Abstract

Rydberg spectroscopy of rubidium cold atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) was performed in a quartz cell. When electric fields acting on the atoms generated by a plate external to the cell were continuously applied, electric charges on the cell walls were created, as monitored on the Rydberg spectra. Avoiding accumulation of the charges and realizing good control over the applied electric field was instead obtained when the fields were applied only for a short time, typically a few microseconds. In a two-photon excitation via the 62P state to the Rydberg state, the laser resonant with the 52S–62P transition photoionizes the excited state. The photoionization-created ions produce an internal electric field which deforms the excitation spectra, as monitored on the Autler-Townes absorption spectra.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (9)

M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Molmer, "Quantum information with Rydberg atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Pohl, E. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, "Dynamical Crystallization in the Dipole Blockade of Ultracold Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 043002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Weimer, M. Müller, I. Lesanovsky, P. Zoller, and H. P. Büchler, "A Rydberg quantum simulator," Nat. Phys. 101, 250601 (2010).

D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, "Dipole blockade in a cold Rydberg atomic sample," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, A208 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, "Entanglement of Two Individual Neutral Atoms Using Rydberg Blockade," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Branden, T. Juhasz, T. Mahlokozera, C. Vesa, R. O. Wilson, M. Zheng, A. Kortyna, and D. A. Tate, "Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 010502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

T. Amthor, C. G. Christian, C. S. Hofmann, and M. Weidemüller, "Evidence of Antiblockade in an Ultracold Rydberg Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms," Nat. Phys. 5, 110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, "Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime," Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Olmos, R. González-Férez, and I. Lesanovsky, "Fermionic Collective Excitations in a Lattice Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 185302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

R. Heidemann, U. Raitzsch, V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, "Rydberg Excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, "Quantum coherence and entanglement with ultracold atoms in optical lattices," Nature 453, 1016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chotia, M. Viteau, T. Vogt, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, "Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of dipole blockade in Rydberg excitation experiment," N. J. Phys. 10, 045031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Ates, T. Pohl, T. Pattard, and T. J. M. Rost, "Many-body theory of excitation dynamics in an ultracold Rydberg gas," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, "Coherent Optical Detection of Highly Excited Rydberg States Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lignier, C. Sias, D. Ciampini, Y. Singh, A. Zenesini, O. Morsch, and E. Arimondo, "Dynamical Control of Matter-Wave Tunneling in Periodic Potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Côté, A. Russell, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, "Quantum random walk with Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice," N. J. Phys. 8, 156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Grabowski, A. R. Heidemann, A. R. Löw, A. J. Stuhler, and A. T. Pfau, "High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultracold rubidium atoms," Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765-775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Saffman, and T. G. Walker, "Analysis of a quantum logic device based on dipole-dipole interactions of optically trapped Rydberg atoms," Phys. Rev. A 72, 022347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, P. L. Tanner, and T. F. Gallagher, "Dipole-Dipole Excitation and Ionization in an Ultracold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

E. Courtade, M. Anderlini, D. Ciampini, J. H. Müller, O. Morsch, E. Arimondo, M. Aymar, and E. J. Robinson, "Two-photon ionization of cold rubidium atoms with a near resonant intermediate state," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, "Suppression of Excitation and Spectral Broadening Induced by Interactions in a Cold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. I. Mourachko, M. W. Noel, and T. F. Gallagher, "Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap: Quantum defects of the ns, np, and nd series," Phys. Rev. A 67, 052502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, "Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2 −5P3/2 −44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms," Phys. Rev. A 68, 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Dipole Blockade and Quantum Information Processing in Mesoscopic Atomic Ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, "Fast Quantum Gates for Neutral Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and A. V. Papoyan, "Electrical conductivity of glass and sapphire cells exposed to dry cesium vapor," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Oster, V. Yaskolko, and J. Haddad, "Classification of Exoelectron Emission Mechanisms," Phys. Stat. Solidi A 174, 431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. S. O’Sullivan, and B. P. Stoicheff, "Scalar and tensor polarizabilities of 2D states in Rb," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1640 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. S. O’Sullivan, and B. P. Stoicheff, "Scalar polarizabilities and avoided crossings of high Rydberg states in Rb," Phys. Rev. A 31, 2718 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. S.

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, "Coherent Optical Detection of Highly Excited Rydberg States Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amthor, T.

T. Amthor, C. G. Christian, C. S. Hofmann, and M. Weidemüller, "Evidence of Antiblockade in an Ultracold Rydberg Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, "Suppression of Excitation and Spectral Broadening Induced by Interactions in a Cold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderlini, M.

E. Courtade, M. Anderlini, D. Ciampini, J. H. Müller, O. Morsch, E. Arimondo, M. Aymar, and E. J. Robinson, "Two-photon ionization of cold rubidium atoms with a near resonant intermediate state," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Lignier, C. Sias, D. Ciampini, Y. Singh, A. Zenesini, O. Morsch, and E. Arimondo, "Dynamical Control of Matter-Wave Tunneling in Periodic Potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Courtade, M. Anderlini, D. Ciampini, J. H. Müller, O. Morsch, E. Arimondo, M. Aymar, and E. J. Robinson, "Two-photon ionization of cold rubidium atoms with a near resonant intermediate state," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ates, C.

C. Ates, T. Pohl, T. Pattard, and T. J. M. Rost, "Many-body theory of excitation dynamics in an ultracold Rydberg gas," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aymar, M.

E. Courtade, M. Anderlini, D. Ciampini, J. H. Müller, O. Morsch, E. Arimondo, M. Aymar, and E. J. Robinson, "Two-photon ionization of cold rubidium atoms with a near resonant intermediate state," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bason, M.

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bendkowsky, V.

R. Heidemann, U. Raitzsch, V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, "Rydberg Excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berman, P. R.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, "Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2 −5P3/2 −44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms," Phys. Rev. A 68, 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, I.

I. Bloch, "Quantum coherence and entanglement with ultracold atoms in optical lattices," Nature 453, 1016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchiat, M. A.

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and A. V. Papoyan, "Electrical conductivity of glass and sapphire cells exposed to dry cesium vapor," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Branden, D. B.

D. B. Branden, T. Juhasz, T. Mahlokozera, C. Vesa, R. O. Wilson, M. Zheng, A. Kortyna, and D. A. Tate, "Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 010502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Browaeys, A.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, "Entanglement of Two Individual Neutral Atoms Using Rydberg Blockade," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, "Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime," Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Büchler, H. P.

H. Weimer, M. Müller, I. Lesanovsky, P. Zoller, and H. P. Büchler, "A Rydberg quantum simulator," Nat. Phys. 101, 250601 (2010).

Butscher, B.

R. Heidemann, U. Raitzsch, V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, "Rydberg Excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chotia, A.

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, "Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime," Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Chotia, M. Viteau, T. Vogt, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, "Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of dipole blockade in Rydberg excitation experiment," N. J. Phys. 10, 045031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christian, C. G.

T. Amthor, C. G. Christian, C. S. Hofmann, and M. Weidemüller, "Evidence of Antiblockade in an Ultracold Rydberg Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciampini, D.

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Lignier, C. Sias, D. Ciampini, Y. Singh, A. Zenesini, O. Morsch, and E. Arimondo, "Dynamical Control of Matter-Wave Tunneling in Periodic Potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Courtade, M. Anderlini, D. Ciampini, J. H. Müller, O. Morsch, E. Arimondo, M. Aymar, and E. J. Robinson, "Two-photon ionization of cold rubidium atoms with a near resonant intermediate state," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Dipole Blockade and Quantum Information Processing in Mesoscopic Atomic Ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, "Fast Quantum Gates for Neutral Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comparat, D.

D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, "Dipole blockade in a cold Rydberg atomic sample," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, A208 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, "Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime," Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Chotia, M. Viteau, T. Vogt, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, "Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of dipole blockade in Rydberg excitation experiment," N. J. Phys. 10, 045031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Côté, R.

R. Côté, A. Russell, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, "Quantum random walk with Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice," N. J. Phys. 8, 156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Dipole Blockade and Quantum Information Processing in Mesoscopic Atomic Ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, "Fast Quantum Gates for Neutral Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courtade, E.

E. Courtade, M. Anderlini, D. Ciampini, J. H. Müller, O. Morsch, E. Arimondo, M. Aymar, and E. J. Robinson, "Two-photon ionization of cold rubidium atoms with a near resonant intermediate state," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cubel, T.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, "Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2 −5P3/2 −44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms," Phys. Rev. A 68, 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Demler, E.

T. Pohl, E. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, "Dynamical Crystallization in the Dipole Blockade of Ultracold Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 043002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, L. M.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Dipole Blockade and Quantum Information Processing in Mesoscopic Atomic Ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evellin, C.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, "Entanglement of Two Individual Neutral Atoms Using Rydberg Blockade," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyler, E. E.

R. Côté, A. Russell, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, "Quantum random walk with Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice," N. J. Phys. 8, 156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feldbaum, D.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, "Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2 −5P3/2 −44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms," Phys. Rev. A 68, 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Dipole Blockade and Quantum Information Processing in Mesoscopic Atomic Ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuso, F.

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaëtan, A.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, "Entanglement of Two Individual Neutral Atoms Using Rydberg Blockade," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, "Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime," Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, T. F.

W. Li, P. L. Tanner, and T. F. Gallagher, "Dipole-Dipole Excitation and Ionization in an Ultracold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. I. Mourachko, M. W. Noel, and T. F. Gallagher, "Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap: Quantum defects of the ns, np, and nd series," Phys. Rev. A 67, 052502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gill, A. T.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González-Férez, R.

B. Olmos, R. González-Férez, and I. Lesanovsky, "Fermionic Collective Excitations in a Lattice Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 185302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, P. L.

R. Côté, A. Russell, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, "Quantum random walk with Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice," N. J. Phys. 8, 156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grabowski, A. A.

A. A. Grabowski, A. R. Heidemann, A. R. Löw, A. J. Stuhler, and A. T. Pfau, "High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultracold rubidium atoms," Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765-775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grangier, P.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, "Entanglement of Two Individual Neutral Atoms Using Rydberg Blockade," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, "Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime," Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guéna, J.

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and A. V. Papoyan, "Electrical conductivity of glass and sapphire cells exposed to dry cesium vapor," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guest, J. R.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, "Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2 −5P3/2 −44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms," Phys. Rev. A 68, 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haddad, J.

L. Oster, V. Yaskolko, and J. Haddad, "Classification of Exoelectron Emission Mechanisms," Phys. Stat. Solidi A 174, 431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, A. R.

A. A. Grabowski, A. R. Heidemann, A. R. Löw, A. J. Stuhler, and A. T. Pfau, "High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultracold rubidium atoms," Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765-775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, R.

R. Heidemann, U. Raitzsch, V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, "Rydberg Excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henage, T.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms," Nat. Phys. 5, 110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, C. S.

T. Amthor, C. G. Christian, C. S. Hofmann, and M. Weidemüller, "Evidence of Antiblockade in an Ultracold Rydberg Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isenhower, L.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms," Nat. Phys. 5, 110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, T. R.

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, "Coherent Optical Detection of Highly Excited Rydberg States Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacquier, Ph.

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and A. V. Papoyan, "Electrical conductivity of glass and sapphire cells exposed to dry cesium vapor," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jaksch, D.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Dipole Blockade and Quantum Information Processing in Mesoscopic Atomic Ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, "Fast Quantum Gates for Neutral Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. A.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms," Nat. Phys. 5, 110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juhasz, T.

D. B. Branden, T. Juhasz, T. Mahlokozera, C. Vesa, R. O. Wilson, M. Zheng, A. Kortyna, and D. A. Tate, "Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 010502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Kortyna, A.

D. B. Branden, T. Juhasz, T. Mahlokozera, C. Vesa, R. O. Wilson, M. Zheng, A. Kortyna, and D. A. Tate, "Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 010502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Lesanovsky, I.

H. Weimer, M. Müller, I. Lesanovsky, P. Zoller, and H. P. Büchler, "A Rydberg quantum simulator," Nat. Phys. 101, 250601 (2010).

B. Olmos, R. González-Férez, and I. Lesanovsky, "Fermionic Collective Excitations in a Lattice Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 185302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W.

W. Li, P. L. Tanner, and T. F. Gallagher, "Dipole-Dipole Excitation and Ionization in an Ultracold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lignier, H.

H. Lignier, C. Sias, D. Ciampini, Y. Singh, A. Zenesini, O. Morsch, and E. Arimondo, "Dynamical Control of Matter-Wave Tunneling in Periodic Potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lintz, M.

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and A. V. Papoyan, "Electrical conductivity of glass and sapphire cells exposed to dry cesium vapor," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Löw, A. R.

A. A. Grabowski, A. R. Heidemann, A. R. Löw, A. J. Stuhler, and A. T. Pfau, "High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultracold rubidium atoms," Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765-775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Löw, R.

R. Heidemann, U. Raitzsch, V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, "Rydberg Excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

T. Pohl, E. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, "Dynamical Crystallization in the Dipole Blockade of Ultracold Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 043002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Dipole Blockade and Quantum Information Processing in Mesoscopic Atomic Ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, "Fast Quantum Gates for Neutral Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahlokozera, T.

D. B. Branden, T. Juhasz, T. Mahlokozera, C. Vesa, R. O. Wilson, M. Zheng, A. Kortyna, and D. A. Tate, "Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 010502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Malossi, N.

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marcassa, L. G.

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, "Suppression of Excitation and Spectral Broadening Induced by Interactions in a Cold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miroshnychenko, Y.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, "Entanglement of Two Individual Neutral Atoms Using Rydberg Blockade," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, "Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime," Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mohapatra, A. K.

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, "Coherent Optical Detection of Highly Excited Rydberg States Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molmer, K.

M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Molmer, "Quantum information with Rydberg atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morsch, O.

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Lignier, C. Sias, D. Ciampini, Y. Singh, A. Zenesini, O. Morsch, and E. Arimondo, "Dynamical Control of Matter-Wave Tunneling in Periodic Potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Courtade, M. Anderlini, D. Ciampini, J. H. Müller, O. Morsch, E. Arimondo, M. Aymar, and E. J. Robinson, "Two-photon ionization of cold rubidium atoms with a near resonant intermediate state," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mourachko, W. I.

W. I. Mourachko, M. W. Noel, and T. F. Gallagher, "Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap: Quantum defects of the ns, np, and nd series," Phys. Rev. A 67, 052502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J. H.

E. Courtade, M. Anderlini, D. Ciampini, J. H. Müller, O. Morsch, E. Arimondo, M. Aymar, and E. J. Robinson, "Two-photon ionization of cold rubidium atoms with a near resonant intermediate state," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

H. Weimer, M. Müller, I. Lesanovsky, P. Zoller, and H. P. Büchler, "A Rydberg quantum simulator," Nat. Phys. 101, 250601 (2010).

Noel, M. W.

W. I. Mourachko, M. W. Noel, and T. F. Gallagher, "Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap: Quantum defects of the ns, np, and nd series," Phys. Rev. A 67, 052502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, M. S.

M. S. O’Sullivan, and B. P. Stoicheff, "Scalar and tensor polarizabilities of 2D states in Rb," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1640 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. S. O’Sullivan, and B. P. Stoicheff, "Scalar polarizabilities and avoided crossings of high Rydberg states in Rb," Phys. Rev. A 31, 2718 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Olmos, B.

B. Olmos, R. González-Férez, and I. Lesanovsky, "Fermionic Collective Excitations in a Lattice Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 185302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oster, L.

L. Oster, V. Yaskolko, and J. Haddad, "Classification of Exoelectron Emission Mechanisms," Phys. Stat. Solidi A 174, 431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Papoyan, A. V.

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and A. V. Papoyan, "Electrical conductivity of glass and sapphire cells exposed to dry cesium vapor," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pattard, T.

C. Ates, T. Pohl, T. Pattard, and T. J. M. Rost, "Many-body theory of excitation dynamics in an ultracold Rydberg gas," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, A. T.

A. A. Grabowski, A. R. Heidemann, A. R. Löw, A. J. Stuhler, and A. T. Pfau, "High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultracold rubidium atoms," Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765-775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

R. Heidemann, U. Raitzsch, V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, "Rydberg Excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pillet, P.

D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, "Dipole blockade in a cold Rydberg atomic sample," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, A208 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, "Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime," Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Chotia, M. Viteau, T. Vogt, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, "Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of dipole blockade in Rydberg excitation experiment," N. J. Phys. 10, 045031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, T.

T. Pohl, E. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, "Dynamical Crystallization in the Dipole Blockade of Ultracold Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 043002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ates, T. Pohl, T. Pattard, and T. J. M. Rost, "Many-body theory of excitation dynamics in an ultracold Rydberg gas," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radogostowicz, J.

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raithel, G.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, "Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2 −5P3/2 −44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms," Phys. Rev. A 68, 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raitzsch, U.

R. Heidemann, U. Raitzsch, V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, "Rydberg Excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reetz-Lamour, M.

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, "Suppression of Excitation and Spectral Broadening Induced by Interactions in a Cold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, E. J.

E. Courtade, M. Anderlini, D. Ciampini, J. H. Müller, O. Morsch, E. Arimondo, M. Aymar, and E. J. Robinson, "Two-photon ionization of cold rubidium atoms with a near resonant intermediate state," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, S. L.

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, "Fast Quantum Gates for Neutral Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rost, T. J. M.

C. Ates, T. Pohl, T. Pattard, and T. J. M. Rost, "Many-body theory of excitation dynamics in an ultracold Rydberg gas," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A.

R. Côté, A. Russell, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, "Quantum random walk with Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice," N. J. Phys. 8, 156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ryabtsev, I. I.

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saffman, M.

M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Molmer, "Quantum information with Rydberg atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms," Nat. Phys. 5, 110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Saffman, and T. G. Walker, "Analysis of a quantum logic device based on dipole-dipole interactions of optically trapped Rydberg atoms," Phys. Rev. A 72, 022347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sias, C.

H. Lignier, C. Sias, D. Ciampini, Y. Singh, A. Zenesini, O. Morsch, and E. Arimondo, "Dynamical Control of Matter-Wave Tunneling in Periodic Potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K.

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, "Suppression of Excitation and Spectral Broadening Induced by Interactions in a Cold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, Y.

H. Lignier, C. Sias, D. Ciampini, Y. Singh, A. Zenesini, O. Morsch, and E. Arimondo, "Dynamical Control of Matter-Wave Tunneling in Periodic Potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stoicheff, B. P.

M. S. O’Sullivan, and B. P. Stoicheff, "Scalar and tensor polarizabilities of 2D states in Rb," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1640 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. S. O’Sullivan, and B. P. Stoicheff, "Scalar polarizabilities and avoided crossings of high Rydberg states in Rb," Phys. Rev. A 31, 2718 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stuhler, A. J.

A. A. Grabowski, A. R. Heidemann, A. R. Löw, A. J. Stuhler, and A. T. Pfau, "High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultracold rubidium atoms," Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765-775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, P. L.

W. Li, P. L. Tanner, and T. F. Gallagher, "Dipole-Dipole Excitation and Ionization in an Ultracold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, D. A.

D. B. Branden, T. Juhasz, T. Mahlokozera, C. Vesa, R. O. Wilson, M. Zheng, A. Kortyna, and D. A. Tate, "Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 010502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Teo, B. K.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, "Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2 −5P3/2 −44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms," Phys. Rev. A 68, 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Urban, E.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms," Nat. Phys. 5, 110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vesa, C.

D. B. Branden, T. Juhasz, T. Mahlokozera, C. Vesa, R. O. Wilson, M. Zheng, A. Kortyna, and D. A. Tate, "Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 010502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Viteau, M.

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, "Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime," Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Chotia, M. Viteau, T. Vogt, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, "Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of dipole blockade in Rydberg excitation experiment," N. J. Phys. 10, 045031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, T.

A. Chotia, M. Viteau, T. Vogt, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, "Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of dipole blockade in Rydberg excitation experiment," N. J. Phys. 10, 045031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T. G.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Molmer, "Quantum information with Rydberg atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms," Nat. Phys. 5, 110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Saffman, and T. G. Walker, "Analysis of a quantum logic device based on dipole-dipole interactions of optically trapped Rydberg atoms," Phys. Rev. A 72, 022347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weidemüller, M.

T. Amthor, C. G. Christian, C. S. Hofmann, and M. Weidemüller, "Evidence of Antiblockade in an Ultracold Rydberg Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, "Suppression of Excitation and Spectral Broadening Induced by Interactions in a Cold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weimer, H.

H. Weimer, M. Müller, I. Lesanovsky, P. Zoller, and H. P. Büchler, "A Rydberg quantum simulator," Nat. Phys. 101, 250601 (2010).

Wilk, T.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, "Entanglement of Two Individual Neutral Atoms Using Rydberg Blockade," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, "Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime," Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. O.

D. B. Branden, T. Juhasz, T. Mahlokozera, C. Vesa, R. O. Wilson, M. Zheng, A. Kortyna, and D. A. Tate, "Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 010502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Wolters, J.

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, "Entanglement of Two Individual Neutral Atoms Using Rydberg Blockade," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaskolko, V.

L. Oster, V. Yaskolko, and J. Haddad, "Classification of Exoelectron Emission Mechanisms," Phys. Stat. Solidi A 174, 431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yavuz, D. D.

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms," Nat. Phys. 5, 110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zenesini, A.

H. Lignier, C. Sias, D. Ciampini, Y. Singh, A. Zenesini, O. Morsch, and E. Arimondo, "Dynamical Control of Matter-Wave Tunneling in Periodic Potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, M.

D. B. Branden, T. Juhasz, T. Mahlokozera, C. Vesa, R. O. Wilson, M. Zheng, A. Kortyna, and D. A. Tate, "Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 010502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Zoller, P.

H. Weimer, M. Müller, I. Lesanovsky, P. Zoller, and H. P. Büchler, "A Rydberg quantum simulator," Nat. Phys. 101, 250601 (2010).

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Dipole Blockade and Quantum Information Processing in Mesoscopic Atomic Ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, "Fast Quantum Gates for Neutral Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and A. V. Papoyan, "Electrical conductivity of glass and sapphire cells exposed to dry cesium vapor," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fortschr. Phys. (1)

A. A. Grabowski, A. R. Heidemann, A. R. Löw, A. J. Stuhler, and A. T. Pfau, "High resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of ultracold rubidium atoms," Fortschr. Phys. 54, 765-775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (3)

D. B. Branden, T. Juhasz, T. Mahlokozera, C. Vesa, R. O. Wilson, M. Zheng, A. Kortyna, and D. A. Tate, "Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 010502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

E. Courtade, M. Anderlini, D. Ciampini, J. H. Müller, O. Morsch, E. Arimondo, M. Aymar, and E. J. Robinson, "Two-photon ionization of cold rubidium atoms with a near resonant intermediate state," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Viteau, J. Radogostowicz, A. Chotia, M. Bason, N. Malossi, F. Fuso, D. Ciampini, O. Morsch, I. I. Ryabtsev, and E. Arimondo, "Ion detection in the photoionization of a Rb Bose Einstein condensate," J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (2)

R. Côté, A. Russell, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, "Quantum random walk with Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice," N. J. Phys. 8, 156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Chotia, M. Viteau, T. Vogt, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, "Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of dipole blockade in Rydberg excitation experiment," N. J. Phys. 10, 045031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (3)

H. Weimer, M. Müller, I. Lesanovsky, P. Zoller, and H. P. Büchler, "A Rydberg quantum simulator," Nat. Phys. 101, 250601 (2010).

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Observation of Rydberg blockade between two atoms," Nat. Phys. 5, 110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, "Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime," Nat. Phys. 5, 115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

I. Bloch, "Quantum coherence and entanglement with ultracold atoms in optical lattices," Nature 453, 1016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, "Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2 −5P3/2 −44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms," Phys. Rev. A 68, 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Saffman, and T. G. Walker, "Analysis of a quantum logic device based on dipole-dipole interactions of optically trapped Rydberg atoms," Phys. Rev. A 72, 022347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Ates, T. Pohl, T. Pattard, and T. J. M. Rost, "Many-body theory of excitation dynamics in an ultracold Rydberg gas," Phys. Rev. A 76, 013413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. O’Sullivan, and B. P. Stoicheff, "Scalar polarizabilities and avoided crossings of high Rydberg states in Rb," Phys. Rev. A 31, 2718 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. S. O’Sullivan, and B. P. Stoicheff, "Scalar and tensor polarizabilities of 2D states in Rb," Phys. Rev. A 33, 1640 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. I. Mourachko, M. W. Noel, and T. F. Gallagher, "Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap: Quantum defects of the ns, np, and nd series," Phys. Rev. A 67, 052502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (12)

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, "Coherent Optical Detection of Highly Excited Rydberg States Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Amthor, C. G. Christian, C. S. Hofmann, and M. Weidemüller, "Evidence of Antiblockade in an Ultracold Rydberg Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Olmos, R. González-Férez, and I. Lesanovsky, "Fermionic Collective Excitations in a Lattice Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 185302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, "Fast Quantum Gates for Neutral Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Côté, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Dipole Blockade and Quantum Information Processing in Mesoscopic Atomic Ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pohl, E. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, "Dynamical Crystallization in the Dipole Blockade of Ultracold Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 043002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Heidemann, U. Raitzsch, V. Bendkowsky, B. Butscher, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, "Rydberg Excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, "Suppression of Excitation and Spectral Broadening Induced by Interactions in a Cold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, P. L. Tanner, and T. F. Gallagher, "Dipole-Dipole Excitation and Ionization in an Ultracold Gas of Rydberg Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lignier, C. Sias, D. Ciampini, Y. Singh, A. Zenesini, O. Morsch, and E. Arimondo, "Dynamical Control of Matter-Wave Tunneling in Periodic Potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, "Entanglement of Two Individual Neutral Atoms Using Rydberg Blockade," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Stat. Solidi A (1)

L. Oster, V. Yaskolko, and J. Haddad, "Classification of Exoelectron Emission Mechanisms," Phys. Stat. Solidi A 174, 431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Molmer, "Quantum information with Rydberg atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Dupont-Roc, and G. Grynberg, Atom-Photon Interactions (Wiley-Interscience Publications, New York, 1992).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atomic states, selection rules imposed by the laser polarization and Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for 52S1/2(F = 2) → 52P3/2(F = 3)〉 → n2D5/2,3/2 two-photon excitation, by supposing the blue and IR lasers linearly polarized along the same direction in space parallel to the local magnetic field. The |F,mF > label shown in the bottom is applied to denote the 2S and 2P states; the |J,mJ > label shown in the top applies to the 2D states. For describing the IR upper excitation the intermediate n2P3/2 level is decomposed on the |J,mJ〉 basis as in Eq. (4).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In (a) schematic of the vacuum quartz and collection system for the ion produced by the MOT/BEC ionization, with dimensions in mm. Notice the copper plates on the front and on the sides of the cell. The grid and the channeltron collecting the ions are located respectively 10 cm and 15 cm from the atomic cloud. The laser beams are combined in order to excite rubidium atoms within the same volume inside the cell. In (b) temporal sequence for the laser excitation, and the application of voltages to the plates and to the accelerating grid is shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detected ion number versus δIR, the IR laser detuning, produced by the excitation to 602S1/2 level in (a) and to the 502D3/2,5/2 levels in (b). The absolute ion number is determined with a fifteen percent accuracy. The ion spectrum was acquired using 0.5 μs laser pulses and Bbox-car integration of the CEM output signal, Parameters δblue = 200.0 MHz, Ωblue = 7.5 MHz and ΩIR = 0.1 MHz. The zero value of the δIR + δbl detuning corresponds to the two-photon excitation from the 5261/2(F′ = 3) level to the 602S1/2 or 502D5/2 Rydberg state.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Detected ion number versus the δIR IR laser detuning produced by the excitation to the 812D3/2,5/2 Rydberg states. The absolute ion number is determined with a fifteen percent accuracy. Parameters δblue = 60 MHz, Ωblue = 7.5 MHz and ΩIR = 0.1 MHz. Each spectrum was obtained at the delay time, marked on the right, after the application for 5 seconds 3 kV voltage to the front and lateral plates. The top spectrum was obtained when the space charges on the cell walls disappeared. Other spectra discussed in the text. From left to right 812D3/2 two-photon peak, 812D5/2 two-photon peak and 812D5/2 two-step peak. The two-step 812D3/2 peak is not large enough to be clearly detected. (b) Data (squares) of the electric field acting on the atoms versus delay time, as derived from a Stark map fit to the data in a). Continuous line fit to an exponential decay with time constant 12±1.8 minutes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stark shift, in MHz, of the Rydberg 772D3/2,5/2 two-photon transitions as function of the externally applied electric field. The zero shift corresponds to the position of the unperturbed 772D5/2 state. Data for the different mJ levels are reported. Notice the presence of avoided crossings between the level energies. The theoretical fit of the shift using the 772D electric field polarizability data allowed us the calibration the electric field to the values reported in the top scale.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra versus the IR detuning, and fit by two Lorentzian lineshapes, of the ions produced by the 62P3/2 → 522S1/2 IR excitation, with an offset on the vertical scale. A constant ion number is produced by the blue laser photoionization, and the excess number produced by the IR radiation is plotted. The ion absolute number is determined with a fifteen percent accuracy. Parameters: ΩIR = 0.04 MHz; blue laser driving the 52S1/2 → 62SP3/2 transition at δbl = 0 MHz, of the blue laser driving, and Ωbl Rabi frequency increasing from the bottom to the top between 10 and 80 MHz in 10 MHz steps; laser pulse length 10 μs. The transition centered at δIR = 0 at low Ωbl values, increasing Ωbl splits into the two Autler-Townes components.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured shifts of the 522S1/2 Autler-Townes peaks (red upside and blue downside triangles) and of the spectrum middle point (green squares) in (a) versus the blue laser power at δbl = 0, and in (b) at δbl = −10 MHz versus the blue Rabi frequency. The dashed lines report the predicted Autler-Townes shifts as a function of the blue laser power in the absence of an ion created electric field. The continuous green central line reports the prediction for the 522S1/2 Rydberg state Stark shift produced by the ion created electric field, see text. The continuous lines report the predicted Autler-Townes shifts as a function of the blue laser power including the shift of IR transition produced by the ion created electric field.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the explored Rydberg states

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Γ n L = Γ 0 + Γ BBR .
Γ 0 = n L n L A ( n L n L ) .
Γ BBR = n L n L A ( n L n L ) 1 exp ( E nL E n L kT ) 1
| 3 2 , 3 2 ; F = 3 , m F = 2 F , m F = 1 2 ( | 3 2 , 3 2 ; 3 2 , 1 2 I , J + | 3 2 , 1 2 ; 3 2 , 3 2 I , J ) .
5 2 S | 1 2 , 3 2 ; 2 , 2 > F , m F 6 2 P | 3 2 , 3 2 ; 3 , 3 > F , m F n 2 D | 3 2 , 3 2 ; 5 2 ; 1 2 J , m J ,
5 2 S | 1 2 , 3 2 ; 2 , 2 > F , m F 6 2 P | 3 2 , 3 2 ; 3 , 3 > F , m F n 2 D | 3 2 , 1 2 ; 5 2 ; 3 2 J , m J .
δ IR ± = ( δ bl ± δ bl 2 + Ω bl 2 ) / 2 ,
H 2 ph = C sin 2 ( θ / 2 ) ,
H 2 st = C cos 2 ( θ / 2 ) ,

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