Abstract

Superbroadband emission from 1.0 to 1.7 μm wavelength was observed in thulium-bismuth (Tm-Bi) codoped sodium-germanium-gallate (NGG) glasses under 793 nm excitation. Efficient energy transfer process from Bi to Tm ions, with value as high as 67.7%, was achieved which is beneficial in achieving flat broadband lineshape. The large stimulated emission cross-section and measured lifetime confirm the potentials of Tm-Bi codopants as luminescence sources for superbroadband near-infrared (NIR) optical amplifiers and tunable lasers. Planar optical waveguides were fabricated successfully in the codoped NGG glasses using K+-Na+ ion-exchange process.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (4)

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xiao, B. Zhou, L. Yan, F. Zhu, F. Zhang, and A. Huang, “Photoluminescence and energy transfer processes in rare earth ion doped oxide thin films with substrate heating,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1297–1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhou, H. Lin, D. Yang, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Emission of 1.38 μm and gain properties from Ho3+-doped low-phonon-energy gallate bismuth lead oxide glasses for fiber-optic amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 211–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhou, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for fiber amplifiers in broadband optical communication at 1.20 µm wavelength region,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18805–18810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

D. L. Yang, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Radiative transitions and optical gains in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped acid-resistant ion exchanged germanate glass channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(2), 357–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruan, L. Su, J. Qiu, D. Chen, and J. Xu, “Bi-doped BaF2 crystal for broadband near-infrared light source,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5163–5169 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ruan, E. Wu, B. Wu, H. Zeng, Q. Zhang, G. Dong, Y. Qiao, D. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Spectral properties and broadband optical amplification of Yb-Bi codoped MgO-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(4), 778–782 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19345–19355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Yang, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Tm3+-doped ion-exchanged aluminum germanate glass waveguide for S-band amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. Yang, and L. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, Q. Zhang, C. Shen, D. Chen, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Broadband near-IR emission in Tm/Er-codoped GeS2-In2S3-based chalcohalide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(12), 3088–3091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, and C. N. Alfonso, “Broadband emission in Er-Tm codoped Al2O3 films: The role of energy transfer from Er to Tm,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, X. Wang, L. Lin, C. Li, D. Yang, and S. Tanabe, “Near-infrared emission character of Tm3+-doped heavy metal tellurite glasses for optical amplifiers and 1.8 μm infrared laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(12), 3567–3572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, Y. Wang, F. Bao, and Y. Yu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Tm3+/Er3+ co-doped nanostructured glass ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ito, G. Boulon, A. Bensalah, Y. Guyot, C. Goutaudier, and H. Sato, “Spectroscopic properties, concentration quenching, and prediction of infrared laser emission of Yb3+-doped KY3F10 cubic crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(12), 3023–3033 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Görller-Walrand, V. D. Rodriguez, and A. B. Seddon, “Transparent Ho3+-doped nano-glass-ceramics for efficient infrared emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 073111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, M. A. Arriandiaga, L. M. Lacha, and J. M. Fernández-Navarro, “Effect of concentration on the infrared emissions of Tm3+ ions in lead niobium germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(11), 1253–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martin, and V. Lavin, “Dopant portioning on the near-infrared emissions of Tm3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Lee and J. Heo, “Energy transfer processes and Ho3+: 5I5 level population dynamics in chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73(14), 144201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Xia and X. J. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3-GeO2-X (X=Na2O, BaO, Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, G. Brown, A. Jha, and S. Shen, “Femtosecond laser inscription of optical waveguides in Bismuth ion doped glass,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10452–10459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu and E. Y. B. Pun, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides using field-assisted annealing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 76–78 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, and I. Vickridge, “Broadband infrared emission from Er-Tm:Al2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

Y. S. Han, J. H. Song, and J. Heo, “Analysis of cross relaxation between Tm3+ ions in PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3-GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, B. S. Bae, N. Park, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Erbium-thulium interaction in broadband infrared luminescent silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(20), 3445–3447 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, “Rare-earth-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers in broadband telecommunication,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 815–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephens, “Towards the clarity limit in optical fibre,” Nature 404(6775), 262–264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Naftaly, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Tm3+-doped tellurite glass for a broadband amplifier at 1.47 μm,” Appl. Opt. 39(27), 4979–4984 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

K. Murata, Y. Fujimoto, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Bi-doped SiO2 as a new laser material for an intense laser,” Fusion Eng. Des. 44(1-4), 437–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical Absorption Intensities of Rare-Earth Ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, F. Xu, and C. N. Afonso, “Critical separation for efficient Tm3+ -Tm3+ energy transfer evidenced in nanostructured Tm3+: Al2O3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 608–610 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, and I. Vickridge, “Broadband infrared emission from Er-Tm:Al2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akada, T.

Alfonso, C. N.

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, and C. N. Alfonso, “Broadband emission in Er-Tm codoped Al2O3 films: The role of energy transfer from Er to Tm,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Almenara, J. M.

F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martin, and V. Lavin, “Dopant portioning on the near-infrared emissions of Tm3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arriandiaga, M. A.

R. Balda, L. M. Lacha, J. Fernández, M. A. Arriandiaga, J. M. J. M. Fernández-Navarro, and D. Muñoz-Martin, “Spectroscopic properties of the 1.4 μm emission of Tm3+ ions in TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11836–11846 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, M. A. Arriandiaga, L. M. Lacha, and J. M. Fernández-Navarro, “Effect of concentration on the infrared emissions of Tm3+ ions in lead niobium germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(11), 1253–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B. S.

S. Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, B. S. Bae, N. Park, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Erbium-thulium interaction in broadband infrared luminescent silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(20), 3445–3447 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

R. Balda, L. M. Lacha, J. Fernández, M. A. Arriandiaga, J. M. J. M. Fernández-Navarro, and D. Muñoz-Martin, “Spectroscopic properties of the 1.4 μm emission of Tm3+ ions in TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11836–11846 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, M. A. Arriandiaga, L. M. Lacha, and J. M. Fernández-Navarro, “Effect of concentration on the infrared emissions of Tm3+ ions in lead niobium germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(11), 1253–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bao, F.

D. Chen, Y. Wang, F. Bao, and Y. Yu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Tm3+/Er3+ co-doped nanostructured glass ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bensalah, A.

Bigot, L.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. T.

Boulon, G.

Bowman, S. R.

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

Brown, G.

Bufetov, I. A.

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chen, D.

Chen, G.

Y. Xu, Q. Zhang, C. Shen, D. Chen, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Broadband near-IR emission in Tm/Er-codoped GeS2-In2S3-based chalcohalide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(12), 3088–3091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

Crawford, J.

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, G.

Douay, M.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Driesen, K.

K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Görller-Walrand, V. D. Rodriguez, and A. B. Seddon, “Transparent Ho3+-doped nano-glass-ceramics for efficient infrared emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 073111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, J.

R. Balda, L. M. Lacha, J. Fernández, M. A. Arriandiaga, J. M. J. M. Fernández-Navarro, and D. Muñoz-Martin, “Spectroscopic properties of the 1.4 μm emission of Tm3+ ions in TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11836–11846 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, M. A. Arriandiaga, L. M. Lacha, and J. M. Fernández-Navarro, “Effect of concentration on the infrared emissions of Tm3+ ions in lead niobium germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(11), 1253–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Navarro, J. M.

R. Balda, J. Fernández, M. A. Arriandiaga, L. M. Lacha, and J. M. Fernández-Navarro, “Effect of concentration on the infrared emissions of Tm3+ ions in lead niobium germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 28(11), 1253–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Navarro, J. M. J. M.

Fujimoto, Y.

K. Murata, Y. Fujimoto, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Bi-doped SiO2 as a new laser material for an intense laser,” Fusion Eng. Des. 44(1-4), 437–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, H.

K. Murata, Y. Fujimoto, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Bi-doped SiO2 as a new laser material for an intense laser,” Fusion Eng. Des. 44(1-4), 437–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ganem, J.

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, “Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glodis, P. F.

G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephens, “Towards the clarity limit in optical fibre,” Nature 404(6775), 262–264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Görller-Walrand, C.

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Z. Xiao, B. Zhou, L. Yan, F. Zhu, F. Zhang, and A. Huang, “Photoluminescence and energy transfer processes in rare earth ion doped oxide thin films with substrate heating,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1297–1300 (2010).
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B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. Yang, and L. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
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F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martin, and V. Lavin, “Dopant portioning on the near-infrared emissions of Tm3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053103 (2006).
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T. H. Lee and J. Heo, “Energy transfer processes and Ho3+: 5I5 level population dynamics in chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73(14), 144201 (2006).
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V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041908 (2008).
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H. Lin, X. Wang, L. Lin, C. Li, D. Yang, and S. Tanabe, “Near-infrared emission character of Tm3+-doped heavy metal tellurite glasses for optical amplifiers and 1.8 μm infrared laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(12), 3567–3572 (2007).
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Lin, H.

B. Zhou, H. Lin, D. Yang, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Emission of 1.38 μm and gain properties from Ho3+-doped low-phonon-energy gallate bismuth lead oxide glasses for fiber-optic amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 211–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhou, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for fiber amplifiers in broadband optical communication at 1.20 µm wavelength region,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18805–18810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Yang, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Radiative transitions and optical gains in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped acid-resistant ion exchanged germanate glass channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(2), 357–363 (2009).
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D. L. Yang, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Tm3+-doped ion-exchanged aluminum germanate glass waveguide for S-band amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. Yang, and L. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
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H. Lin, X. Wang, L. Lin, C. Li, D. Yang, and S. Tanabe, “Near-infrared emission character of Tm3+-doped heavy metal tellurite glasses for optical amplifiers and 1.8 μm infrared laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(12), 3567–3572 (2007).
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H. Lin, X. Wang, L. Lin, C. Li, D. Yang, and S. Tanabe, “Near-infrared emission character of Tm3+-doped heavy metal tellurite glasses for optical amplifiers and 1.8 μm infrared laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(12), 3567–3572 (2007).
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K. Liu and E. Y. B. Pun, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides using field-assisted annealing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 76–78 (2005).
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Martin, I. R.

F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martin, and V. Lavin, “Dopant portioning on the near-infrared emissions of Tm3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053103 (2006).
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S. Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, B. S. Bae, N. Park, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Erbium-thulium interaction in broadband infrared luminescent silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(20), 3445–3447 (2003).
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Pun, E. Y. B.

B. Zhou, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for fiber amplifiers in broadband optical communication at 1.20 µm wavelength region,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18805–18810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhou, H. Lin, D. Yang, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Emission of 1.38 μm and gain properties from Ho3+-doped low-phonon-energy gallate bismuth lead oxide glasses for fiber-optic amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 211–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Yang, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Radiative transitions and optical gains in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped acid-resistant ion exchanged germanate glass channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(2), 357–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Yang, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Tm3+-doped ion-exchanged aluminum germanate glass waveguide for S-band amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. Yang, and L. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
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K. Liu and E. Y. B. Pun, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides using field-assisted annealing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 76–78 (2005).
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Qiu, J.

Razdobreev, I.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041908 (2008).
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K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Görller-Walrand, V. D. Rodriguez, and A. B. Seddon, “Transparent Ho3+-doped nano-glass-ceramics for efficient infrared emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 073111 (2006).
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F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martin, and V. Lavin, “Dopant portioning on the near-infrared emissions of Tm3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053103 (2006).
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Seddon, A. B.

K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Görller-Walrand, V. D. Rodriguez, and A. B. Seddon, “Transparent Ho3+-doped nano-glass-ceramics for efficient infrared emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 073111 (2006).
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S. Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, B. S. Bae, N. Park, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Erbium-thulium interaction in broadband infrared luminescent silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(20), 3445–3447 (2003).
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Serna, R.

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, F. Xu, and C. N. Afonso, “Critical separation for efficient Tm3+ -Tm3+ energy transfer evidenced in nanostructured Tm3+: Al2O3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 608–610 (2008).
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Z. Xiao, R. Serna, and C. N. Alfonso, “Broadband emission in Er-Tm codoped Al2O3 films: The role of energy transfer from Er to Tm,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033112 (2007).
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Z. Xiao, R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, and I. Vickridge, “Broadband infrared emission from Er-Tm:Al2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 111103 (2005).
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Y. Xu, Q. Zhang, C. Shen, D. Chen, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Broadband near-IR emission in Tm/Er-codoped GeS2-In2S3-based chalcohalide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(12), 3088–3091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

Shin, J. H.

S. Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, B. S. Bae, N. Park, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Erbium-thulium interaction in broadband infrared luminescent silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(20), 3445–3447 (2003).
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G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephens, “Towards the clarity limit in optical fibre,” Nature 404(6775), 262–264 (2000).
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Y. S. Han, J. H. Song, and J. Heo, “Analysis of cross relaxation between Tm3+ ions in PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3-GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2817 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephens, “Towards the clarity limit in optical fibre,” Nature 404(6775), 262–264 (2000).
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H. Lin, X. Wang, L. Lin, C. Li, D. Yang, and S. Tanabe, “Near-infrared emission character of Tm3+-doped heavy metal tellurite glasses for optical amplifiers and 1.8 μm infrared laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(12), 3567–3572 (2007).
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S. Tanabe, “Rare-earth-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers in broadband telecommunication,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 815–824 (2002).
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G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephens, “Towards the clarity limit in optical fibre,” Nature 404(6775), 262–264 (2000).
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Tikhomirov, V. K.

K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Görller-Walrand, V. D. Rodriguez, and A. B. Seddon, “Transparent Ho3+-doped nano-glass-ceramics for efficient infrared emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 073111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041908 (2008).
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Z. Xiao, R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, and I. Vickridge, “Broadband infrared emission from Er-Tm:Al2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 111103 (2005).
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Wang, X.

H. Lin, X. Wang, L. Lin, C. Li, D. Yang, and S. Tanabe, “Near-infrared emission character of Tm3+-doped heavy metal tellurite glasses for optical amplifiers and 1.8 μm infrared laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(12), 3567–3572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. P. Xia and X. J. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3-GeO2-X (X=Na2O, BaO, Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051917 (2006).
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D. Chen, Y. Wang, F. Bao, and Y. Yu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Tm3+/Er3+ co-doped nanostructured glass ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113511 (2007).
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M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Wu, E.

Xia, H. P.

H. P. Xia and X. J. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3-GeO2-X (X=Na2O, BaO, Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Xiao, B. Zhou, L. Yan, F. Zhu, F. Zhang, and A. Huang, “Photoluminescence and energy transfer processes in rare earth ion doped oxide thin films with substrate heating,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1297–1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, F. Xu, and C. N. Afonso, “Critical separation for efficient Tm3+ -Tm3+ energy transfer evidenced in nanostructured Tm3+: Al2O3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 608–610 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, and C. N. Alfonso, “Broadband emission in Er-Tm codoped Al2O3 films: The role of energy transfer from Er to Tm,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, and I. Vickridge, “Broadband infrared emission from Er-Tm:Al2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Xu, J.

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, Q. Zhang, C. Shen, D. Chen, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Broadband near-IR emission in Tm/Er-codoped GeS2-In2S3-based chalcohalide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(12), 3088–3091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.

Z. Xiao, B. Zhou, L. Yan, F. Zhu, F. Zhang, and A. Huang, “Photoluminescence and energy transfer processes in rare earth ion doped oxide thin films with substrate heating,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1297–1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

B. Zhou, H. Lin, D. Yang, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Emission of 1.38 μm and gain properties from Ho3+-doped low-phonon-energy gallate bismuth lead oxide glasses for fiber-optic amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 211–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. Yang, and L. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, X. Wang, L. Lin, C. Li, D. Yang, and S. Tanabe, “Near-infrared emission character of Tm3+-doped heavy metal tellurite glasses for optical amplifiers and 1.8 μm infrared laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(12), 3567–3572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. L.

D. L. Yang, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Radiative transitions and optical gains in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped acid-resistant ion exchanged germanate glass channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(2), 357–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Yang, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Tm3+-doped ion-exchanged aluminum germanate glass waveguide for S-band amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Yu, Y.

D. Chen, Y. Wang, F. Bao, and Y. Yu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Tm3+/Er3+ co-doped nanostructured glass ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Xu, Q. Zhang, C. Shen, D. Chen, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Broadband near-IR emission in Tm/Er-codoped GeS2-In2S3-based chalcohalide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(12), 3088–3091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Z. Xiao, B. Zhou, L. Yan, F. Zhu, F. Zhang, and A. Huang, “Photoluminescence and energy transfer processes in rare earth ion doped oxide thin films with substrate heating,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1297–1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, N.

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Y. Xu, Q. Zhang, C. Shen, D. Chen, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Broadband near-IR emission in Tm/Er-codoped GeS2-In2S3-based chalcohalide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(12), 3088–3091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruan, E. Wu, B. Wu, H. Zeng, Q. Zhang, G. Dong, Y. Qiao, D. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Spectral properties and broadband optical amplification of Yb-Bi codoped MgO-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(4), 778–782 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B.

B. Zhou, H. Lin, D. Yang, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Emission of 1.38 μm and gain properties from Ho3+-doped low-phonon-energy gallate bismuth lead oxide glasses for fiber-optic amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 211–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhou, H. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Tm3+-doped tellurite glasses for fiber amplifiers in broadband optical communication at 1.20 µm wavelength region,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18805–18810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xiao, B. Zhou, L. Yan, F. Zhu, F. Zhang, and A. Huang, “Photoluminescence and energy transfer processes in rare earth ion doped oxide thin films with substrate heating,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1297–1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. Yang, and L. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

Zhu, F.

Z. Xiao, B. Zhou, L. Yan, F. Zhu, F. Zhang, and A. Huang, “Photoluminescence and energy transfer processes in rare earth ion doped oxide thin films with substrate heating,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1297–1300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

H. P. Xia and X. J. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3-GeO2-X (X=Na2O, BaO, Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, B. S. Bae, N. Park, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Erbium-thulium interaction in broadband infrared luminescent silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(20), 3445–3447 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xiao, R. Serna, C. N. Afonso, and I. Vickridge, “Broadband infrared emission from Er-Tm:Al2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, C. Görller-Walrand, V. D. Rodriguez, and A. B. Seddon, “Transparent Ho3+-doped nano-glass-ceramics for efficient infrared emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 073111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Yang, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. Lin, “Tm3+-doped ion-exchanged aluminum germanate glass waveguide for S-band amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 151106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Chim. (1)

S. Tanabe, “Rare-earth-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers in broadband telecommunication,” C. R. Chim. 5(12), 815–824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fusion Eng. Des. (1)

K. Murata, Y. Fujimoto, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Bi-doped SiO2 as a new laser material for an intense laser,” Fusion Eng. Des. 44(1-4), 437–439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Liu and E. Y. B. Pun, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides using field-assisted annealing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 76–78 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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Z. Xiao, B. Zhou, L. Yan, F. Zhu, F. Zhang, and A. Huang, “Photoluminescence and energy transfer processes in rare earth ion doped oxide thin films with substrate heating,” Phys. Lett. A 374(10), 1297–1300 (2010).
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See, for example, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, M. J. F. Digonnet, eds., (Marcel Dekker, 2001), and references therein.

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