Abstract

Imaging cellular internal structure at nanometer scale axial resolution with non invasive microscopy techniques has been a major technical challenge since the nineties. We propose here a complement to fluorescence based microscopies with no need of staining the biological samples, based on a Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscope (SSPM). We describe the advantages of this microscope, namely the possibility of both amplitude and phase imaging and, due to evanescent field enhancement by the surface plasmon resonance, a very high resolution in Z scanning (Z being the axis normal to the sample). We show for fibroblast cells (IMR90) that SSPM offers an enhanced detection of index gradient regions, and we conclude it is very well suited to discriminate regions of variable density in biological media such as cell compartments, nucleus, nucleoli and membranes.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (3)

T. S. van Zanten, A. Cambi, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, "A nanometer scale optical view on the compartmentalization of cell membranes," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1798, 777-787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Roland, L. Berguiga, J. Elezgaray, and F. Argoul, "Scanning surface plasmon imaging of nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 81, 235419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Elezgaray, T. Roland, L. Berguiga, and F. Argoul, "Modeling of the scanning surface plasmon microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 450-457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. W. Hell, "Microscopy and its focal switch," Nature 6, 24-32 (2009).

2008 (5)

G. D. Byrne, M. C. Pitter, J. Zhang, F. H. Falcone, S. Stonik, and M. G. Somekh, "Total internal reflection microscopy for live imaging of cellular uptake of sub-micron non-fluorescent particles," J. Microsc. 231, 168-179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species," Chem. Rev. 108, 463-493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Moh, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, S. W. Zhu, and B. Z. Gao, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cell substrate contacts with radially polarized beams," Opt. Express 16, 20734-20741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. Britland, S. Liu, C. See, M. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Youseffi, P. Twigg, S. Britland, S. Liud, C. See, J. Zhang, M. S., and M. C. T. Denyer, "High resolution imaging of bio-molecular binding studies using a widefield surface plasmon microscope," Sens. Actuators B 129, 566-574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

G. Stabler, M. Somekh, and C. See, "High resolution wide-field surface plasmon microscopy," J. Microsc. 214, 328-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. Stephens, and V. Allan, "Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging," Science 300, 82-86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

P. Dawson, B. Puygranier, and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Surface plasmon polariton propagation length: a direct comparison using photon scanning tunneling microscopy and attenuated total reflection," Phys. Rev. B 63, 205410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. Yee, "Long-range surface plasmons for high resolution surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators 74, 145-151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

A. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. Lipson, "Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Grigorenko, A. Beloglazov, P. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, "Dark-field surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Commun. 174, 151-155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kano, and W. Knoll, "A scanning microscope employing localized surface plasmon-polaritons as a sensing probe," Opt. Commun. 182, 11-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Somekh, C. See, and J. Goh, "Wide field amplitude and phase confocal microscope with speckle illumination," Opt. Commun. 174, 75-80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Somekh, S. G. Liu, T. S. Velinov, and C. W. See, "Optical V(z) for high resolution 2π surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Lett. 25, 823-825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nikitin, A. Beloglazov, V. Kochergin, M. Valeiko, and T. Ksenevich, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 43-50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Grigorenko, P. Nikitin, and A. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Tao, S. Boussaad, W. Huang, R. Arechabaleta, and J. D’Agnese, "High resolution surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4656-4660 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1992 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

P. Dawson, K. Smith, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope," Ultramicroscopy 57, 287-292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C.-E. Berger, R. Kooyman, and J. Greve, "Resolution in surface plasmon microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2829-2836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

B. Rothenhausler, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

1987 (1)

E. Yeatman, and E. Ash, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Electron. Lett. 23, 1091-1092 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

F. Abeles, "Les ondes Èlectromagnétiques de surface et leur utilisation pour l’étude des surfaces et interfaces," J. Phys. Coll. C5 38, 67-75 (1977).

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflachenplasmaschwingungen," Z. Phys. 241, 313-324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, F.

F. Abeles, "Les ondes Èlectromagnétiques de surface et leur utilisation pour l’étude des surfaces et interfaces," J. Phys. Coll. C5 38, 67-75 (1977).

Allan, V.

D. Stephens, and V. Allan, "Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging," Science 300, 82-86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arechabaleta, R.

N. Tao, S. Boussaad, W. Huang, R. Arechabaleta, and J. D’Agnese, "High resolution surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4656-4660 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Argoul, F.

Ash, E.

E. Yeatman, and E. Ash, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Electron. Lett. 23, 1091-1092 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bastmeyer, M.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechinger, C.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beloglazov, A.

A. Grigorenko, A. Beloglazov, P. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, "Dark-field surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Commun. 174, 151-155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Nikitin, A. Beloglazov, V. Kochergin, M. Valeiko, and T. Ksenevich, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 43-50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.-E.

C.-E. Berger, R. Kooyman, and J. Greve, "Resolution in surface plasmon microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2829-2836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berguiga, L.

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1992 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

Boussaad, S.

N. Tao, S. Boussaad, W. Huang, R. Arechabaleta, and J. D’Agnese, "High resolution surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4656-4660 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Britland, S.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. Britland, S. Liu, C. See, M. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Youseffi, P. Twigg, S. Britland, S. Liud, C. See, J. Zhang, M. S., and M. C. T. Denyer, "High resolution imaging of bio-molecular binding studies using a widefield surface plasmon microscope," Sens. Actuators B 129, 566-574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bruyant, A.

Bu, J.

Byrne, G. D.

G. D. Byrne, M. C. Pitter, J. Zhang, F. H. Falcone, S. Stonik, and M. G. Somekh, "Total internal reflection microscopy for live imaging of cellular uptake of sub-micron non-fluorescent particles," J. Microsc. 231, 168-179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cambi, A.

T. S. van Zanten, A. Cambi, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, "A nanometer scale optical view on the compartmentalization of cell membranes," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1798, 777-787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chou, T.

J. Lee, H. Shih, C. Hong, and T. Chou, "Measurement of refractive index change by surface plasmon resonance and phase quadrature interferometry," Opt. Commun. 276, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D’Agnese, J.

N. Tao, S. Boussaad, W. Huang, R. Arechabaleta, and J. D’Agnese, "High resolution surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4656-4660 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

Dasari, R. R.

Dawson, P.

P. Dawson, B. Puygranier, and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Surface plasmon polariton propagation length: a direct comparison using photon scanning tunneling microscopy and attenuated total reflection," Phys. Rev. B 63, 205410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, K. Smith, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope," Ultramicroscopy 57, 287-292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Fornel, F.

P. Dawson, K. Smith, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope," Ultramicroscopy 57, 287-292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Denyer, M.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. Britland, S. Liu, C. See, M. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denyer, M. C. T.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Youseffi, P. Twigg, S. Britland, S. Liud, C. See, J. Zhang, M. S., and M. C. T. Denyer, "High resolution imaging of bio-molecular binding studies using a widefield surface plasmon microscope," Sens. Actuators B 129, 566-574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

des Francs, G. C.

Elezgaray, J.

Falcone, F. H.

G. D. Byrne, M. C. Pitter, J. Zhang, F. H. Falcone, S. Stonik, and M. G. Somekh, "Total internal reflection microscopy for live imaging of cellular uptake of sub-micron non-fluorescent particles," J. Microsc. 231, 168-179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Gao, B. Z.

Garcia-Parajo, M. F.

T. S. van Zanten, A. Cambi, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, "A nanometer scale optical view on the compartmentalization of cell membranes," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1798, 777-787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giebel, K.-F.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goh, J.

M. Somekh, C. See, and J. Goh, "Wide field amplitude and phase confocal microscope with speckle illumination," Opt. Commun. 174, 75-80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J.-P.

P. Dawson, B. Puygranier, and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Surface plasmon polariton propagation length: a direct comparison using photon scanning tunneling microscopy and attenuated total reflection," Phys. Rev. B 63, 205410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, K. Smith, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope," Ultramicroscopy 57, 287-292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

C.-E. Berger, R. Kooyman, and J. Greve, "Resolution in surface plasmon microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2829-2836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A.

A. Grigorenko, A. Beloglazov, P. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, "Dark-field surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Commun. 174, 151-155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Grigorenko, P. Nikitin, and A. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1992 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, "Microscopy and its focal switch," Nature 6, 24-32 (2009).

Herminghaus, S.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species," Chem. Rev. 108, 463-493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. Yee, "Long-range surface plasmons for high resolution surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators 74, 145-151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

J. Lee, H. Shih, C. Hong, and T. Chou, "Measurement of refractive index change by surface plasmon resonance and phase quadrature interferometry," Opt. Commun. 276, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, N.

Huang, C.

Huang, W.

N. Tao, S. Boussaad, W. Huang, R. Arechabaleta, and J. D’Agnese, "High resolution surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4656-4660 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ignatovich, F.

Ikeda, T.

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1992 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamil, M. M. A.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Youseffi, P. Twigg, S. Britland, S. Liud, C. See, J. Zhang, M. S., and M. C. T. Denyer, "High resolution imaging of bio-molecular binding studies using a widefield surface plasmon microscope," Sens. Actuators B 129, 566-574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. Britland, S. Liu, C. See, M. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabashin, A.

A. Grigorenko, P. Nikitin, and A. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

Kawata, S.

Knoll, W.

H. Kano, and W. Knoll, "A scanning microscope employing localized surface plasmon-polaritons as a sensing probe," Opt. Commun. 182, 11-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Rothenhausler, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

Kochergin, V.

P. Nikitin, A. Beloglazov, V. Kochergin, M. Valeiko, and T. Ksenevich, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 43-50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kooyman, R.

C.-E. Berger, R. Kooyman, and J. Greve, "Resolution in surface plasmon microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2829-2836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflachenplasmaschwingungen," Z. Phys. 241, 313-324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ksenevich, T.

P. Nikitin, A. Beloglazov, V. Kochergin, M. Valeiko, and T. Ksenevich, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 43-50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuhne, C.

A. Grigorenko, A. Beloglazov, P. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, "Dark-field surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Commun. 174, 151-155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, H. Shih, C. Hong, and T. Chou, "Measurement of refractive index change by surface plasmon resonance and phase quadrature interferometry," Opt. Commun. 276, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leiderer, P.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, S.

A. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. Lipson, "Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. Britland, S. Liu, C. See, M. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. G.

Liud, S.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Youseffi, P. Twigg, S. Britland, S. Liud, C. See, J. Zhang, M. S., and M. C. T. Denyer, "High resolution imaging of bio-molecular binding studies using a widefield surface plasmon microscope," Sens. Actuators B 129, 566-574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mizuguchi, S.

Moh, K.

Nenninger, G.

G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. Yee, "Long-range surface plasmons for high resolution surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators 74, 145-151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P.

A. Grigorenko, A. Beloglazov, P. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, "Dark-field surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Commun. 174, 151-155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Nikitin, A. Beloglazov, V. Kochergin, M. Valeiko, and T. Ksenevich, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 43-50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Grigorenko, P. Nikitin, and A. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Notcovich, A.

A. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. Lipson, "Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

Pitter, M. C.

G. D. Byrne, M. C. Pitter, J. Zhang, F. H. Falcone, S. Stonik, and M. G. Somekh, "Total internal reflection microscopy for live imaging of cellular uptake of sub-micron non-fluorescent particles," J. Microsc. 231, 168-179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1992 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

Puygranier, B.

P. Dawson, B. Puygranier, and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Surface plasmon polariton propagation length: a direct comparison using photon scanning tunneling microscopy and attenuated total reflection," Phys. Rev. B 63, 205410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, M.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roland, T.

T. Roland, L. Berguiga, J. Elezgaray, and F. Argoul, "Scanning surface plasmon imaging of nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 81, 235419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Elezgaray, T. Roland, L. Berguiga, and F. Argoul, "Modeling of the scanning surface plasmon microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 450-457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rothenhausler, B.

B. Rothenhausler, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

S., M.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Youseffi, P. Twigg, S. Britland, S. Liud, C. See, J. Zhang, M. S., and M. C. T. Denyer, "High resolution imaging of bio-molecular binding studies using a widefield surface plasmon microscope," Sens. Actuators B 129, 566-574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salzer, R.

A. Grigorenko, A. Beloglazov, P. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, "Dark-field surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Commun. 174, 151-155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

See, C.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. Britland, S. Liu, C. See, M. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Youseffi, P. Twigg, S. Britland, S. Liud, C. See, J. Zhang, M. S., and M. C. T. Denyer, "High resolution imaging of bio-molecular binding studies using a widefield surface plasmon microscope," Sens. Actuators B 129, 566-574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Stabler, M. Somekh, and C. See, "High resolution wide-field surface plasmon microscopy," J. Microsc. 214, 328-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Somekh, C. See, and J. Goh, "Wide field amplitude and phase confocal microscope with speckle illumination," Opt. Commun. 174, 75-80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

See, C. W.

Shih, H.

J. Lee, H. Shih, C. Hong, and T. Chou, "Measurement of refractive index change by surface plasmon resonance and phase quadrature interferometry," Opt. Commun. 276, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K.

P. Dawson, K. Smith, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope," Ultramicroscopy 57, 287-292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. Britland, S. Liu, C. See, M. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stabler, M. Somekh, and C. See, "High resolution wide-field surface plasmon microscopy," J. Microsc. 214, 328-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Somekh, C. See, and J. Goh, "Wide field amplitude and phase confocal microscope with speckle illumination," Opt. Commun. 174, 75-80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M. G.

G. D. Byrne, M. C. Pitter, J. Zhang, F. H. Falcone, S. Stonik, and M. G. Somekh, "Total internal reflection microscopy for live imaging of cellular uptake of sub-micron non-fluorescent particles," J. Microsc. 231, 168-179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Somekh, S. G. Liu, T. S. Velinov, and C. W. See, "Optical V(z) for high resolution 2π surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Lett. 25, 823-825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stabler, G.

G. Stabler, M. Somekh, and C. See, "High resolution wide-field surface plasmon microscopy," J. Microsc. 214, 328-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, G.

A. Grigorenko, A. Beloglazov, P. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, "Dark-field surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Commun. 174, 151-155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, D.

D. Stephens, and V. Allan, "Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging," Science 300, 82-86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stonik, S.

G. D. Byrne, M. C. Pitter, J. Zhang, F. H. Falcone, S. Stonik, and M. G. Somekh, "Total internal reflection microscopy for live imaging of cellular uptake of sub-micron non-fluorescent particles," J. Microsc. 231, 168-179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, N.

N. Tao, S. Boussaad, W. Huang, R. Arechabaleta, and J. D’Agnese, "High resolution surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4656-4660 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tobiska, P.

G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. Yee, "Long-range surface plasmons for high resolution surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators 74, 145-151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Twigg, P.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Youseffi, P. Twigg, S. Britland, S. Liud, C. See, J. Zhang, M. S., and M. C. T. Denyer, "High resolution imaging of bio-molecular binding studies using a widefield surface plasmon microscope," Sens. Actuators B 129, 566-574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valeiko, M.

P. Nikitin, A. Beloglazov, V. Kochergin, M. Valeiko, and T. Ksenevich, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 43-50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Zanten, T. S.

T. S. van Zanten, A. Cambi, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, "A nanometer scale optical view on the compartmentalization of cell membranes," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1798, 777-787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Velinov, T. S.

Wang, G.

Watanabe, K.

Weeber, J.-C.

Weiland, U.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G.

Yeatman, E.

E. Yeatman, and E. Ash, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Electron. Lett. 23, 1091-1092 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S.

G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. Yee, "Long-range surface plasmons for high resolution surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators 74, 145-151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Youseffi, M.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Youseffi, P. Twigg, S. Britland, S. Liud, C. See, J. Zhang, M. S., and M. C. T. Denyer, "High resolution imaging of bio-molecular binding studies using a widefield surface plasmon microscope," Sens. Actuators B 129, 566-574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. Britland, S. Liu, C. See, M. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, X.-C.

Zhang, J.

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Youseffi, P. Twigg, S. Britland, S. Liud, C. See, J. Zhang, M. S., and M. C. T. Denyer, "High resolution imaging of bio-molecular binding studies using a widefield surface plasmon microscope," Sens. Actuators B 129, 566-574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. Britland, S. Liu, C. See, M. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Byrne, M. C. Pitter, J. Zhang, F. H. Falcone, S. Stonik, and M. G. Somekh, "Total internal reflection microscopy for live imaging of cellular uptake of sub-micron non-fluorescent particles," J. Microsc. 231, 168-179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Q. Dai, and G. Wang, "Surface plasmon interferometric microscopy for three dimensional imaging of dynamic processes," Opt. Lett. 31, 3004-3006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Zhu, S. W.

Zhuk, V.

A. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. Lipson, "Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Grigorenko, P. Nikitin, and A. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. Lipson, "Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

T. S. van Zanten, A. Cambi, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, "A nanometer scale optical view on the compartmentalization of cell membranes," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1798, 777-787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. Homola, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species," Chem. Rev. 108, 463-493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. Yeatman, and E. Ash, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Electron. Lett. 23, 1091-1092 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (2)

G. D. Byrne, M. C. Pitter, J. Zhang, F. H. Falcone, S. Stonik, and M. G. Somekh, "Total internal reflection microscopy for live imaging of cellular uptake of sub-micron non-fluorescent particles," J. Microsc. 231, 168-179 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stabler, M. Somekh, and C. See, "High resolution wide-field surface plasmon microscopy," J. Microsc. 214, 328-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Coll. C5 (1)

F. Abeles, "Les ondes Èlectromagnétiques de surface et leur utilisation pour l’étude des surfaces et interfaces," J. Phys. Coll. C5 38, 67-75 (1977).

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. Britland, S. Liu, C. See, M. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

B. Rothenhausler, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

S. W. Hell, "Microscopy and its focal switch," Nature 6, 24-32 (2009).

Opt. Commun. (4)

A. Grigorenko, A. Beloglazov, P. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, "Dark-field surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Commun. 174, 151-155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, H. Shih, C. Hong, and T. Chou, "Measurement of refractive index change by surface plasmon resonance and phase quadrature interferometry," Opt. Commun. 276, 283-287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Somekh, C. See, and J. Goh, "Wide field amplitude and phase confocal microscope with speckle illumination," Opt. Commun. 174, 75-80 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kano, and W. Knoll, "A scanning microscope employing localized surface plasmon-polaritons as a sensing probe," Opt. Commun. 182, 11-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

T. Roland, L. Berguiga, J. Elezgaray, and F. Argoul, "Scanning surface plasmon imaging of nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 81, 235419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dawson, B. Puygranier, and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Surface plasmon polariton propagation length: a direct comparison using photon scanning tunneling microscopy and attenuated total reflection," Phys. Rev. B 63, 205410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1992 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

C.-E. Berger, R. Kooyman, and J. Greve, "Resolution in surface plasmon microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2829-2836 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Tao, S. Boussaad, W. Huang, R. Arechabaleta, and J. D’Agnese, "High resolution surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4656-4660 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Stephens, and V. Allan, "Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging," Science 300, 82-86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators (1)

G. Nenninger, P. Tobiska, J. Homola, and S. Yee, "Long-range surface plasmons for high resolution surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators 74, 145-151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

M. M. A. Jamil, M. Youseffi, P. Twigg, S. Britland, S. Liud, C. See, J. Zhang, M. S., and M. C. T. Denyer, "High resolution imaging of bio-molecular binding studies using a widefield surface plasmon microscope," Sens. Actuators B 129, 566-574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

P. Nikitin, A. Beloglazov, V. Kochergin, M. Valeiko, and T. Ksenevich, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing," Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54, 43-50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

P. Dawson, K. Smith, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, "Imaging of surface plasmon launch and propagation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope," Ultramicroscopy 57, 287-292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

E. Kretschmann, "Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflachenplasmaschwingungen," Z. Phys. 241, 313-324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. Homola, "Surface plasmon resonance base sensors," in "Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors," O. S. Wolfbeis, ed. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006), 4, pp. 3-44.
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, "Quantitative phase imaging of nanoscale cell structure and dynamics," in "Methods in Cell Biology," vol. 90 (Elsevier, 2008), chap. 5, pp. 87-111.
[CrossRef]

H. Raether, Excitation of plasmons and interband transitions by electrons (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

F. Argoul, T. Roland, A. Fahys, L. Berguiga, and J. Elezgaray, "Uncovering phase rotation from surface plasmon resonance images: towards a sub-wavelength resolution spr phase contrast imaging," submitted to C. R. A. S. Physique (2009).

F. Argoul, K. Monier, T. Roland, J. Elezgaray, and L. Berguiga, "High resolution surface plasmon microscopy for cell imaging," in "Biophotonics: Photonic solutions for better health care," vol. 7715, J. Popp, W. Drexler, V. Tuchin, and D. Matthhews, eds. (SPIE, 2010), vol. 7715, pp. 1-15.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Sketch of the SSPM device. LS: polarized laser source (He–Ne), AOM1 and AOM2 acousto-optic modulators, PC: polarization converter liquid crystal, BS: beam splitter, PM: photomultiplier. The interference signal is captured on PM at a rate given by the difference of the modulation frequencies of each arm of the interferometer. (C) Representations of the electric field at the aperture of the objective lens (top) or laterally (bottom) for three polarizations: (a) radial, (b) azimuthal and (c) planar (linear). (D) Experimental images of the back reflected light for the three polarizations illustrated in (C).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical V(Z) curves illustrating the SSPM response of a 45 nm gold film in air, on which a 50 nm film with variable refractive index has been added. (a) |V(Z)| in p polarization mode. (b) Φ(Z) in p polarization mode. (c) |V(Z)| in s polarization mode. (d) Φ(Z) in s polarization mode. λ = 633 nm, ɛAu = −11.81 + 1.214 i, δAu = 45 nm, ɛCr = −1.1125 + 20.793 i, δCr = 3 nm. The color coding of the curves depends on the index of the dielectric layer: black: nC = 1; magenta: nC = 1.2; light blue: nC = 1.3; dark blue: nC = 1.4; green: nC = 1.5; red: nC = 1.6.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three dimensional view of the plane sections in Z direction from the 3D map of |V(X,Y,Z)| that give the images I(X,Y) for fixed Z value. This (X,Y,Z) scan has been done on a 50 nm gold nanoparticle. Images were acquired using a radially polarized light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SSPM (X,Y) amplitude images reconstructed from IMR90 fibroblasts for different foci Z in radial polarization. (a) Selection of three |V(Z)| curves, corresponding to the colored symbols of Fig. 4(b). (b) Z = 0 μm. (c) Z = 0.4 μm. (d) Z = 0.8 μm. (e) Z = 1.2 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SSPM (X,Y) ampitude images reconstructed from IMR90 fibroblasts for different foci Z in radial polarization, on the same cell as in Fig. 4, zooming on the nucleus. (a) Selection of three |V(Z)| curves, corresponding to the colored symbols of Fig. 4(b). (b) Z = 0 μm. (c) Z = 0.4 μm. (d) Z = 0.8 μm. (e) Z = 1.2 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SSPM (X,Y) phase images corresponding to the amplitude images of Fig. 5; radial polarization. (b) Z = 0 μm. (c) Z = 0.4 μm. (d) Z = 0.8 μm. (e) Z = 1.2 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SSPM characterization of a nuclear zone of an IMR90 fibroblast: comparing radial (left column: (a)–(c)) and azimuthal (right column: (d)–(f)) polarization modes. (a) Amplitude image for Z = 0.6 μm (radial polarization). (b) |V(Z)| curves corresponding to the colored markers in (a). (c) Φ(Z) curves corresponding to the colored markers in (a). (d) Amplitude image for Z = 0.6 μm (azimuthal polarization). (e) |V(Z)| curves corresponding to the colored markers in (d). (f) Φ(Z) curves corresponding to the colored markers in (d).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of SSPM phase images of the same IMR90 fibroblast as in Fig. 7, reconstructed from 3D V(Z) maps in radial (a) and (b) and azimuthal (c) and (d) polarization. (a) and (c): Z = 0.8μm, (b) and (d) Z = 1.2μm

Equations (4)

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V ( Z ) = θ min θ max P 2 ( sin θ ) 𝒬 ( θ ) exp ( 2 j k 0 Z cos θ ) cos θ sin θ d θ
𝒬 ( θ ) = 0 2 π r p , s ( θ ) cos 2 φ d φ = π r p , s ( θ )
Δ V ( Z ) Y ( ɛ C , d C ) θ min θ max P 2 ( sin θ ) [ r p ( θ ) θ ] exp 2 j k 0 Z cos θ sin θ d θ .
Δ k ˜ x S P = ( ω c ) 2 d C ( ɛ C 1 ) ( ɛ C ɛ m ) ɛ C [ ɛ m 1 + ɛ m ] 2 1 ( 1 + ɛ m ) ɛ m .

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