Abstract

In this study, the optimal condition of a silver (Ag) film deposited on a cover slip for surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE) induced two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) based on an objective-based, total internal reflection (TIR) microscope was investigated. According to the theoretical simulations of local electric field enhancement and fluorescence coupled emission efficiency, the thickness of the Ag film should be about 40 nm in order to maximize the TPEF collection efficiency by the objective. The deposited Ag film with a germanium seed layer on a cover slip exhibits additional improvement in surface smoothness by reducing variations in surface roughness to below 1.0 nm, thereby reduces local hot spots which degrade the image uniformity. Moreover, an Ag film with a 20 nm-thick SiO2 spacer not only prevents damage caused through interaction with the aqueous solution under high laser power irradiance, but also reduces the fluorescence quenching effect by the Ag film. By optimizing the Ag film thickness, surface smoothness, and a protective dielectric spacer, efficient TIR TPEF imaging can be achieved through SPCE.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (7)

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

M. Trnavsky, J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of surface plasmon-coupled emission for sensitive fluorescence detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Observation of surface plasmon-coupled emission using thin platinum films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465(1-3), 92–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

B. Huang, F. Yu, and R. N. Zare, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging using a high numerical aperture microscope objective,” Anal. Chem. 79(7), 2979–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-K. Yuan, U. K. Chettiar, W. Cai, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “A negative permeability material at red light,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1076–1083 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

V. Kapaklis, P. Poulopoulos, V. Karoutsos, T. Manouras, and C. Politis, “Growth of thin Ag films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 138–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chi, E. Lay, T.-Y. Chou, Y.-H. Song, and A. J. Carty, “Deposition of silver thin films using the pyrazolate complex [Ag(3,5-(CF3)2C3HN2)]3,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(4), 206–212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 173–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Stranik, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence for sensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 148–153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

K. Tawa and W. Knoll, “Mismatching base-pair dependence of the kinetics of DNA-DNA hybridization studied by surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy,” Nucleic Acids Res. 32(8), 2372–2377 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon fluorescence immunoassay of free prostate-specific antigen in human plasma at the femtomolar level,” Anal. Chem. 76(22), 6765–6770 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces,” Anal. Biochem. 334(2), 303–311 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications,” Anal. Biochem. 298(1), 1–24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction-Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Benisty, R. Stanley, and M. Mayer, “Method of source terms for dipole emission modification in modes of arbitrary planar structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(5), 1192–1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1988 (1)

E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer rough surfaces by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(7), 3164–3182 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

G. Valette, “Silver-water interactions: Part I. Model of the inner layer at the metal/water interface,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 230(1-2), 189–204 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction-Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Benisty, R. Stanley, and M. Mayer, “Method of source terms for dipole emission modification in modes of arbitrary planar structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(5), 1192–1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

Bouhelier, A.

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Calander, N.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 173–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carty, A. J.

Y. Chi, E. Lay, T.-Y. Chou, Y.-H. Song, and A. J. Carty, “Deposition of silver thin films using the pyrazolate complex [Ag(3,5-(CF3)2C3HN2)]3,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(4), 206–212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

Chang, C.-Y.

Chang, N.-S.

Chang, S.-H.

Chaturvedi, P.

N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-J.

Chettiar, U. K.

Chi, Y.

Y. Chi, E. Lay, T.-Y. Chou, Y.-H. Song, and A. J. Carty, “Deposition of silver thin films using the pyrazolate complex [Ag(3,5-(CF3)2C3HN2)]3,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(4), 206–212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, K.-C.

Cho, K.-C.

Chou, T.-Y.

Y. Chi, E. Lay, T.-Y. Chou, Y.-H. Song, and A. J. Carty, “Deposition of silver thin films using the pyrazolate complex [Ag(3,5-(CF3)2C3HN2)]3,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(4), 206–212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, M. H.

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Observation of surface plasmon-coupled emission using thin platinum films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465(1-3), 92–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chung, E.

De Neve, H.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction-Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

Enderlein, J.

M. Trnavsky, J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of surface plasmon-coupled emission for sensitive fluorescence detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N. X.

N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fontana, E.

E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer rough surfaces by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(7), 3164–3182 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geddes, C. D.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldys, E. M.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 173–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, I.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 173–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces,” Anal. Biochem. 334(2), 303–311 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, Z.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 173–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces,” Anal. Biochem. 334(2), 303–311 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, T.-F.

Hall, D. G.

He, R.-Y.

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

B. Huang, F. Yu, and R. N. Zare, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging using a high numerical aperture microscope objective,” Anal. Chem. 79(7), 2979–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Islam, M. S.

N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kapaklis, V.

V. Kapaklis, P. Poulopoulos, V. Karoutsos, T. Manouras, and C. Politis, “Growth of thin Ag films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 138–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karoutsos, V.

V. Kapaklis, P. Poulopoulos, V. Karoutsos, T. Manouras, and C. Politis, “Growth of thin Ag films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 138–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kim, Y.-H.

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoll, W.

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon fluorescence immunoassay of free prostate-specific antigen in human plasma at the femtomolar level,” Anal. Chem. 76(22), 6765–6770 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tawa and W. Knoll, “Mismatching base-pair dependence of the kinetics of DNA-DNA hybridization studied by surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy,” Nucleic Acids Res. 32(8), 2372–2377 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, N. P.

N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolomenski, A.

Kolomenskii, A.

Lakowicz, J. R.

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Observation of surface plasmon-coupled emission using thin platinum films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465(1-3), 92–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 173–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces,” Anal. Biochem. 334(2), 303–311 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications,” Anal. Biochem. 298(1), 1–24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lay, E.

Y. Chi, E. Lay, T.-Y. Chou, Y.-H. Song, and A. J. Carty, “Deposition of silver thin films using the pyrazolate complex [Ag(3,5-(CF3)2C3HN2)]3,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(4), 206–212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-Y.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löfås, S.

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon fluorescence immunoassay of free prostate-specific antigen in human plasma at the femtomolar level,” Anal. Chem. 76(22), 6765–6770 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacCraith, B. D.

M. Trnavsky, J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of surface plasmon-coupled emission for sensitive fluorescence detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stranik, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence for sensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 148–153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malicka, J.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 173–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces,” Anal. Biochem. 334(2), 303–311 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manouras, T.

V. Kapaklis, P. Poulopoulos, V. Karoutsos, T. Manouras, and C. Politis, “Growth of thin Ag films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 138–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matveeva, E.

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces,” Anal. Biochem. 334(2), 303–311 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, M.

McDonagh, C.

M. Trnavsky, J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of surface plasmon-coupled emission for sensitive fluorescence detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stranik, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence for sensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 148–153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McEvoy, H. M.

O. Stranik, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence for sensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 148–153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

Moh, K. J.

Noel, J.

Pantell, R. H.

E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer rough surfaces by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(7), 3164–3182 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parfenov, A.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, S.

Persson, B.

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon fluorescence immunoassay of free prostate-specific antigen in human plasma at the femtomolar level,” Anal. Chem. 76(22), 6765–6770 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Politis, C.

V. Kapaklis, P. Poulopoulos, V. Karoutsos, T. Manouras, and C. Politis, “Growth of thin Ag films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 138–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poulopoulos, P.

V. Kapaklis, P. Poulopoulos, V. Karoutsos, T. Manouras, and C. Politis, “Growth of thin Ag films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 138–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ray, K.

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Observation of surface plasmon-coupled emission using thin platinum films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465(1-3), 92–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roll, D.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruckstuhl, T.

M. Trnavsky, J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of surface plasmon-coupled emission for sensitive fluorescence detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuessler, H.

Shalaev, V. M.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Si, G.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T. C.

Song, Y.-H.

Y. Chi, E. Lay, T.-Y. Chou, Y.-H. Song, and A. J. Carty, “Deposition of silver thin films using the pyrazolate complex [Ag(3,5-(CF3)2C3HN2)]3,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(4), 206–212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, R.

Stranik, O.

O. Stranik, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence for sensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 148–153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.-D.

Sullivan, K. G.

Tang, W. T.

Tawa, K.

K. Tawa and W. Knoll, “Mismatching base-pair dependence of the kinetics of DNA-DNA hybridization studied by surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy,” Nucleic Acids Res. 32(8), 2372–2377 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, J.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trnavsky, M.

M. Trnavsky, J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of surface plasmon-coupled emission for sensitive fluorescence detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uddin, M. J.

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valette, G.

G. Valette, “Silver-water interactions: Part I. Model of the inner layer at the metal/water interface,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 230(1-2), 189–204 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

Wang, S. Y.

N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction-Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. S.

N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.-L.

Wu, W.

N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, F.

B. Huang, F. Yu, and R. N. Zare, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging using a high numerical aperture microscope objective,” Anal. Chem. 79(7), 2979–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon fluorescence immunoassay of free prostate-specific antigen in human plasma at the femtomolar level,” Anal. Chem. 76(22), 6765–6770 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.-K.

Yuan, X.-C.

Zare, R. N.

B. Huang, F. Yu, and R. N. Zare, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging using a high numerical aperture microscope objective,” Anal. Chem. 79(7), 2979–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D. G.

Zong, Y.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem. (2)

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces,” Anal. Biochem. 334(2), 303–311 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications,” Anal. Biochem. 298(1), 1–24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon fluorescence immunoassay of free prostate-specific antigen in human plasma at the femtomolar level,” Anal. Chem. 76(22), 6765–6770 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, F. Yu, and R. N. Zare, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging using a high numerical aperture microscope objective,” Anal. Chem. 79(7), 2979–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Observation of surface plasmon-coupled emission using thin platinum films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 465(1-3), 92–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Vap. Deposition (1)

Y. Chi, E. Lay, T.-Y. Chou, Y.-H. Song, and A. J. Carty, “Deposition of silver thin films using the pyrazolate complex [Ag(3,5-(CF3)2C3HN2)]3,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(4), 206–212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction-Part I: Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Trnavsky, J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of surface plasmon-coupled emission for sensitive fluorescence detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054021 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

G. Valette, “Silver-water interactions: Part I. Model of the inner layer at the metal/water interface,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 230(1-2), 189–204 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluoresc. (1)

C. D. Geddes, A. Parfenov, D. Roll, M. J. Uddin, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 13(6), 453–457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nano Lett. (2)

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nucleic Acids Res. (1)

K. Tawa and W. Knoll, “Mismatching base-pair dependence of the kinetics of DNA-DNA hybridization studied by surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy,” Nucleic Acids Res. 32(8), 2372–2377 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

E. Fontana and R. H. Pantell, “Characterization of multilayer rough surfaces by use of surface-plasmon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(7), 3164–3182 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

O. Stranik, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence for sensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(1), 148–153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

V. Kapaklis, P. Poulopoulos, V. Karoutsos, T. Manouras, and C. Politis, “Growth of thin Ag films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 138–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, “Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission,” Thin Solid Films 491(1-2), 173–176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constant of Solids (Academic, 1985).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical setup of the TPEF evanescence wave microscopy based on the objective-coupled TIR method. Red and green lines indicate the respective optical paths of the excitation source and fluorescence collection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Electric field enhancement and (b) fluorescence coupled emission as function of Ag film thickness. (c) Electric field enhancement and (d) fluorescence coupled emission as function of the Au film thickness.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM topography analysis of: (a) 40 nm Ag film, (b) 40 nm Ag film with a 2 nm Ge seed layer, and (c) 2 nm Ge on cover glasses. (d)-(f) are the corresponding histograms of the 2D surface-height values of (a)-(c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) White-light and (b) TPL images of the damaged Ag/Ge film in H2O after 15-second femtosecond laser irradiance (780 nm at 30 mW). (c) White-light image of Ag/Ge film in H2O after 15-second CW laser irradiance showing the damage to the film. (d) Gaussian SPCE TPEF image with 1 mM R6G solution placed on top of the Ag/Ge film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantum yield of the fluorescent dyes on the Ag film as a function of the dielectric spacer thickness.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SPCE TPEF images of R6G at (a) the Ag surface and (b) the BFP of the objective.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SPCE TPEF images of a fluorescent bead pattern at (a) the Ag surface and (b) the BFP of the objective.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( θ ) = P 2 ( θ 2 ) T 210 n 0 k 0 z n 2 k 2 z e | Im ( 2 k 2 z h ) | ,
I V E D ( u ) = 3 2 Re ( u 3 1 u 2 ( 1 + r 43210 p e j 2 k 4 z h ) ) ,
I H E D ( u ) = 3 4 Re ( u 1 u 2 ( ( 1 u 2 ) ( 1 r 43210 p e j 2 k 4 z h )   + ( 1 + r 43210 s e j 2 k 4 z h ) ) ) ,
Q = 0 1 I ( u ) d u / 0 I ( u ) d u .

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