D. O. S.

R. J. Blaikie, M. M. Alkaisi, S. J. McNab, and D. O. S. Melville, “Nanoscale optical patterning using evanescent fields and surface plasmons,” Int. J. Nanoscience 3(4 & 5), 405–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-Pen” nanolithography,” Science 283(5402), 661–663 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohondro, R.

J. Melngailis, A. A. Mondelli, and L. Ivan Berry III andR. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 927–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mondelli, A. A.

J. Melngailis, A. A. Mondelli, and L. Ivan Berry III andR. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 927–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, A.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R. D.

R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-Pen” nanolithography,” Science 283(5402), 661–663 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit,” Science 280(5369), 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothschild, M.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sedlacek, J. H. C.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shao, D. B.

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Numerical simulation of surface-plasmon-assisted nanolithography,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6964–6973 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silverman, J. P.

J. P. Silverman, “Challenges and progress in x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3137–3141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 462–466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-100 nm lithography using ultrashort wavelength of surface plasmons,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3475–3478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-100 nm lithography using ultrashort wavelength of surface plasmons,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3475–3478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thywissen, J. H.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit,” Science 280(5369), 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uttaro, R. S.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Peski, C.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vieu, C.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

X. Yang, L. Fang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Deep subwavelength photolithography based on surface plasmon polariton resonance with metallic grating waveguide heterostructure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Breaking the feature sizes down to sub-22 nm by plasmonic interference lithography using dielectric-metal multilayer,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21560–21565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Sub-diffraction-limited interference photolithography with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13579–13584 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 462–466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q. H.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Projecting deep-subwavelength patterns from diffraction-limited masks using metal-dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-Pen” nanolithography,” Science 283(5402), 661–663 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Sub-diffraction-limited interference photolithography with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13579–13584 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, L. Fang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Deep subwavelength photolithography based on surface plasmon polariton resonance with metallic grating waveguide heterostructure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Breaking the feature sizes down to sub-22 nm by plasmonic interference lithography using dielectric-metal multilayer,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21560–21565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 462–466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit,” Science 280(5369), 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, B.

X. Yang, L. Fang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Deep subwavelength photolithography based on surface plasmon polariton resonance with metallic grating waveguide heterostructure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Breaking the feature sizes down to sub-22 nm by plasmonic interference lithography using dielectric-metal multilayer,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21560–21565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 462–466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Projecting deep-subwavelength patterns from diffraction-limited masks using metal-dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-100 nm lithography using ultrashort wavelength of surface plasmons,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3475–3478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, J.

R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-Pen” nanolithography,” Science 283(5402), 661–663 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Xu, L. Fang, J. Ma, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, J. Cui, C. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Luo, “Localizing surface plasmons with a metal-cladding superlens for projecting deep-subwavelength patterns,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 175–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Xiong, Z. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Projecting deep-subwavelength patterns from diffraction-limited masks using metal-dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nanoscience (1)

R. J. Blaikie, M. M. Alkaisi, S. J. McNab, and D. O. S. Melville, “Nanoscale optical patterning using evanescent fields and surface plasmons,” Int. J. Nanoscience 3(4 & 5), 405–417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

X. Yang, L. Fang, B. Zeng, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Deep subwavelength photolithography based on surface plasmon polariton resonance with metallic grating waveguide heterostructure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (5)

J. Melngailis, A. A. Mondelli, and L. Ivan Berry III andR. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 927–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, S. Durant, M. Ambati, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-100 nm lithography using ultrashort wavelength of surface plasmons,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3475–3478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, J. E. Curtin, D. K. Downs, T. H. Fedynyshyn, D. E. Hardy, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, and C. Van Peski, “157 nm: deepest deep ultraviolet yet,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3262–3266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Silverman, “Challenges and progress in x-ray lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3137–3141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 462–466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. McAlpine, R. S. Friedman, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanoimprint lithography for hybrid plastic electronics,” Nano Lett. 3(4), 443–445 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Science (3)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-Pen” nanolithography,” Science 283(5402), 661–663 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit,” Science 280(5369), 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2003), Chap.4, pp.352–355.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a tunable surface plasmon interferometric cavity for ultra-deep subwavelength photolithography.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The electric field distributions of the cavity structure and a conventional open SPP structure. (a) Cavity structure with a 50nm Ag layer on the lower SiO2 substrate; (b) conventional open SPP structure without Ag layer on the lower SiO2 substrate. The wavelength of the illumination light is 436nm, the thicknesses of Ag grating and the PR layer are 50nm. The slit width (open section) of the metallic grating is 60nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The electric field distributions of the cavity structures with different cavity lengths (i.e., PR thicknesses): (a) 50nm; (b) 30nm; (c) 20nm; and (d) 10nm. The illumination wavelength is 436nm; Thickness of Ag grating is 50nm with 60nm slit width (open section); Thickness of the Ag layer is 50nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The dispersion relation between the SPP wave vector and the illumination wavelength for structures with and without SPP cavity. Lower axis: wave vector; upper axis: pattern period.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The dispersion relation between the SPP wave vector and the illumination wavelength for cavity structure with different cavity lengths. Lower axis: wave vector; upper axis: pattern period. (b) Comparison of numerical results and analytical results.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The dispersion relation between the SPP wave vector and the illumination wavelength for the cavity structure with different thicknesses of metallic gratings. Lower axis: wave vector; upper axis: pattern period.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The electric field distributions of the cavity structures with different mask periods: (a) 310nm; (b) 600nm; and (c) 890nm. The illumination wavelength is 436nm; Thickness of Ag grating is 50nm with 60nm slit width (open section); Thickness of the Ag layer is 50nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of the pattern quality on the cavity lengths (a) 42nm; (b) 50nm; and (c) 60nm. The illumination wavelength is 436nm; Thickness of Ag grating is 50nm with 60nm slit width (open section); Thickness of the Ag layer is 50nm.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H y = A e i β x e k 4 z
E x = i A 1 ω ε 0 ε 4 k 4 e i β x e k 4 z
E z = A β ω ε 0 ε 4 e i β x e k 4 z
H y = B e i β x e k 3 z + C e i β x e k 3 z
E x = i B 1 ω ε 0 ε 3 k 3 e i β x e k 3 z + i C 1 ω ε 0 ε 3 k 3 e i β x e k 3 z
E z = B β ω ε 0 ε 3 e i β x e k 3 z C β ω ε 0 ε 3 e i β x e k 3 z
H y = D e i β x e k 2 z + E e i β x e k 2 z
E x = i D 1 ω ε 0 ε 2 k 2 e i β x e k 2 z - i E 1 ω ε 0 ε 2 k 2 e i β x e k 2 z
E z = D β ω ε 0 ε 2 e i β x e k 2 z E β ω ε 0 ε 2 e i β x e k 2 z
H y = F e i β x e k 1 z
E x = i F 1 ω ε 0 ε 1 k 1 e i β x e k 1 z
E z = F β ω ε 0 ε 1 e i β x e k 1 z
e 2 k 3 d 3 = ( k 1 ε 1 + k 2 ε 2 ) ( k 2 ε 2 k 3 ε 3 ) ( k 4 ε 4 k 3 ε 3 ) e 2 k 2 d 2 ( k 2 ε 2 k 1 ε 1 ) ( k 2 ε 2 + k 3 ε 3 ) ( k 4 ε 4 k 3 ε 3 ) ( k 1 ε 1 + k 2 ε 2 ) ( k 2 ε 2 + k 3 ε 3 ) ( k 4 ε 4 + k 3 ε 3 ) e 2 k 2 d 2 + ( k 1 ε 1 k 2 ε 2 ) ( k 2 ε 2 k 3 ε 3 ) ( k 4 ε 4 + k 3 ε 3 )
k i 2 = k sp 2 k 0 2 ε i i = 1, 2, 3, 4

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