Abstract

The dielectric breakdown behavior of dielectric coatings in studied for different ambient gas pressures with femtosecond laser pulses. At 10−7 Torr, the multiple femtosecond pulse damage threshold, F m, is about 10% of the single pulse damage fluence F(1) for hafnia and silica films compared to about 65% and 50%, respectively, at 630 Torr. In contrast, the single-pulse damage threshold is pressure independent. The decrease of F m with decreasing air pressure correlates with the water vapor and oxygen content of the ambient gas with the former having the greater effect. The decrease in F m is likely associated with an accumulation of defects derived from oxygen deficiency, for example vacancies. From atmospheric air pressure to pressures of ~3x10−6 Torr, the damage “crater” starts deterministically at the center of the beam and grows in diameter as the fluence increases. At pressure below 3x10−6 Torr, damage is initiated at random “sites” within the exposed area in hafnia films, while the damage morphology remains deterministic in silica films. A possible explanation is that absorbing centers are created at predisposed sample sites in hafnia, for example at boundaries between crystallites, or crystalline and amorphous phases.

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2010

L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. R. George, J. A. Leraas, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Interaction of vacuum ultraviolet excimer laser radiation with fused silica, I. Positive ion emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, W. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, C. S. Menoni, and M. Shinn, “Studies of femtosecond laser induced damage of HfO2 thin film in atmospheric and vacuum environment,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750403, 750403-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, O. Le Rille, D. Lajas, and A. G. Straume, “Particle backscatter and extinction profiling with the spaceborne high-spectral-resolution Doppler lidar ALADIN: methodology and simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6606–6622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Ugolini, R. McKinney, and G. M. Harry, “Developing an optical chopper-modulated capacitive probe for measuring surface charge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Becker, A. Pereira, P. Bouchut, F. Geffraye, and C. Anglade, “Laser-induced contamination of silica coatings in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030J, 64030J-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. T. Scurlock, “A phenomenological study of the effect of trace contamination on lifetime reduction and laser-induced damage for optics,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 86–94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, H. Schroeder, D. Wernham, and Y. Lien, “Laser-induced hydrocarbon contamination in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910H, 59910H-13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Takeuchi, D. Ha, and T. J. King, “Observation of Bulk HfO2 defects by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(4), 1337–1341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. S. Foster, F. Lopez Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65(17), 174117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, and D. K. Downs, “Experimentation and modeling of organic photocontamination on lithographic optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1306–1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264(5161), 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hovis, B. Shepherd, C. Radcliffe, and H. Maliborski, “Mechanisms of contamination induced optical damage in lasers,” Proc. SPIE 2428, 72–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Starke and D. Ristau, “S., Martin, A. Hertwig, J. Krueger, P. Allenspacher, W. Riede, S. Meister, C. Theiss, A. J. Sabbah, W. Rudolph, V. Raab, R. Grigonis, T. Rikickas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Results of a round-robin experiment in multiple-pulse LIDT measurement with ultrashort pulses,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 388–395 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. C. Livas and B. C. Moore, “LIGO vacuum system study,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 32(6), 28–32 (1989).

1986

Abernathy, M. R.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Allenspacher, P.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, H. Schroeder, D. Wernham, and Y. Lien, “Laser-induced hydrocarbon contamination in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910H, 59910H-13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anglade, C.

S. Becker, A. Pereira, P. Bouchut, F. Geffraye, and C. Anglade, “Laser-induced contamination of silica coatings in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030J, 64030J-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

Armandula, H.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Becerra-Toledo, A. E.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M. F.

Becker, S.

S. Becker, A. Pereira, P. Bouchut, F. Geffraye, and C. Anglade, “Laser-induced contamination of silica coatings in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030J, 64030J-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Black, E.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouchut, P.

S. Becker, A. Pereira, P. Bouchut, F. Geffraye, and C. Anglade, “Laser-induced contamination of silica coatings in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030J, 64030J-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cagnoli, G.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiwaki, M.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clapp, B.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crooks, D. R. M.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, J. T.

S. R. George, J. A. Leraas, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Interaction of vacuum ultraviolet excimer laser radiation with fused silica, I. Positive ion emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Domann, F. E.

Dooley, K.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Downs, D. K.

R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, and D. K. Downs, “Experimentation and modeling of organic photocontamination on lithographic optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1306–1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ehlers, H.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eichenfield, M.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emmert, L. A.

L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, W. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, C. S. Menoni, and M. Shinn, “Studies of femtosecond laser induced damage of HfO2 thin film in atmospheric and vacuum environment,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750403, 750403-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foster, A. S.

A. S. Foster, F. Lopez Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65(17), 174117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ganau, P.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geffraye, F.

S. Becker, A. Pereira, P. Bouchut, F. Geffraye, and C. Anglade, “Laser-induced contamination of silica coatings in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030J, 64030J-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, S. R.

S. R. George, J. A. Leraas, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Interaction of vacuum ultraviolet excimer laser radiation with fused silica, I. Positive ion emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A. H.

Ha, D.

H. Takeuchi, D. Ha, and T. J. King, “Observation of Bulk HfO2 defects by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(4), 1337–1341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hamada, S.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harry, G. M.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Ugolini, R. McKinney, and G. M. Harry, “Developing an optical chopper-modulated capacitive probe for measuring surface charge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hough, J.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hovis, F. E.

F. E. Hovis, B. Shepherd, C. Radcliffe, and H. Maliborski, “Mechanisms of contamination induced optical damage in lasers,” Proc. SPIE 2428, 72–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

How, C. R.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, A. J.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jasapara, J. C.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, L.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joglekar, A. P.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jupe, M.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, M.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kholi, S.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

King, T. J.

H. Takeuchi, D. Ha, and T. J. King, “Observation of Bulk HfO2 defects by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(4), 1337–1341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krous, E.

D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, W. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, C. S. Menoni, and M. Shinn, “Studies of femtosecond laser induced damage of HfO2 thin film in atmospheric and vacuum environment,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750403, 750403-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. R.

R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, and D. K. Downs, “Experimentation and modeling of organic photocontamination on lithographic optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1306–1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lajas, D.

Langdon, B.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langford, S. C.

S. R. George, J. A. Leraas, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Interaction of vacuum ultraviolet excimer laser radiation with fused silica, I. Positive ion emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Langston, P.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le Rille, O.

Leraas, J. A.

S. R. George, J. A. Leraas, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Interaction of vacuum ultraviolet excimer laser radiation with fused silica, I. Positive ion emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, V.

R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, and D. K. Downs, “Experimentation and modeling of organic photocontamination on lithographic optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1306–1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lien, Y.

W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, H. Schroeder, D. Wernham, and Y. Lien, “Laser-induced hydrocarbon contamination in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910H, 59910H-13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Livas, J. C.

J. C. Livas and B. C. Moore, “LIGO vacuum system study,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 32(6), 28–32 (1989).

Lopez Gejo, F.

A. S. Foster, F. Lopez Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65(17), 174117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, M.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mackowski, J.-M.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacLaren, I.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madebach, H.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maliborski, H.

F. E. Hovis, B. Shepherd, C. Radcliffe, and H. Maliborski, “Mechanisms of contamination induced optical damage in lasers,” Proc. SPIE 2428, 72–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCurdy, P. R.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McKinney, R.

D. Ugolini, R. McKinney, and G. M. Harry, “Developing an optical chopper-modulated capacitive probe for measuring surface charge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menoni, C. S.

D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, W. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, C. S. Menoni, and M. Shinn, “Studies of femtosecond laser induced damage of HfO2 thin film in atmospheric and vacuum environment,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750403, 750403-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mero, M.

L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meyhofer, E.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michel, C.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mikado, T.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moore, B. C.

J. C. Livas and B. C. Moore, “LIGO vacuum system study,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 32(6), 28–32 (1989).

Mourou, G.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264(5161), 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, P.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. N.

D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, W. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, C. S. Menoni, and M. Shinn, “Studies of femtosecond laser induced damage of HfO2 thin film in atmospheric and vacuum environment,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750403, 750403-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nieminen, R. M.

A. S. Foster, F. Lopez Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65(17), 174117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, E.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, T.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nwabugwu, C.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ogloza, A.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohdaira, T.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohgaki, H.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Patel, D.

D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, W. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, C. S. Menoni, and M. Shinn, “Studies of femtosecond laser induced damage of HfO2 thin film in atmospheric and vacuum environment,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750403, 750403-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Penn, S. D.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, A.

S. Becker, A. Pereira, P. Bouchut, F. Geffraye, and C. Anglade, “Laser-induced contamination of silica coatings in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030J, 64030J-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264(5161), 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinard, L.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radcliffe, C.

F. E. Hovis, B. Shepherd, C. Radcliffe, and H. Maliborski, “Mechanisms of contamination induced optical damage in lasers,” Proc. SPIE 2428, 72–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reid, S.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Remillieux, A.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riede, W.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, H. Schroeder, D. Wernham, and Y. Lien, “Laser-induced hydrocarbon contamination in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910H, 59910H-13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Starke and D. Ristau, “S., Martin, A. Hertwig, J. Krueger, P. Allenspacher, W. Riede, S. Meister, C. Theiss, A. J. Sabbah, W. Rudolph, V. Raab, R. Grigonis, T. Rikickas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Results of a round-robin experiment in multiple-pulse LIDT measurement with ultrashort pulses,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 388–395 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Route, R.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rowan, S.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudolph, W.

L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, W. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, C. S. Menoni, and M. Shinn, “Studies of femtosecond laser induced damage of HfO2 thin film in atmospheric and vacuum environment,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750403, 750403-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saeki, K.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, H.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, H. Schroeder, D. Wernham, and Y. Lien, “Laser-induced hydrocarbon contamination in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910H, 59910H-13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scurlock, C. T.

C. T. Scurlock, “A phenomenological study of the effect of trace contamination on lifetime reduction and laser-induced damage for optics,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 86–94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sei, N.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, B.

F. E. Hovis, B. Shepherd, C. Radcliffe, and H. Maliborski, “Mechanisms of contamination induced optical damage in lasers,” Proc. SPIE 2428, 72–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shinn, M.

D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, W. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, C. S. Menoni, and M. Shinn, “Studies of femtosecond laser induced damage of HfO2 thin film in atmospheric and vacuum environment,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750403, 750403-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shluger, A. L.

A. S. Foster, F. Lopez Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65(17), 174117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sneddon, P. H.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spooner, G. J.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Starke, K.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Starke and D. Ristau, “S., Martin, A. Hertwig, J. Krueger, P. Allenspacher, W. Riede, S. Meister, C. Theiss, A. J. Sabbah, W. Rudolph, V. Raab, R. Grigonis, T. Rikickas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Results of a round-robin experiment in multiple-pulse LIDT measurement with ultrashort pulses,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 388–395 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, A. F.

Stoian, R.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Straume, A. G.

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiyama, S.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, R.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

H. Takeuchi, D. Ha, and T. J. King, “Observation of Bulk HfO2 defects by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(4), 1337–1341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tomasel, F.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tomimasu, T.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ugolini, D.

D. Ugolini, R. McKinney, and G. M. Harry, “Developing an optical chopper-modulated capacitive probe for measuring surface charge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villar, A.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

Wernham, D.

W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, H. Schroeder, D. Wernham, and Y. Lien, “Laser-induced hydrocarbon contamination in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910H, 59910H-13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Gravity

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Gravity 24(2), 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. R. George, J. A. Leraas, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Interaction of vacuum ultraviolet excimer laser radiation with fused silica, I. Positive ion emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(3), 033107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Environ. Sci. (China)

J. C. Livas and B. C. Moore, “LIGO vacuum system study,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 32(6), 28–32 (1989).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

H. Takeuchi, D. Ha, and T. J. King, “Observation of Bulk HfO2 defects by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(4), 1337–1341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, and D. K. Downs, “Experimentation and modeling of organic photocontamination on lithographic optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(3), 1306–1313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A

K. Yamada, T. Yamazaki, N. Sei, T. Shimizu, R. Suzuki, T. Ohdaira, M. Kawai, M. Yokoyama, S. Hamada, K. Saeki, E. Nishimura, T. Mikado, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, M. Chiwaki, H. Ohgaki, and T. Tomimasu, “Degradation and restoration of dielectric-coated cavity mirrors in the NIJI-IV FEL,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 358(1-3), 392–395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Foster, F. Lopez Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65(17), 174117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

K. Starke and D. Ristau, “S., Martin, A. Hertwig, J. Krueger, P. Allenspacher, W. Riede, S. Meister, C. Theiss, A. J. Sabbah, W. Rudolph, V. Raab, R. Grigonis, T. Rikickas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Results of a round-robin experiment in multiple-pulse LIDT measurement with ultrashort pulses,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 388–395 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X, 67200X-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, W. Rudolph, D. Patel, E. Krous, C. S. Menoni, and M. Shinn, “Studies of femtosecond laser induced damage of HfO2 thin film in atmospheric and vacuum environment,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750403, 750403-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Scurlock, “A phenomenological study of the effect of trace contamination on lifetime reduction and laser-induced damage for optics,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 86–94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Becker, A. Pereira, P. Bouchut, F. Geffraye, and C. Anglade, “Laser-induced contamination of silica coatings in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030J, 64030J-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U, 64030U-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hovis, B. Shepherd, C. Radcliffe, and H. Maliborski, “Mechanisms of contamination induced optical damage in lasers,” Proc. SPIE 2428, 72–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, H. Schroeder, D. Wernham, and Y. Lien, “Laser-induced hydrocarbon contamination in vacuum,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910H, 59910H-13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. Ugolini, R. McKinney, and G. M. Harry, “Developing an optical chopper-modulated capacitive probe for measuring surface charge,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(4), 046102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264(5161), 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. R. Lide, “CRC: Handbook of chemistry and physics,” CRC Press, Inc. 73th ed., pp. 6–11 (1992).

M.D. Shinn, “Irradiation of hafnia/silica multilayer coatings with a high average power FEL”, JLAB-TN-11–001.

M. Mero, J. Zeller, and W. Rudolph, “Ultrafast processes in highly excited wide-gap dielectric thin films.” In: P. Hannaford (Ed.), in Femtosecond Laser Spectroscopy, (Springer, New York 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the fs dielectric breakdown (damage) measurements in various ambient gas environments and at different pressures. (b) RGA spectrum at a base pressure of 3x10−7 Torr.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Damage fluence as a function of pulse number exciting one and the same sample site (S-on-1) for 50 fs pulses at two different pressures. The sample was a single HfO2 layer deposited on super-polished fused silica substrate. The solid square represents the fluence for which no damage was observed within 30 min (1.8x106 pulses) of illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Multiple pulse damage fluence of hafnia films as a function of various gas pressures. The fluences are normalized to F(1)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Multiple pulse damage fluence as a function of water vapor pressure for three different materials: HfO2 films, SiO2 films and bulk fused silica. The fluences are normalized to F(1) of the respective material. The horizontal F m lines represent breakdown fluences under atmospheric conditions for hafnia films (solid line), silica films (dotted line) and fused silica surfaces (dashed line).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of damaged sample sites in atmospheric (top row) and vacuum (bottom row, 3x10−7 Torr) environments taken with an optical microscope operating in Nomarski mode. S = 120,000 pulses for each exposure and the fluence is given in terms of F m. The sample was a single HfO2 layer deposited on bulk fused silica

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