Abstract

We present a reconfigurable optical directed logic architecture that offers several significant improvements over the original directed logic presented by Hardy and Shamir. Specific embodiments of on-chip, waveguided, large-scale-integrated, cellular optical directed logic fabrics are proposed and analyzed. Five important logic functions are presented as examples to show that the same switch fabric can be reconfigured to perform different logic functions.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-microm radius,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4309–4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low-noise quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1430–1431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hardy and J. Shamir, “Optics inspired logic architecture,” Opt. Express 15(1), 150–165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kovsh, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, J. Weimert, and A. Zhukov, “Quantum dot laser with 75 nm broad spectrum of emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 793–795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kochar, A. Kodi, and A. Louri, “Proposed low-power high-speed microring resonator-based switching technique for dynamically reconfigurable optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(17), 1304–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale all-optical wavelength converter on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2733–2735 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2001

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abdalla, S.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Almeida, V. R.

Analui, B.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atabaki, A. H.

Baets, R.

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balmater, E.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bornholdt, C.

A. Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low-noise quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1430–1431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, J.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cioccio, L. D.

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Eftekhar, A. A.

Fang, Q.

Fattal, D.

Fedeli, J.-M.

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giziewicz, W.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gloeckner, S.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grote, N.

A. Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low-noise quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1430–1431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gubenko, A.

A. Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low-noise quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1430–1431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guckenberger, D.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J.

Harris, J. S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, M.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. O.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ji, R. Q.

Jia, L. X.

Jiang, Z. Y.

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kartner, F. X.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kochar, C.

C. Kochar, A. Kodi, and A. Louri, “Proposed low-power high-speed microring resonator-based switching technique for dynamically reconfigurable optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(17), 1304–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kodi, A.

C. Kochar, A. Kodi, and A. Louri, “Proposed low-power high-speed microring resonator-based switching technique for dynamically reconfigurable optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(17), 1304–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koumans, R. G. M. P.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A.

A. Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low-noise quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1430–1431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Kovsh, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, J. Weimert, and A. Zhukov, “Quantum dot laser with 75 nm broad spectrum of emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 793–795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krestnikov, I.

A. Kovsh, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, J. Weimert, and A. Zhukov, “Quantum dot laser with 75 nm broad spectrum of emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 793–795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low-noise quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1430–1431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kucharski, D.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laval, S.

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, M. C. M.

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liang, Y.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. L.

Livshits, D.

Livshtis, D.

A. Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low-noise quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1430–1431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Louri, A.

C. Kochar, A. Kodi, and A. Louri, “Proposed low-power high-speed microring resonator-based switching technique for dynamically reconfigurable optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(17), 1304–1306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Y.

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mekis, A.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mikhrin, S.

A. Kovsh, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, J. Weimert, and A. Zhukov, “Quantum dot laser with 75 nm broad spectrum of emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 793–795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low-noise quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1430–1431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirsaidi, S.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Narasimha, A.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

Pan, D.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regreny, P.

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rojo Romeo, P.

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Schwelb, O.

Seassal, C.

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shah Hosseini, E.

Shakya, J.

Shamir, J.

Sleboda, T. J.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, D.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y. H.

Van Campenhout, J.

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weimert, J.

West, L.

A. Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low-noise quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1430–1431 (2007).
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Wiederhecker, G. S.

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, R. C.

Wu, M. C.

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Yang, L.

Yasaitis, J.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
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Yegnanarayanan, S.

Yu, M. B.

Zhang, L.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, P.

Zhukov, A.

A. Kovsh, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, J. Weimert, and A. Zhukov, “Quantum dot laser with 75 nm broad spectrum of emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 793–795 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low-noise quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1430–1431 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
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Electron. Lett.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
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A. Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low-noise quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(25), 1430–1431 (2007).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
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IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4x 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 mu m CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(12), 2736–2744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008).
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C. Kochar, A. Kodi, and A. Louri, “Proposed low-power high-speed microring resonator-based switching technique for dynamically reconfigurable optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(17), 1304–1306 (2007).
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J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the reconfigurable directed logic circuit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The truth table and the circuit diagrams of an 8-bit priority encoder. (a) The truth table. ‘x’ means “any”. (b) The directed logic implementation of the encoder. Black lines: optical waveguides; Red lines: electric logic signal controlling the optical switches; Solid squares: optical switches in the pass/block mode, i.e. it passes light when the control logic signal is ‘1’ and blocks light when the control logic signal is ‘0’; Hollow squares: optical switches in the block/pass mode; Dashed circles, optical switches in the pass/pass mode. (c) An alternative drawing of the same circuit as shown in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Circuit diagrams of the directed logic circuits performing 8-to-1 MUX (a) and 1-to-8 DEMUX (b) functions. The meanings of the symbols in the diagram are the same as those in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The structure and operation modes of a reconfigurable 1 × 1 switch based on a silicon microring resonator. (a) An SEM picture of a silicon microring resonator side coupled to a silicon strip waveguide. (b) A diagram of a silicon microring modulator with a p-i-n junction built across the ring [4]. This is one of the mechanisms that can be used to tune the resonance of the ring with high speed. (c) The transmission spectra of a switch in block/pass mode for light with the wavelength of λL. Red line is the spectrum when the logic signal is ‘1’, and λ1 marks the resonant wavelength at this state. Blue line is the spectrum when the logic signal is ‘0’, and λ0 marks the resonant wavelength at this state. (d) The transmission spectra of a switch in pass/block mode. (e) The transmission spectra of a switch in pass/pass mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The structure of the expanded unit cell. (a) The structure of an expanded unit cell based on tunable microring resonators. The two coupled microring resonators between two parallel waveguides forms a 2 × 2 switch. The dark blue arrows indicate the travel direction of light. (b) A block diagram of the expanded unit cell, which is composed of a 2 × 2 switch controlled by a logic signal and a reconfiguration signal R1, and a 1 × 1 switch controlled by another reconfiguration signal R2. (c) A block diagram of an XOR gate formed by two unit cells. The diagram shows the operation mode of each switch in order to perform the XOR operation. (d) A 2 × 4 switch fabric composed of two arrays with four unit cells in each array. Each array can calculate a generalized product of four logic inputs (A, B, C and D).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Circuit diagrams of: (a) a comparator for two 4-bit binary numbers, and (b) a full adder of two 4-bit binary numbers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The diagram of a four-input directed-logic circuit where parallel connected p-i-n photodetectors sum optical output signals from the switch fabric that calculates products or generalized products of the logic input. The switch fabric has the same structure as the 1st-stage switch fabric shown in either Section 3 or Section 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) The diagram of a four-input multi-wavelength DL circuit that performs sum operation by collecting optical output at different wavelengths into one waveguide with the tunable microring resonators. (b) A diagram of the multi-wavelength directed logic circuit that performs the comparison of two 4-bit binary numbers.

Equations (3)

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A + B = A ¯ B ¯ ¯
y 0 ¯ = x 7 ¯ x 6 + x 7 ¯ x 6 ¯ x 5 ¯ x 4 + x 7 ¯ x 6 ¯ x 5 ¯ x 4 ¯ x 3 ¯ x 2 + x 7 ¯ x 6 ¯ x 5 ¯ x 4 ¯ x 3 ¯ x 2 ¯ x 1 ¯ x 0
y 0 = x 7 ¯ x 6 ¯ x 7 ¯ x 6 ¯ x 5 ¯ x 4 ¯ x 7 ¯ x 6 ¯ x 5 ¯ x 4 ¯ x 3 ¯ x 2 ¯ x 7 ¯ x 6 ¯ x 5 ¯ x 4 ¯ x 3 ¯ x 2 ¯ x 1 ¯ x 0 ¯

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