Abstract

We report a novel evanescent-coupled germanium (Ge) electro-absorption (EA) modulator with a small active area of 16 μm2 giving an extinction ratio of at least 10 dB for a wavelength range of 1580 – 1610 nm. The modulation efficiency of the modulator at this wavelength range was ~2 dB/V. In addition, monolithic integration of both evanescent-coupled Ge EA modulator and Ge p-i-n photodetector is demonstrated for the first time.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. K. Chin and W. S. C. Chang, “Theoretical design optimization of multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption waveguide modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 29(9), 2476–2488 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

M. K. Chin and W. S. C. Chang, “Theoretical design optimization of multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption waveguide modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 29(9), 2476–2488 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cercus, J. L.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. S. C.

M. K. Chin and W. S. C. Chang, “Theoretical design optimization of multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption waveguide modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 29(9), 2476–2488 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

Chin, M. K.

M. K. Chin and W. S. C. Chang, “Theoretical design optimization of multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption waveguide modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 29(9), 2476–2488 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Danielson, D. T.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fidaner, O.

Fiorentino, M.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Franck, T.

Ge, Y.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giziewicz, W.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Halbwax, M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, J.-M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heitzmann, M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hodge, D.

Huo, Y.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huyet, G.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. Ö.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

Jongthammanurak, S.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamins, T. I. T.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keil, U. D.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D.-L.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, L.

Liow, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A.

Miller, D. A. B.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morse, M.

Nguyen, H.

Ochalski, T. J.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

Pascal, D.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, F. H.

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, Y.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouvière, M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

Samara-Rubio, D.

Schaevitz, R. K.

Shen, H.

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.

K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tan, M. R. T.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yasaitis, J.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.-B.

K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. T. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-W. Ang, T.-Y. Liow, M.-B. Yu, Q. Fang, J. Song, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Low thermal budget monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge-on-SOI photodetector on Si CMOS platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 106–113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. K. Chin and W. S. C. Chang, “Theoretical design optimization of multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption waveguide modulators,” J. Quantum Electron. 29(9), 2476–2488 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J. L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

H. Shen and F. H. Pollak, “Generalized Franz-Keldysh theory of electromodulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(11), 7097–7102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic and (b) cross-section cut of the evanescent-coupled Ge EA modulator structure. The metal electrodes are not shown in the schematic, but are included in the cross-sectional cut. (c) Key process steps for monolithic integration of EA modulator and photodetector are illustrated (Dimensions are not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images showing monolithic integration of evanescent-coupled Ge EA modulator (right) and Ge p-i-n photodetector (left) after Ge epitaxy and etch steps. (b) TEM cross-sectional image of the Ge rib whereby vertical sidewalls are clearly seen.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission spectra of Ge EA modulator (L Ge = 40 μm, W Ge = 0.6 μm) for a range of wavelengths at different reverse bias voltages. (b) The corresponding extinction ratio as a function of wavelength at different reverse biases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The variation of extinction ratio with (a) modulator length and (b) modulator width is shown at 3 V bias for λ = 1600 nm. (c) The insertion loss for the Ge EA modulator after subtracting contributions from fiber-to-Si WG and Si WG propagation losses by using a reference Si WG.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A linear relationship was observed between applied reverse bias and extinction ratio giving a modulation efficiency of 2 dB/V. Inset shows a 1.25 Gbps modulated waveform from a pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) source with a pattern length of [27 1] bits.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The responsivity of the monolithically-integrated Ge photodetector (L Ge = 25 μm, W Ge = 5 μm) at modulation wavelength range of 1580 – 1610 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Key Results of this Work are Compared with Other Ge-Based EA Modulators a

Equations (1)

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E R = I L ( 0 ) I L ( V ) .

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