Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate feedback controlling of the resonant wavelength of a silicon dual-ring resonator. The feedback signal is the difference in optical scattering from the two coupled microring resonators, and the control mechanism is based on thermo-optic tuning with micro-heaters. This control scheme keeps the central wavelength of the resonator aligning with the input wavelength, which can be used to compensate fabrication variations, environmental temperature shift and the drift of laser wavelength. This feedback control scheme allows microring-based electro-optic modulators to be used in a dynamic environment.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

2009 (4)

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

1976 (1)

J. M. Elson, “Diffraction and diffuse scattering from dielectric multilayers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 69, 682–694 (1976).

Asghari, M.

Baets, R.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bogaerts, W.

Chen, L.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Elson, J. M.

J. M. Elson, “Diffraction and diffuse scattering from dielectric multilayers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 69, 682–694 (1976).

Fan, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattal, D.

Feng, D.

Guha, B.

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, X.

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jian, X.

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-C.

Kyotoku, B. B. C.

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelengthreconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47, 044601–044608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Manipatruni, S.

Martinez, J.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelengthreconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47, 044601–044608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morthier, G.

Ng, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelengthreconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47, 044601–044608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelengthreconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47, 044601–044608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, K.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelengthreconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47, 044601–044608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Povinelli, M. L.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

Sandhu, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Teng, J.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M. R.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelengthreconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47, 044601–044608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelengthreconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47, 044601–044608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, “Silicon dual-ring modulator,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20783–20793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-microm radius,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4309–4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the Delay-Bandwidth Limit in a Photonic Structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhao, M.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. M. Elson, “Diffraction and diffuse scattering from dielectric multilayers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 69, 682–694 (1976).

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Light scattering from random rough dielectric surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8(8), 1270–1286 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the Delay-Bandwidth Limit in a Photonic Structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelengthreconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47, 044601–044608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “Titania-Clad Microresonators on SOIWith Athermal Performance,” In Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics / Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS 2010), paper JThE44.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators andswitches,” in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE 2008), pp. 4– 6.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top-view microscopic picture of the dual-ring resonator with micro-heaters. The two red dash squares make the two scattering collected regions. (b) Infrared scattering image of the device with optical input at the central wavelength. Scattered optical powers are obtained by calculate the average brightness inside the two dashed squares.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup for measuring the transmission spectrum of the resonators and to measure the optical scattering for the feedback control process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission and scattering spectra of the dual-ring resonator. (a) The measured (black dots) and fitted transmission spectra (the red line) [17]. λ 0 is the central wavelength of the supermode. λ 1 and λ 2 are the resonance wavelengths of the two individual rings. (b) The normalized scattering spectra for the two rings (red and black dots) and the spectra calculated using the parameters obtained from the fitting shown in (a) (red and black lines).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured transmission spectrum (the red line) and scattering difference (the blue line) near the central wavelength (λ 0). λ S is the wavelength where the scattering difference crosses zero(b) Power efficiency at different resonance wavelength detuning λ 2λ 1. P S is the optical output power at λ S and P 0 is the optical output power at λ 0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized transmission spectra with different heating powers on the integrated micro-heaters (b) The shift of central wavelength at different heating powers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The active feedback control process. (a) Normalized optical transmission with (the blue line) and without (the green line) the feedback control process. The red line shows the power applied on the heater. (b) The normalized scattering signal for the two rings during the control process.

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