Abstract

The sub-wavelength THz emission point on a nonlinear electro-optical crystal, used in broadband THz near-field emission microscopy, is computationally modeled as a radiating aperture of Gaussian intensity profile. This paper comprehensively studies the Gaussian aperture model in the THz near-field regime and validates the findings with dual-axis knife-edge experiments. Based on realistic parameter values, the model allows for THz beam characterisation in the near-field region for potential microscopy applications. An application example is demonstrated by scanning over a cyclic-olefin copolymer sample containing grooves placed sub-wavelengths apart. The nature of THz microscopy in the near-field is highly complex and traditionally based on experiments. The proposed validated numerical model therefore aids in the quantitative understanding of the performance parameters. Whilst in this paper we demonstrate the model on broadband electro-optical THz near-field emission microscopy, the model may apply without a loss of generality to other types of THz near-field focused beam techniques.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (2)

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, and K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Modelling of sub-wavelength THz sources as gaussian apertures,” Opt. Express 18, 17672 – 17683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (6)

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Letters 8, 3766 – 3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2, 618 – 621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16, 3430 – 3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lecaque, S. Gresillon, and C. Boccara, “THz emission Microscopy with sub-wavelength broadband source,” Opt. Express 16, 4731 – 4738 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. L. Adam, J. M. Brok, M. A Seo, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. Nagel, and P. C. Planken, “Advanced terahertz electric near-field measurements at sub-wavelength diameter metallic apertures,” Opt. Express 16, 7407 – 7417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. Fumeaux, K. Sankaran, and R. Vahldieck, “Spherical perfectly matched absorber for finite-volume 3-D domain truncation,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2773 – 2781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97 – 105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. Yuan, H. Park, J. Xu, H. Han, and X.-C. Zhang, “Field induced THz wave emission with nanometer resolution,” Proc SPIE 5649, 1 – 8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Dakovski, B. Kubera, and J. Shan, “Localized terahertz generation via optical rectification in ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1667 – 1670 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

C. Fumeaux, D. Baumann, P. Leuchtmann, and R. Vahldieck, “A generalized local time-step scheme for efficient FVTD simulations in strongly inhomogeneous meshes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 1067 – 1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Yuan, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Development of terahertz wave microscopes,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45, 417 – 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438 –2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Mair, B. Gompf, and M. Dressel, “Spatial and spectral behavior of the optical near field studied by a terahertz near-field spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1219 – 1221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

T. Yuan, S. P. Mickan, J. Xu, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang , “Towards an apertureless electro-optic T-ray microscope,” CLEO, 637 – 638 (2002).

N. van der Valk and P. Planken, “Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558 – 1560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

Q. Chen, Z. Jiang, G. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Near-field terahertz imaging with a dynamic aperture,” Opt. Express 25, 1122 – 1124 (2000).

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496 – 3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. Wanke, R. Ruel, J. Wynn, A. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591 – 593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150, 22 – 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Modelling of sub-wavelength THz sources as gaussian apertures,” Opt. Express 18, 17672 – 17683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Yuan, S. P. Mickan, J. Xu, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang , “Towards an apertureless electro-optic T-ray microscope,” CLEO, 637 – 638 (2002).

H. Lin, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Comparative simulation study of ZnTe heating effects in focused THz radiation generation,” 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 63 – 64 (2010).

Acuna, G.

R. Kersting, F. Buersgens, G. Acuna, and G. Cho, “Terahertz near-field microscopy,” Advances in Solid State Physics (SpringerBerlin / Heidelberg, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

Ahn, K. J.

Aizpurua, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Letters 8, 3766 – 3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atakaramians, S.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Fumeaux, D. Baumann, S. Atakaramians, and E. Li, “Considerations on paraxial Gaussian beam source conditions for time-domain full-wave simulations,” 25th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics, 401 – 406 (2009).

Bakunov, M. I.

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, and A. V. Maslov, “Temporal Dynamics of Optical-to-Terahertz Conversion in Electro-Optic Crystal,” CLEO, JWA93 (2007).

Balakrishnan, J.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barkan, A.

K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. Mittleman, “Sub-wavelength resolution using apertureless terahertz near-field microscopy,” CLEO, CMP5 (2003).

Baumann, D.

D. Baumann, C. Fumeaux, C. Hafner, and E.P. Li, “A modular implementation of dispersive materials for time-domain simulations with application to gold nanospheres at optical frequencies,” Opt. Express 17, 15186 –15200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fumeaux, D. Baumann, P. Leuchtmann, and R. Vahldieck, “A generalized local time-step scheme for efficient FVTD simulations in strongly inhomogeneous meshes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 1067 – 1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Fumeaux, D. Baumann, S. Atakaramians, and E. Li, “Considerations on paraxial Gaussian beam source conditions for time-domain full-wave simulations,” 25th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics, 401 – 406 (2009).

Bitzer, A.

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, C.

Bodrov, S. B.

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, and A. V. Maslov, “Temporal Dynamics of Optical-to-Terahertz Conversion in Electro-Optic Crystal,” CLEO, JWA93 (2007).

Bonnet, P.

P. Bonnet, X. Ferrieres, B. L. Michielsen, P. Klotz, and J. L. Roumiguières, Finite-volume time domain method, in Time Domain Electromagnetics (S. M. Rao, Ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999).

Brehm, M.

Brener, I.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496 – 3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. Wanke, R. Ruel, J. Wynn, A. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591 – 593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150, 22 – 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brok, J. M.

Bruce, A.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. Wanke, R. Ruel, J. Wynn, A. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591 – 593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buersgens, F.

R. Kersting, F. Buersgens, G. Acuna, and G. Cho, “Terahertz near-field microscopy,” Advances in Solid State Physics (SpringerBerlin / Heidelberg, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009 – 3011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, Z. Jiang, G. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Near-field terahertz imaging with a dynamic aperture,” Opt. Express 25, 1122 – 1124 (2000).

Cho, G.

R. Kersting, F. Buersgens, G. Acuna, and G. Cho, “Terahertz near-field microscopy,” Advances in Solid State Physics (SpringerBerlin / Heidelberg, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. C.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009 – 3011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dakovski, G.

Drachenko, O.

Dressel, M.

S. Mair, B. Gompf, and M. Dressel, “Spatial and spectral behavior of the optical near field studied by a terahertz near-field spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1219 – 1221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. Wanke, R. Ruel, J. Wynn, A. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591 – 593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496 – 3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrieres, X.

P. Bonnet, X. Ferrieres, B. L. Michielsen, P. Klotz, and J. L. Roumiguières, Finite-volume time domain method, in Time Domain Electromagnetics (S. M. Rao, Ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999).

Fischer, B. M.

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Modelling of sub-wavelength THz sources as gaussian apertures,” Opt. Express 18, 17672 – 17683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, “Broadband THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Biomolecules,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Freiburg (2005).

H. Lin, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Comparative simulation study of ZnTe heating effects in focused THz radiation generation,” 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 63 – 64 (2010).

Fumeaux, C.

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Modelling of sub-wavelength THz sources as gaussian apertures,” Opt. Express 18, 17672 – 17683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Baumann, C. Fumeaux, C. Hafner, and E.P. Li, “A modular implementation of dispersive materials for time-domain simulations with application to gold nanospheres at optical frequencies,” Opt. Express 17, 15186 –15200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fumeaux, K. Sankaran, and R. Vahldieck, “Spherical perfectly matched absorber for finite-volume 3-D domain truncation,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2773 – 2781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Fumeaux, D. Baumann, P. Leuchtmann, and R. Vahldieck, “A generalized local time-step scheme for efficient FVTD simulations in strongly inhomogeneous meshes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 1067 – 1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Fumeaux, D. Baumann, S. Atakaramians, and E. Li, “Considerations on paraxial Gaussian beam source conditions for time-domain full-wave simulations,” 25th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics, 401 – 406 (2009).

Gompf, B.

S. Mair, B. Gompf, and M. Dressel, “Spatial and spectral behavior of the optical near field studied by a terahertz near-field spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1219 – 1221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gresillon, S.

Hafner, C.

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2005).

Han, H.

T. Yuan, H. Park, J. Xu, H. Han, and X.-C. Zhang, “Field induced THz wave emission with nanometer resolution,” Proc SPIE 5649, 1 – 8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harel, R.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496 – 3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

Hillenbrand, R.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Letters 8, 3766 – 3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, A. J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Letters 8, 3766 – 3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunsche, S.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150, 22 – 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, K.

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2, 618 – 621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaroszynski, D.

Jiang, Z.

Q. Chen, Z. Jiang, G. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Near-field terahertz imaging with a dynamic aperture,” Opt. Express 25, 1122 – 1124 (2000).

Jones, I.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

Kawano, Y.

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2, 618 – 621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

Kawayama, I.

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, and K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Letters 8, 3766 – 3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16, 3430 – 3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersting, R.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009 – 3011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Kersting, F. Buersgens, G. Acuna, and G. Cho, “Terahertz near-field microscopy,” Advances in Solid State Physics (SpringerBerlin / Heidelberg, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

Kiwa, T.

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, and K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, M. Tonouchi, M. Yamashita, and K. Kawase, “Laser terahertz-emission microscope for inspecting electrical faults in integrated circuits,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2058 – 2060 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klotz, P.

P. Bonnet, X. Ferrieres, B. L. Michielsen, P. Klotz, and J. L. Roumiguières, Finite-volume time domain method, in Time Domain Electromagnetics (S. M. Rao, Ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999).

Koch, M.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150, 22 – 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, and K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kubera, B.

Kurz, H.

M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Tapered photoconductive terahertz field probe tip with subwavelength spatial resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lecaque, R.

Lee, Y. S.

Y. S. Lee, Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology (Springer, New York, USA, 2008).

Leuchtmann, P.

C. Fumeaux, D. Baumann, P. Leuchtmann, and R. Vahldieck, “A generalized local time-step scheme for efficient FVTD simulations in strongly inhomogeneous meshes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 1067 – 1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

C. Fumeaux, D. Baumann, S. Atakaramians, and E. Li, “Considerations on paraxial Gaussian beam source conditions for time-domain full-wave simulations,” 25th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics, 401 – 406 (2009).

Li, E.P.

Lin, H.

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Modelling of sub-wavelength THz sources as gaussian apertures,” Opt. Express 18, 17672 – 17683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Comparative simulation study of ZnTe heating effects in focused THz radiation generation,” 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 63 – 64 (2010).

Mair, S.

S. Mair, B. Gompf, and M. Dressel, “Spatial and spectral behavior of the optical near field studied by a terahertz near-field spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1219 – 1221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, A. V.

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, and A. V. Maslov, “Temporal Dynamics of Optical-to-Terahertz Conversion in Electro-Optic Crystal,” CLEO, JWA93 (2007).

Michielsen, B. L.

P. Bonnet, X. Ferrieres, B. L. Michielsen, P. Klotz, and J. L. Roumiguières, Finite-volume time domain method, in Time Domain Electromagnetics (S. M. Rao, Ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999).

Mickan, S. P.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Yuan, S. P. Mickan, J. Xu, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang , “Towards an apertureless electro-optic T-ray microscope,” CLEO, 637 – 638 (2002).

Minami, Y.

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, and K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. Wanke, R. Ruel, J. Wynn, A. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591 – 593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496 – 3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D.

K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. Mittleman, “Sub-wavelength resolution using apertureless terahertz near-field microscopy,” CLEO, CMP5 (2003).

Nagel, M.

Ng, B. W.-H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150, 22 – 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

T. Yuan, H. Park, J. Xu, H. Han, and X.-C. Zhang, “Field induced THz wave emission with nanometer resolution,” Proc SPIE 5649, 1 – 8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

Pfeiffer, L.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496 – 3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P.

N. van der Valk and P. Planken, “Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558 – 1560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C.

Png, G. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roumiguières, J. L.

P. Bonnet, X. Ferrieres, B. L. Michielsen, P. Klotz, and J. L. Roumiguières, Finite-volume time domain method, in Time Domain Electromagnetics (S. M. Rao, Ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999).

Ruel, R.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. Wanke, R. Ruel, J. Wynn, A. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591 – 593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Sankaran, K.

C. Fumeaux, K. Sankaran, and R. Vahldieck, “Spherical perfectly matched absorber for finite-volume 3-D domain truncation,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2773 – 2781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M. A

Shan, J.

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438 –2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2005).

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, and K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97 – 105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, M. Tonouchi, M. Yamashita, and K. Kawase, “Laser terahertz-emission microscope for inspecting electrical faults in integrated circuits,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2058 – 2060 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsukada, K.

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, and K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ung, B. S. Y.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vahldieck, R.

C. Fumeaux, K. Sankaran, and R. Vahldieck, “Spherical perfectly matched absorber for finite-volume 3-D domain truncation,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2773 – 2781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Fumeaux, D. Baumann, P. Leuchtmann, and R. Vahldieck, “A generalized local time-step scheme for efficient FVTD simulations in strongly inhomogeneous meshes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 1067 – 1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N.

N. van der Valk and P. Planken, “Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558 – 1560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van der Weide, D. W.

von Ribbeck, H. G.

Wächter, M.

M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Tapered photoconductive terahertz field probe tip with subwavelength spatial resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. Mittleman, “Sub-wavelength resolution using apertureless terahertz near-field microscopy,” CLEO, CMP5 (2003).

Wanke, M.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. Wanke, R. Ruel, J. Wynn, A. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591 – 593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

West, K.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496 – 3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Winnerl, S.

Withayachumnankul, W.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wittborn, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Letters 8, 3766 – 3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wynn, J.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496 – 3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. Wanke, R. Ruel, J. Wynn, A. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591 – 593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, K.

Xu, G.

Q. Chen, Z. Jiang, G. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Near-field terahertz imaging with a dynamic aperture,” Opt. Express 25, 1122 – 1124 (2000).

Xu, J.

T. Yuan, H. Park, J. Xu, H. Han, and X.-C. Zhang, “Field induced THz wave emission with nanometer resolution,” Proc SPIE 5649, 1 – 8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yuan, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Development of terahertz wave microscopes,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45, 417 – 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Yuan, S. P. Mickan, J. Xu, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang , “Towards an apertureless electro-optic T-ray microscope,” CLEO, 637 – 638 (2002).

J. Xu and X.-C. Zhang, “Optical rectification in an area with a diameter comparable to or smaller than the center wavelength of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1067 – 1069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, M.

Yin, X.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, T.

T. Yuan, H. Park, J. Xu, H. Han, and X.-C. Zhang, “Field induced THz wave emission with nanometer resolution,” Proc SPIE 5649, 1 – 8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yuan, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Development of terahertz wave microscopes,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45, 417 – 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Yuan, S. P. Mickan, J. Xu, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang , “Towards an apertureless electro-optic T-ray microscope,” CLEO, 637 – 638 (2002).

Zhang, X.-C.

T. Yuan, H. Park, J. Xu, H. Han, and X.-C. Zhang, “Field induced THz wave emission with nanometer resolution,” Proc SPIE 5649, 1 – 8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yuan, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Development of terahertz wave microscopes,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45, 417 – 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Yuan, S. P. Mickan, J. Xu, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang , “Towards an apertureless electro-optic T-ray microscope,” CLEO, 637 – 638 (2002).

Q. Chen, Z. Jiang, G. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Near-field terahertz imaging with a dynamic aperture,” Opt. Express 25, 1122 – 1124 (2000).

J. Xu and X.-C. Zhang, “Optical rectification in an area with a diameter comparable to or smaller than the center wavelength of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1067 – 1069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, and J. Federici, “Terahertz near-field microscopy based on a collection mode detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3496 – 3498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, M. Wanke, R. Ruel, J. Wynn, A. Bruce, and J. Federici, “Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 591 – 593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Mair, B. Gompf, and M. Dressel, “Spatial and spectral behavior of the optical near field studied by a terahertz near-field spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1219 – 1221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. van der Valk and P. Planken, “Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558 – 1560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3009 – 3011 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Tapered photoconductive terahertz field probe tip with subwavelength spatial resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, and K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

CLEO (1)

T. Yuan, S. P. Mickan, J. Xu, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang , “Towards an apertureless electro-optic T-ray microscope,” CLEO, 637 – 638 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (3)

C. Fumeaux, D. Baumann, P. Leuchtmann, and R. Vahldieck, “A generalized local time-step scheme for efficient FVTD simulations in strongly inhomogeneous meshes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 1067 – 1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Fumeaux, K. Sankaran, and R. Vahldieck, “Spherical perfectly matched absorber for finite-volume 3-D domain truncation,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 55, 2773 – 2781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438 –2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

T. Yuan, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Development of terahertz wave microscopes,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 45, 417 – 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Letters (1)

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Letters 8, 3766 – 3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97 – 105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2, 618 – 621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150, 22 – 26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc SPIE (1)

T. Yuan, H. Park, J. Xu, H. Han, and X.-C. Zhang, “Field induced THz wave emission with nanometer resolution,” Proc SPIE 5649, 1 – 8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proceedings of the IEEE 95, 1528 – 1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. Mittleman, “Sub-wavelength resolution using apertureless terahertz near-field microscopy,” CLEO, CMP5 (2003).

R. Kersting, F. Buersgens, G. Acuna, and G. Cho, “Terahertz near-field microscopy,” Advances in Solid State Physics (SpringerBerlin / Heidelberg, 2008).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, “Broadband THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Biomolecules,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Freiburg (2005).

H. Lin, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Comparative simulation study of ZnTe heating effects in focused THz radiation generation,” 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 63 – 64 (2010).

Y. S. Lee, Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology (Springer, New York, USA, 2008).

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, 1991).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, and A. V. Maslov, “Temporal Dynamics of Optical-to-Terahertz Conversion in Electro-Optic Crystal,” CLEO, JWA93 (2007).

P. Bonnet, X. Ferrieres, B. L. Michielsen, P. Klotz, and J. L. Roumiguières, Finite-volume time domain method, in Time Domain Electromagnetics (S. M. Rao, Ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999).

C. Fumeaux, D. Baumann, S. Atakaramians, and E. Li, “Considerations on paraxial Gaussian beam source conditions for time-domain full-wave simulations,” 25th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics, 401 – 406 (2009).

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2005).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The pump laser beam is focused into a 1 mm thick ZnTe crystal by means of an optical lens. The emitted THz radiation polarized parallel to the x-axis is sliced along the x-axis and y-axis respectively by translating two sharp razor blades in the near-field region in parallel to the crystal back surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the numerical FVTD model. The center of the crystal surface is opened up in its center to reveal the source plane inside of the EO crystal. The inset shows the surface skin triangulation and illustrates the refinement of the mesh near the blade tip and on the crystal surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplitude distribution at 0.8 THz with a simulated (a) x-axis and (b) y-axis knife-edge.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Amplitude distribution at 2.4 THz with a simulated (a) x-axis and (b) y-axis knife-edge.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized THz amplitude radiation pattern with the x-axis and y-axis knife edge at the center of the beam for frequencies (a) 0.8 THz and (b) 2.4 THz. The green dashed lines highlight the acceptance angle of 28° from the crystal to the parabolic mirror, within which the THz radiation is measured.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The power spectrum of the THz waveforms acquired with a x-axis knife-edge scanned at a distance of 150 μm from the crystal. With each movement of the knife, the THz electric field becomes weaker until when the THz radiation is entirely blocked by the knife. This can be seen at x = 0 mm, where the knife does not obstruct the THz beam, as opposed to x = 2 mm, where the THz radiation is totally blocked. (b) Selected frequency components are shown at different knife positions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The power spectrum of the THz waveforms acquired with a y-axis knife-edge scanned at a distance of 150 μm from the crystal. With each movement of the knife, the THz field becomes weaker until when the THz radiation is entirely blocked by the knife. This can be seen at y = 3 mm, where the knife does not obstruct the THz beam, as opposed to y = 5 mm, where the THz radiation is totally blocked. (b) Selected frequency components are shown at different knife positions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) x-axis and (b) y-axis experimental and simulated knife-edge profile of THz radiation beam at 150 μm from the crystal backside at 0.35 THz.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) x-axis and (b) y-axis experimental and simulated knife-edge profile of THz radiation beam at 150 μm from the crystal backside at 0.615 THz.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) x-axis and (b) y-axis experimental and simulated knife-edge profile of THz radiation beam at 150 μm from the crystal backside at 1.04 THz.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) x-axis and (b) y-axis experimental and simulated knife-edge profile of THz radiation beam at 150 μm from the crystal backside at 1.46 THz.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) x-axis and (b) y-axis experimental and simulated knife-edge profile of THz radiation beam at 150 μm from the crystal backside at 2.1 THz.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) x-axis and (b) y-axis experimental and simulated knife-edge profile of THz radiation beam at 150 μm from the crystal backside at 2.5 THz.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Contour plot along the x and y-axis of the THz beam profile at 50 μm away from crystal surface at (a) 2 THz (b) 1.26 THz and (c) 1 THz. The normalized z-component of the Poynting vector is represented.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) (Left) Simulated sample structure comprising of grooves separated by decreasing sub-wavelength distances. (Right) The TOPAS sample comprising of vertical grooves (in white) separated by sub-wavelength distances of 300 μm, 200 μm, 150 μm and 100 μm. (b) (Left) Response from convolving THz beam waist at 2 THz with the simulated sample. (Right) Experimental grayscale image of the magnitude at 2 THz, resolves all distances. (c) (Left) Response from convolving THz beam waist at 1.26 THz with the simulated sample. (Right) Experimental grayscale image of the magnitude at 1.26 THz, resolves all distances. (d) (Left) Response from convolving THz beam waist at 1 THz with the simulated sample. (Right) Experimental grayscale image of the magnitude at 1 THz, resolves only the 300 μm distance.

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