Abstract

A 1.3 µm Raman fiber amplifier pumped by 1.22 µm semiconductor disk laser in co-propagation geometry is demonstrated. Measured relative intensity noise of −148 dB/Hz over frequency range up to 3.5 GHz was measured at 900 mW of pump power. 9 dB gain was achieved with co-propagating pumping geometry with less than 2 dB additional noise induced by amplifier to the signal. Nearly shot-noise-limited operation of semiconductor disk laser combined with the diffraction-limited beam allows for efficient core-pumping of the single-mode fiber Raman amplifiers and represents a highly practical approach which takes full advantage of co-propagating pumping.

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2010

2009

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

A. Ahmad, M. I. Md Ali, A. K. Zamzuri, R. Mohamad, and M. A. Mahdi, “Gain-clamped Raman fiber amplifier in a counter-lasing ring cavity using a pair of circulators,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(4), 721–724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoshida, N. Tsukiji, T. Kimura, M. Funabashi, and T. Fukushima, “Novel concepts in 14XX nm pump lasers for Raman amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4870, 149–162 (2002).

2000

1997

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 262–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, G. Hull-Allen, and C. Holton, “Low-noise single frequency linear fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(18), 1623–1625 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

Y. Aoki, “Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(7), 1225–1239 (1988), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4120&isnumber=229 .
[CrossRef]

1986

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and M. N. Islam, “Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 157–173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1973

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(6), 276–278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, A.

A. Ahmad, M. I. Md Ali, A. K. Zamzuri, R. Mohamad, and M. A. Mahdi, “Gain-clamped Raman fiber amplifier in a counter-lasing ring cavity using a pair of circulators,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(4), 721–724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alouini, M.

Aoki, Y.

Y. Aoki, “Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(7), 1225–1239 (1988), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4120&isnumber=229 .
[CrossRef]

Baili, G.

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, G. Hull-Allen, and C. Holton, “Low-noise single frequency linear fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(18), 1623–1625 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bretenaker, F.

Bromage, J.

Bubnov, M. M.

Bufetov, I. A.

Chamorovskiy, A.

Codemard, C. A.

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeMarco, J. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 262–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 262–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D.

Eskildsen, L.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 262–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, T.

J. Yoshida, N. Tsukiji, T. Kimura, M. Funabashi, and T. Fukushima, “Novel concepts in 14XX nm pump lasers for Raman amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4870, 149–162 (2002).

Funabashi, M.

J. Yoshida, N. Tsukiji, T. Kimura, M. Funabashi, and T. Fukushima, “Novel concepts in 14XX nm pump lasers for Raman amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4870, 149–162 (2002).

Ghosh, R.

Goldfarb, F.

Gordon, J. P.

R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silica-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(6), 1159–1166 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and M. N. Islam, “Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 157–173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Grekov, M. V.

Grubb, S. G.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 262–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P. B.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 262–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Holton, C.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, G. Hull-Allen, and C. Holton, “Low-noise single frequency linear fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(18), 1623–1625 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hull-Allen, G.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, G. Hull-Allen, and C. Holton, “Low-noise single frequency linear fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(18), 1623–1625 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(6), 276–278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and M. N. Islam, “Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 157–173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ji, J.

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 262–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

Kimura, T.

J. Yoshida, N. Tsukiji, T. Kimura, M. Funabashi, and T. Fukushima, “Novel concepts in 14XX nm pump lasers for Raman amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4870, 149–162 (2002).

Lyytikäinen, J.

Mahdi, M. A.

A. Ahmad, M. I. Md Ali, A. K. Zamzuri, R. Mohamad, and M. A. Mahdi, “Gain-clamped Raman fiber amplifier in a counter-lasing ring cavity using a pair of circulators,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(4), 721–724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Md Ali, M. I.

A. Ahmad, M. I. Md Ali, A. K. Zamzuri, R. Mohamad, and M. A. Mahdi, “Gain-clamped Raman fiber amplifier in a counter-lasing ring cavity using a pair of circulators,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(4), 721–724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Medvedkov, O. I.

Mereuta, A.

Miranda, B.-X.

Mohamad, R.

A. Ahmad, M. I. Md Ali, A. K. Zamzuri, R. Mohamad, and M. A. Mahdi, “Gain-clamped Raman fiber amplifier in a counter-lasing ring cavity using a pair of circulators,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(4), 721–724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and M. N. Islam, “Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 157–173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, G. Hull-Allen, and C. Holton, “Low-noise single frequency linear fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(18), 1623–1625 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morvan, L.

Nilsson, J.

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Pal, V.

Pedrazzani, R.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 262–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ranta, S.

Rantamäki, A.

Rautiainen, J.

Sagnes, I.

Sahu, J. K.

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sirbu, A.

Stentz, A. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 262–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Strasser, T. A.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 262–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tavast, M.

Tomlinson, W. J.

Trofimoff, P.

Tsukiji, N.

J. Yoshida, N. Tsukiji, T. Kimura, M. Funabashi, and T. Fukushima, “Novel concepts in 14XX nm pump lasers for Raman amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4870, 149–162 (2002).

Vasiliev, S. A.

Yoshida, J.

J. Yoshida, N. Tsukiji, T. Kimura, M. Funabashi, and T. Fukushima, “Novel concepts in 14XX nm pump lasers for Raman amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4870, 149–162 (2002).

Zamzuri, A. K.

A. Ahmad, M. I. Md Ali, A. K. Zamzuri, R. Mohamad, and M. A. Mahdi, “Gain-clamped Raman fiber amplifier in a counter-lasing ring cavity using a pair of circulators,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(4), 721–724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22(6), 276–278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, G. Hull-Allen, and C. Holton, “Low-noise single frequency linear fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(18), 1623–1625 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and M. N. Islam, “Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 157–173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 262–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

A. Ahmad, M. I. Md Ali, A. K. Zamzuri, R. Mohamad, and M. A. Mahdi, “Gain-clamped Raman fiber amplifier in a counter-lasing ring cavity using a pair of circulators,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(4), 721–724 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. Yoshida, N. Tsukiji, T. Kimura, M. Funabashi, and T. Fukushima, “Novel concepts in 14XX nm pump lasers for Raman amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4870, 149–162 (2002).

Other

O. G. Okhotnikov, ed., Semiconductor Disk Lasers, Physics and Technology (Wiley-VCH, 2010).

R. Hui and M. O’Sullivan, Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques (Elsevier, 2009).

Oclaro pump laser module datasheet (Olcaro, Inc., 2010), http://www.oclaro.com/product_pages/LC96U_.html .

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2002).

K. Rottwitt, J. Bromage, M. Du, and A. Stentz, “Design of distributed Raman amplifiers,” Proceedings of the ECOC 99, (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 67–71.

C. Headley III and G. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Academic Press, EUA, 2004).

M. N. Islam, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 1: Physical Principles (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

RIN characteristic of the 1.22 µm pump laser at the output power of 800 mW.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raman fiber amplifier setup and (b) optical spectrum detected at the amplifier output.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman gain versus 1.22 μm disk laser pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RIN characteristics of Raman amplifier and signal source.

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