Abstract

Using a 820 nm-thick high-quality Ge0.97Sn0.03 alloy film grown on Si(001) by molecular beam epitaxy, GeSn p-i-n photodectectors have been fabricated. The detectors have relatively high responsivities, such as 0.52 A/W, 0.23 A/W, and 0.12 A/W at 1310 nm, 1540 nm, and 1640 nm, respectively, under a 1 V reverse bias. With a broad detection spectrum (800-1800 nm) covering the whole telecommunication windows and compatibility with conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) technology, the GeSn devices are attractive for applications in both optical communications and optical interconnects.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Synthesis of epitaxial SnxGe1-x alloy films by ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 664–666 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. R. A. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. E. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1-xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge(001)2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetecors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kouvetakis, J. Menendez, and A. V. G. Chizmeshya, “Tin-based group IV semiconductors: New platforms for opto- and microelectronics on silicon,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36(1), 497–554 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. Su, W. Wang, B. W. Cheng, G. Z. Zhang, W. X. Hu, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, and Q. M. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Y. Xue, C. L. Xue, B. W. Cheng, Y. D. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Zero biased Ge-on-Si photodetector with a bandwidth of 4.72 GHz at 1550 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 18(6), 2542–2544 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1-ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1-ySny/Ge1-xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125207 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011

S. J. Su, W. Wang, B. W. Cheng, G. Z. Zhang, W. X. Hu, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, and Q. M. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetecors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Xue, C. L. Xue, B. W. Cheng, Y. D. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Zero biased Ge-on-Si photodetector with a bandwidth of 4.72 GHz at 1550 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 18(6), 2542–2544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1-ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1-ySny/Ge1-xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kouvetakis, J. Menendez, and A. V. G. Chizmeshya, “Tin-based group IV semiconductors: New platforms for opto- and microelectronics on silicon,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36(1), 497–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. R. A. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. E. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1-xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge(001)2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Synthesis of epitaxial SnxGe1-x alloy films by ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 664–666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Synthesis of epitaxial SnxGe1-x alloy films by ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 664–666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, M.

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Birdwell, A. G.

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1-ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1-ySny/Ge1-xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Canonico, M.

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1-ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1-ySny/Ge1-xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, J. R. A.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. R. A. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. E. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1-xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge(001)2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B. W.

S. J. Su, W. Wang, B. W. Cheng, G. Z. Zhang, W. X. Hu, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, and Q. M. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Xue, C. L. Xue, B. W. Cheng, Y. D. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Zero biased Ge-on-Si photodetector with a bandwidth of 4.72 GHz at 1550 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 18(6), 2542–2544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chizmeshya, A. V. G.

J. Kouvetakis, J. Menendez, and A. V. G. Chizmeshya, “Tin-based group IV semiconductors: New platforms for opto- and microelectronics on silicon,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36(1), 497–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colace, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cook, C. S.

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1-ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1-ySny/Ge1-xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D’Costa, V. R.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1-ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1-ySny/Ge1-xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, P.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. R. A. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. E. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1-xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge(001)2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, P.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fulgoni, D.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. E.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. R. A. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. E. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1-xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge(001)2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gurdal, O.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. R. A. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. E. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1-xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge(001)2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Synthesis of epitaxial SnxGe1-x alloy films by ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 664–666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

Hu, C.

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W. X.

S. J. Su, W. Wang, B. W. Cheng, G. Z. Zhang, W. X. Hu, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, and Q. M. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. O.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kouvetakis, J.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetecors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kouvetakis, J. Menendez, and A. V. G. Chizmeshya, “Tin-based group IV semiconductors: New platforms for opto- and microelectronics on silicon,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36(1), 497–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1-ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1-ySny/Ge1-xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Littler, C. L.

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1-ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1-ySny/Ge1-xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H. C.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mathews, J.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetecors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Menendez, J.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetecors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1-ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1-ySny/Ge1-xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kouvetakis, J. Menendez, and A. V. G. Chizmeshya, “Tin-based group IV semiconductors: New platforms for opto- and microelectronics on silicon,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36(1), 497–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nash, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Radamson, H. H.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. R. A. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. E. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1-xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge(001)2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roucka, R.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetecors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Su, S. J.

S. J. Su, W. Wang, B. W. Cheng, G. Z. Zhang, W. X. Hu, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, and Q. M. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sundgren, J.-E.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. R. A. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. E. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1-xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge(001)2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taraci, J.

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, N.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. R. A. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. E. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1-xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge(001)2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tolle, J.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. M.

S. J. Su, W. Wang, B. W. Cheng, G. Z. Zhang, W. X. Hu, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, and Q. M. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Xue, C. L. Xue, B. W. Cheng, Y. D. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Zero biased Ge-on-Si photodetector with a bandwidth of 4.72 GHz at 1550 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 18(6), 2542–2544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

S. J. Su, W. Wang, B. W. Cheng, G. Z. Zhang, W. X. Hu, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, and Q. M. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetecors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, C. L.

S. J. Su, W. Wang, B. W. Cheng, G. Z. Zhang, W. X. Hu, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, and Q. M. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Xue, C. L. Xue, B. W. Cheng, Y. D. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Zero biased Ge-on-Si photodetector with a bandwidth of 4.72 GHz at 1550 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 18(6), 2542–2544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, H. Y.

H. Y. Xue, C. L. Xue, B. W. Cheng, Y. D. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Zero biased Ge-on-Si photodetector with a bandwidth of 4.72 GHz at 1550 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 18(6), 2542–2544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yasaitis, J.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. Q.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetecors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. D.

H. Y. Xue, C. L. Xue, B. W. Cheng, Y. D. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Zero biased Ge-on-Si photodetector with a bandwidth of 4.72 GHz at 1550 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 18(6), 2542–2544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Z.

S. J. Su, W. Wang, B. W. Cheng, G. Z. Zhang, W. X. Hu, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, and Q. M. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zollner, S.

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1-ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1-ySny/Ge1-xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, Y. H.

S. J. Su, W. Wang, B. W. Cheng, G. Z. Zhang, W. X. Hu, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, and Q. M. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.

J. Kouvetakis, J. Menendez, and A. V. G. Chizmeshya, “Tin-based group IV semiconductors: New platforms for opto- and microelectronics on silicon,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36(1), 497–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge-Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetecors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Synthesis of epitaxial SnxGe1-x alloy films by ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 664–666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. B

H. Y. Xue, C. L. Xue, B. W. Cheng, Y. D. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Zero biased Ge-on-Si photodetector with a bandwidth of 4.72 GHz at 1550 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 18(6), 2542–2544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low Dark-Current Germanium-on-Silicon Near-Infrared Detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. R. A. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. E. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1-xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge(001)2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

S. J. Su, W. Wang, B. W. Cheng, G. Z. Zhang, W. X. Hu, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, and Q. M. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

V. R. D’Costa, C. S. Cook, A. G. Birdwell, C. L. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1-ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1-ySny/Ge1-xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic cross section and (b) top view of a GeSn p-i-n photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) X-ray diffraction curves measured from the as-grown Ge0.97Sn0.03 film and the thermally activated film after ion implantation; (b) Raman spectra measured with a 488 nm Ar+ laser from the as-grown, the as-implanted, and the post-implant annealed Ge0.97Sn0.03 alloy films. The annealed samples were annealed in N2 atmosphere for 30 minutes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the devices with different mesa diameters (d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The responsivity versus wavelength at −1 V along with a photocurrent spectrum of a 100 μm diameter GeSn detector. The responsivities were measured using lasers while the photocurrent spectrum was measured at 0 V using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Responsivity (at 1640 nm) versus diode bias of a GeSn photodetector and the inset showing the photocurrent as a function of the input optical power at different biases. In the inset, the points are experimental data, and the solid lines are linear fits.

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