Abstract

The experimental observation of a one-dimensional evanescent wave supported by a 90° metal edge is reported. Through a measurement of in-plane momenta, we clearly demonstrate the dimensional character of this surface wave and show that it is non-radiative in the superstrate. Excitation conditions, lateral extension and polarization properties of this wave are discussed. Finally, we explore the effect of the surrounding dielectric medium and demonstrate that a single edge can sustain distinct excitations.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323–6325 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1473–1475 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L. Novotny, “Allowed and forbidden light in near-field optics. i. a single dipolar light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 91–104 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. I. Stegeman, N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, T. P. Shen, and R. F. Wallis, “Fresnel relations for surface polaritons at interfaces,” Opt. Lett. 8, 626–628 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Integrated plasmonic waveguides: A mode solver based on density of states formulation,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 115419 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Degiron, and D. Smith, “Numerical simulations of long-range plasmons,” Opt. Express 14, 1611–1625 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. T. Vary, and P. Markos, “Propagation of surface plasmons through planar interface,” SPIE 7353, 73530K (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectricloaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Integrated plasmonic waveguides: A mode solver based on density of states formulation,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Vary, and P. Markos, “Propagation of surface plasmons through planar interface,” SPIE 7353, 73530K (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka, G. Burr, T. Grosjean, T. Maletzky, and U. Fischer, “Superfocussing in a metal-coated tetrahedral tip by dimensional reduction of surface-to edge-plasmon modes,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 257–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

R. F. Oulton, D. F. P. Pile, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons at abrupt surface interfaces: Implications for nanoscale cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Degiron, and D. Smith, “Numerical simulations of long-range plasmons,” Opt. Express 14, 1611–1625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Excitation of broadband surface plasmon polaritons: Plasmonic continuum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1473–1475 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323–6325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Hasegawa, J. U. Nöckel, and M. Deutsch, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation around bends at a metal–dielectric interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1835–1837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Plasmon waveguide for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583–4585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of asymmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, “Plasmon optics of structured silver films,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, and J.-M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy: A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation, and edge interaction using a three-dimensional gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

R. F. Wallis, A. A. Maradudin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and radiation at end faces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 764–766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, T. P. Shen, and R. F. Wallis, “Fresnel relations for surface polaritons at interfaces,” Opt. Lett. 8, 626–628 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baida, F. I.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, “Plasmon optics of structured silver films,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, and J.-M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy: A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation, and edge interaction using a three-dimensional gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of asymmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectricloaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Integrated plasmonic waveguides: A mode solver based on density of states formulation,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Excitation of broadband surface plasmon polaritons: Plasmonic continuum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, “Plasmon optics of structured silver films,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1473–1475 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burr, G.

K. Tanaka, G. Burr, T. Grosjean, T. Maletzky, and U. Fischer, “Superfocussing in a metal-coated tetrahedral tip by dimensional reduction of surface-to edge-plasmon modes,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 257–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chandran, A.

Colas des Francs, G.

G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Integrated plasmonic waveguides: A mode solver based on density of states formulation,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, P.

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Fornel, F.

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

Dereux, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectricloaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Integrated plasmonic waveguides: A mode solver based on density of states formulation,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

des Francs, G. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectricloaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, M.

K. Hasegawa, J. U. Nöckel, and M. Deutsch, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation around bends at a metal–dielectric interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1835–1837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, U.

K. Tanaka, G. Burr, T. Grosjean, T. Maletzky, and U. Fischer, “Superfocussing in a metal-coated tetrahedral tip by dimensional reduction of surface-to edge-plasmon modes,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 257–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G¨untherodt, H.-J.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, “Plasmon optics of structured silver films,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glass, N. E.

González, M. U.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J.-P.

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323–6325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectricloaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Integrated plasmonic waveguides: A mode solver based on density of states formulation,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grosjean, T.

K. Tanaka, G. Burr, T. Grosjean, T. Maletzky, and U. Fischer, “Superfocussing in a metal-coated tetrahedral tip by dimensional reduction of surface-to edge-plasmon modes,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 257–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, K.

K. Hasegawa, J. U. Nöckel, and M. Deutsch, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation around bends at a metal–dielectric interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1835–1837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, F.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, Th.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, “Plasmon optics of structured silver films,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

Koller, D.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Plasmon waveguide for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583–4585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacroute, Y.

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

R. F. Oulton, D. F. P. Pile, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons at abrupt surface interfaces: Implications for nanoscale cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maletzky, T.

K. Tanaka, G. Burr, T. Grosjean, T. Maletzky, and U. Fischer, “Superfocussing in a metal-coated tetrahedral tip by dimensional reduction of surface-to edge-plasmon modes,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 257–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

R. F. Wallis, A. A. Maradudin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and radiation at end faces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 764–766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, T. P. Shen, and R. F. Wallis, “Fresnel relations for surface polaritons at interfaces,” Opt. Lett. 8, 626–628 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markey, L.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectricloaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

T. Vary, and P. Markos, “Propagation of surface plasmons through planar interface,” SPIE 7353, 73530K (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectricloaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Integrated plasmonic waveguides: A mode solver based on density of states formulation,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, E.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morimoto, A.

Nöckel, J. U.

K. Hasegawa, J. U. Nöckel, and M. Deutsch, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation around bends at a metal–dielectric interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1835–1837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, “Allowed and forbidden light in near-field optics. i. a single dipolar light source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 91–104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Plasmon waveguide for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583–4585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, D. F. P. Pile, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons at abrupt surface interfaces: Implications for nanoscale cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, D. F. P. Pile, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons at abrupt surface interfaces: Implications for nanoscale cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323–6325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, “Plasmon optics of structured silver films,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Renger, J.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, S. G.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, M.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, T. P.

Smith, D.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, T. P. Shen, and R. F. Wallis, “Fresnel relations for surface polaritons at interfaces,” Opt. Lett. 8, 626–628 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Wallis, A. A. Maradudin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and radiation at end faces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 764–766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Steinberger, B.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

Takahara, J.

Taki, H.

Tamaru, H.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, “Plasmon optics of structured silver films,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, G. Burr, T. Grosjean, T. Maletzky, and U. Fischer, “Superfocussing in a metal-coated tetrahedral tip by dimensional reduction of surface-to edge-plasmon modes,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 257–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. G¨untherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, “Plasmon optics of structured silver films,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, and J.-M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy: A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation, and edge interaction using a three-dimensional gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vary, T.

T. Vary, and P. Markos, “Propagation of surface plasmons through planar interface,” SPIE 7353, 73530K (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J.-M.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, and J.-M. Vigoureux, “Near-field surface plasmon microscopy: A numerical study of plasmon excitation, propagation, and edge interaction using a three-dimensional gaussian beam,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7812–7815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallis, R. F.

R. F. Wallis, A. A. Maradudin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface polariton reflection and radiation at end faces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 764–766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, T. P. Shen, and R. F. Wallis, “Fresnel relations for surface polaritons at interfaces,” Opt. Lett. 8, 626–628 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectricloaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Integrated plasmonic waveguides: A mode solver based on density of states formulation,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 115419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. Bouhelier, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Excitation of broadband surface plasmon polaritons: Plasmonic continuum spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamagishi, S.

Yatsui, T.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Plasmon waveguide for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583–4585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, D. F. P. Pile, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons at abrupt surface interfaces: Implications for nanoscale cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1473–1475 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

K. Tanaka, G. Burr, T. Grosjean, T. Maletzky, and U. Fischer, “Superfocussing in a metal-coated tetrahedral tip by dimensional reduction of surface-to edge-plasmon modes,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 257–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectricloaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Hasegawa, J. U. Nöckel, and M. Deutsch, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation around bends at a metal–dielectric interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1835–1837 (2004).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(color online) (a) SEM image of the termination of a gold pad. The propagation direction of the surface plasmon is indicated by the arrow. (b) Cross section of the termination obtained by AFM. The height is 60nm. (c) Three dimensional rendering of the edge region characterized by AFM. The roughness of the gold film is estimated to be below 2nm RMS (small debris are visible in the edge vicinity).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(color online) Representation of the experimental setup. Surface plasmon are excited by a high N.A. objective in a Kretschmann-like configuration. Leakage radiation emitted in the substrate are collected by the same objective and detected by are directed on CCD cameras conjugated with either the image plane to retrieve the SPP intensity distribution, or with the Fourier plane to map the wavevector distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic view of sample geometry used for the computing the edge interaction with the differential method. The gold pads are approximated by w=10μm wide gold stripe with thickness h of 60nm. The period of the stripe is 20μm. A focused Gaussian beam is incident at the surface plasmon angle and is aligned with y axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(color online) (a) Intensity distribution of the SPP interaction with the edge acquired by leakage radiation microscopy. The excitation is visible as a saturated area on the top right corner of the Au pad. The SPP propagates towards y >0. The intensity profile is taken at y=34 μm (dashed line). (b) Simulation of the electric field intensity displaying the edge interaction. (c) Fourier imaging of the wave-vector content. The SPP is visible as a bright arc at kspp = 1.04ko. Its diffraction at the edge leads to a line with a constant ky.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(color online) (a) Profile of the wave-vector distribution along the ky/ko axis as a function Δx. Δx=0 at the corner of the pad. (b) Wave-vector distribution showing kspp when the excitation area is far from the edge. Δkspp defines the complete SPP momentum spread of projected along the ky/ko axis. δkspp is the FWHM of the SPP at kx/k o=0. (c) Leakage radiation images for the corresponding Δx values.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(color online) (a) Normalized intensity of the edge diffraction as a function of the analyzing orientation. (b) and (c) are the intensity distributions of the edge diffraction for two orthogonal orientations of the analyzer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(color online) Profile of the wave-vector distribution along the ky/ko axis for various recessed distances d and for a 100 nm-wide SiO2-covered edge (red curve) and their respective illustrations. Inset: Electron micrograph displaying the 24 nm-thick SiO2 layer covering the Au pad and its recessed distance from the Au edge.

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