Abstract

We report coupled VCSEL arrays, emitting at 1.3μm wavelength, in which both the optical gain/loss and refractive index distributions were defined on different vertical layers. The arrays were electrically pumped through a patterned tunnel junction, whereas the array pixels were realized by intra-cavity patterning using sub-wavelength air gaps. Stable oscillations in coupled modes were evidenced for 2x2 array structures, from threshold current up to thermal roll-over, using spectrally resolved field pattern analysis.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabherr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, and A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1536-1538 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Haglund, J. S. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, "Single fundamental-mode output power exceeding 6 mW from VCSELs with a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 368-370 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Morgan, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, M. T. Asom, K. Kojima, L. E. Rogers, and S. E. Callis, "Transverse-mode control of vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(4), 374-377 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, "2-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor-lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804-806 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Shinada, and F. Koyama, "Single high-order transverse mode surface-emitting laser with controlled far-field pattern," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(12), 1641-1643 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3901-3903 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Furukawa, S. Sasaki, M. Hoshi, A. Matsuzono, K. Moritoh, and T. Baba, "High-power single-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with triangular holey structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5161-5163 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. L. Harren, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, and K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 909-917 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Liu, W. Chen, M. X. Xing, W. J. Zhou, H. W. Qu, and W. H. Zheng, "Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Shi, J. L. Yen, C. H. Jiang, K. M. Chen, T. J. Hung, and Y. J. Yang, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with high-power and single-spot far-field distributions at 850-nm wavelength by use of petal-shaped light-emitting apertures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1-4), 481-483 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. W. Young, K. D. Choquette, S. L. Chuang, K. M. Geib, A. J. Fischer, and A. A. Allerman, "Single-transverse mode vertical-cavity lasers under continuous and pulsed operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 927-929 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. C. Lehman, and K. D. Choquette, "One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant-defined vertical cavity laser arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1421-1423 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Bao, N. H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, "Singlemode emission from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with low-index defects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 239-241 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. K. Serkland, K. D. Choquette, G. R. Hadley, K. M. Geib, and A. A. Allerman, "Two-element phased array of antiguided vertical-cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3754-3756 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Zhou, and L. J. Mawst, "Two-dimensional phase-locked antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2307-2309 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Arzberger, M. Lohner, G. Bohm, and M. C. Amann, "Low-resistivity p-side contacts for InP-based devices using buried InGaAs tunnel junction," Electron. Lett. 36(1), 87-88 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Mircea, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, C. A. Berseth, P. Royo, A. Syrbu, and E. Kapon, "Cavity mode-gain peak tradeoff for 1320nm wafer-fused VCSELs with 3mW single-mode emission power and 10-Gb/s modulation speed up to 70 degrees C," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 121-123 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Hofmann, "High-speed buried tunnel junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. J. 1, 1-14 (2010).
  19. L. Mutter, V. Iakovlev, A. Caliman, A. Mereuta, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, "1.3 μm-wavelength phase-locked VCSEL arrays incorporating patterned tunnel junction," Opt. Express 17(10), 8558-8566 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, V. Iacovlev, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, "10-Gb/s and 10-km error-free transmission up to 100 degrees C with 1.3-mu m wavelength wafer-fused VCSELs," Opt. Express 17(15), 12981-12986 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. E. Ackley, and R. W. H. Engelmann, "Twin-stripe injection-laser with leaky-mode coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(10), 866-868 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Kapon, C. Lindsey, J. Katz, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, "Coupling mechanism of gain-guided integrated semiconductor-laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(4), 389-391 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Debernardi, G. Bava, F. di Sopra, and M. B. Willemsen, "Features of vectorial modes in phase-coupled VCSEL arrays: experiment and theory," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 109-119 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Golshani, H. Pier, E. Kapon, and M. Moser, "Photon mode localization in disordered arrays of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 85(4), 2454-2456 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2010

A. J. Liu, W. Chen, M. X. Xing, W. J. Zhou, H. W. Qu, and W. H. Zheng, "Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Hofmann, "High-speed buried tunnel junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. J. 1, 1-14 (2010).

2009

2007

A. Mircea, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, C. A. Berseth, P. Royo, A. Syrbu, and E. Kapon, "Cavity mode-gain peak tradeoff for 1320nm wafer-fused VCSELs with 3mW single-mode emission power and 10-Gb/s modulation speed up to 70 degrees C," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 121-123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Lehman, and K. D. Choquette, "One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant-defined vertical cavity laser arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1421-1423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bao, N. H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, "Singlemode emission from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with low-index defects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 239-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. W. Shi, J. L. Yen, C. H. Jiang, K. M. Chen, T. J. Hung, and Y. J. Yang, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with high-power and single-spot far-field distributions at 850-nm wavelength by use of petal-shaped light-emitting apertures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1-4), 481-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Furukawa, S. Sasaki, M. Hoshi, A. Matsuzono, K. Moritoh, and T. Baba, "High-power single-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with triangular holey structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5161-5163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Haglund, J. S. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, "Single fundamental-mode output power exceeding 6 mW from VCSELs with a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 368-370 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Debernardi, G. Bava, F. di Sopra, and M. B. Willemsen, "Features of vectorial modes in phase-coupled VCSEL arrays: experiment and theory," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 109-119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Shinada, and F. Koyama, "Single high-order transverse mode surface-emitting laser with controlled far-field pattern," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(12), 1641-1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3901-3903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. W. Young, K. D. Choquette, S. L. Chuang, K. M. Geib, A. J. Fischer, and A. A. Allerman, "Single-transverse mode vertical-cavity lasers under continuous and pulsed operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 927-929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Zhou, and L. J. Mawst, "Two-dimensional phase-locked antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2307-2309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Arzberger, M. Lohner, G. Bohm, and M. C. Amann, "Low-resistivity p-side contacts for InP-based devices using buried InGaAs tunnel junction," Electron. Lett. 36(1), 87-88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. K. Serkland, K. D. Choquette, G. R. Hadley, K. M. Geib, and A. A. Allerman, "Two-element phased array of antiguided vertical-cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3754-3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabherr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, and A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Golshani, H. Pier, E. Kapon, and M. Moser, "Photon mode localization in disordered arrays of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 85(4), 2454-2456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. A. Morgan, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, M. T. Asom, K. Kojima, L. E. Rogers, and S. E. Callis, "Transverse-mode control of vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(4), 374-377 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, "2-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor-lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804-806 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984

E. Kapon, C. Lindsey, J. Katz, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, "Coupling mechanism of gain-guided integrated semiconductor-laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(4), 389-391 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980

D. E. Ackley, and R. W. H. Engelmann, "Twin-stripe injection-laser with leaky-mode coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(10), 866-868 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ackley, D. E.

D. E. Ackley, and R. W. H. Engelmann, "Twin-stripe injection-laser with leaky-mode coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(10), 866-868 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Allerman, A. A.

E. W. Young, K. D. Choquette, S. L. Chuang, K. M. Geib, A. J. Fischer, and A. A. Allerman, "Single-transverse mode vertical-cavity lasers under continuous and pulsed operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 927-929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Serkland, K. D. Choquette, G. R. Hadley, K. M. Geib, and A. A. Allerman, "Two-element phased array of antiguided vertical-cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3754-3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

M. Arzberger, M. Lohner, G. Bohm, and M. C. Amann, "Low-resistivity p-side contacts for InP-based devices using buried InGaAs tunnel junction," Electron. Lett. 36(1), 87-88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arzberger, M.

M. Arzberger, M. Lohner, G. Bohm, and M. C. Amann, "Low-resistivity p-side contacts for InP-based devices using buried InGaAs tunnel junction," Electron. Lett. 36(1), 87-88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asom, M. T.

R. A. Morgan, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, M. T. Asom, K. Kojima, L. E. Rogers, and S. E. Callis, "Transverse-mode control of vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(4), 374-377 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

A. Furukawa, S. Sasaki, M. Hoshi, A. Matsuzono, K. Moritoh, and T. Baba, "High-power single-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with triangular holey structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5161-5163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bao, L.

L. Bao, N. H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, "Singlemode emission from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with low-index defects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 239-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bava, G.

D. Debernardi, G. Bava, F. di Sopra, and M. B. Willemsen, "Features of vectorial modes in phase-coupled VCSEL arrays: experiment and theory," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 109-119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berseth, C. A.

A. Mircea, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, C. A. Berseth, P. Royo, A. Syrbu, and E. Kapon, "Cavity mode-gain peak tradeoff for 1320nm wafer-fused VCSELs with 3mW single-mode emission power and 10-Gb/s modulation speed up to 70 degrees C," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 121-123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bohm, G.

M. Arzberger, M. Lohner, G. Bohm, and M. C. Amann, "Low-resistivity p-side contacts for InP-based devices using buried InGaAs tunnel junction," Electron. Lett. 36(1), 87-88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Caliman, A.

Callis, S. E.

R. A. Morgan, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, M. T. Asom, K. Kojima, L. E. Rogers, and S. E. Callis, "Transverse-mode control of vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(4), 374-377 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

J. W. Shi, J. L. Yen, C. H. Jiang, K. M. Chen, T. J. Hung, and Y. J. Yang, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with high-power and single-spot far-field distributions at 850-nm wavelength by use of petal-shaped light-emitting apertures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1-4), 481-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

A. J. Liu, W. Chen, M. X. Xing, W. J. Zhou, H. W. Qu, and W. H. Zheng, "Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. L. Harren, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, and K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 909-917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Lehman, and K. D. Choquette, "One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant-defined vertical cavity laser arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1421-1423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Young, K. D. Choquette, S. L. Chuang, K. M. Geib, A. J. Fischer, and A. A. Allerman, "Single-transverse mode vertical-cavity lasers under continuous and pulsed operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 927-929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Serkland, K. D. Choquette, G. R. Hadley, K. M. Geib, and A. A. Allerman, "Two-element phased array of antiguided vertical-cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3754-3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

E. W. Young, K. D. Choquette, S. L. Chuang, K. M. Geib, A. J. Fischer, and A. A. Allerman, "Single-transverse mode vertical-cavity lasers under continuous and pulsed operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 927-929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Danner, A. J.

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. L. Harren, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, and K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 909-917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Debernardi, D.

D. Debernardi, G. Bava, F. di Sopra, and M. B. Willemsen, "Features of vectorial modes in phase-coupled VCSEL arrays: experiment and theory," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 109-119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

di Sopra, F.

D. Debernardi, G. Bava, F. di Sopra, and M. B. Willemsen, "Features of vectorial modes in phase-coupled VCSEL arrays: experiment and theory," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 109-119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, K. J.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabherr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, and A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elkin, N. N.

L. Bao, N. H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, "Singlemode emission from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with low-index defects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 239-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Engelmann, R. W. H.

D. E. Ackley, and R. W. H. Engelmann, "Twin-stripe injection-laser with leaky-mode coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(10), 866-868 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

E. W. Young, K. D. Choquette, S. L. Chuang, K. M. Geib, A. J. Fischer, and A. A. Allerman, "Single-transverse mode vertical-cavity lasers under continuous and pulsed operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 927-929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, "2-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor-lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804-806 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Focht, M. W.

R. A. Morgan, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, M. T. Asom, K. Kojima, L. E. Rogers, and S. E. Callis, "Transverse-mode control of vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(4), 374-377 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, A.

A. Furukawa, S. Sasaki, M. Hoshi, A. Matsuzono, K. Moritoh, and T. Baba, "High-power single-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with triangular holey structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5161-5163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geib, K. M.

E. W. Young, K. D. Choquette, S. L. Chuang, K. M. Geib, A. J. Fischer, and A. A. Allerman, "Single-transverse mode vertical-cavity lasers under continuous and pulsed operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 927-929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Serkland, K. D. Choquette, G. R. Hadley, K. M. Geib, and A. A. Allerman, "Two-element phased array of antiguided vertical-cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3754-3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giannopoulos, A. V.

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. L. Harren, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, and K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 909-917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Golshani, A.

A. Golshani, H. Pier, E. Kapon, and M. Moser, "Photon mode localization in disordered arrays of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 85(4), 2454-2456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grabherr, M.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabherr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, and A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsson, J. S.

A. Haglund, J. S. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, "Single fundamental-mode output power exceeding 6 mW from VCSELs with a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 368-370 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guth, G. D.

R. A. Morgan, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, M. T. Asom, K. Kojima, L. E. Rogers, and S. E. Callis, "Transverse-mode control of vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(4), 374-377 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

D. K. Serkland, K. D. Choquette, G. R. Hadley, K. M. Geib, and A. A. Allerman, "Two-element phased array of antiguided vertical-cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3754-3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, A.

A. Haglund, J. S. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, "Single fundamental-mode output power exceeding 6 mW from VCSELs with a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 368-370 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J. P.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, "2-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor-lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804-806 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harren, A. C. L.

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. L. Harren, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, and K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 909-917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, W.

W. Hofmann, "High-speed buried tunnel junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. J. 1, 1-14 (2010).

Hoshi, M.

A. Furukawa, S. Sasaki, M. Hoshi, A. Matsuzono, K. Moritoh, and T. Baba, "High-power single-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with triangular holey structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5161-5163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hung, T. J.

J. W. Shi, J. L. Yen, C. H. Jiang, K. M. Chen, T. J. Hung, and Y. J. Yang, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with high-power and single-spot far-field distributions at 850-nm wavelength by use of petal-shaped light-emitting apertures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1-4), 481-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iacovlev, V.

Iakovlev, V.

L. Mutter, V. Iakovlev, A. Caliman, A. Mereuta, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, "1.3 μm-wavelength phase-locked VCSEL arrays incorporating patterned tunnel junction," Opt. Express 17(10), 8558-8566 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mircea, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, C. A. Berseth, P. Royo, A. Syrbu, and E. Kapon, "Cavity mode-gain peak tradeoff for 1320nm wafer-fused VCSELs with 3mW single-mode emission power and 10-Gb/s modulation speed up to 70 degrees C," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 121-123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jager, R.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabherr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, and A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C. H.

J. W. Shi, J. L. Yen, C. H. Jiang, K. M. Chen, T. J. Hung, and Y. J. Yang, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with high-power and single-spot far-field distributions at 850-nm wavelength by use of petal-shaped light-emitting apertures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1-4), 481-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

L. Mutter, V. Iakovlev, A. Caliman, A. Mereuta, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, "1.3 μm-wavelength phase-locked VCSEL arrays incorporating patterned tunnel junction," Opt. Express 17(10), 8558-8566 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, V. Iacovlev, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, "10-Gb/s and 10-km error-free transmission up to 100 degrees C with 1.3-mu m wavelength wafer-fused VCSELs," Opt. Express 17(15), 12981-12986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mircea, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, C. A. Berseth, P. Royo, A. Syrbu, and E. Kapon, "Cavity mode-gain peak tradeoff for 1320nm wafer-fused VCSELs with 3mW single-mode emission power and 10-Gb/s modulation speed up to 70 degrees C," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 121-123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Golshani, H. Pier, E. Kapon, and M. Moser, "Photon mode localization in disordered arrays of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 85(4), 2454-2456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, "2-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor-lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804-806 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Kapon, C. Lindsey, J. Katz, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, "Coupling mechanism of gain-guided integrated semiconductor-laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(4), 389-391 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kasten, A. M.

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. L. Harren, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, and K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 909-917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Katz, J.

E. Kapon, C. Lindsey, J. Katz, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, "Coupling mechanism of gain-guided integrated semiconductor-laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(4), 389-391 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. K.

D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3901-3903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. H.

L. Bao, N. H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, "Singlemode emission from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with low-index defects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 239-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3901-3903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, K.

R. A. Morgan, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, M. T. Asom, K. Kojima, L. E. Rogers, and S. E. Callis, "Transverse-mode control of vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(4), 374-377 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

S. Shinada, and F. Koyama, "Single high-order transverse mode surface-emitting laser with controlled far-field pattern," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(12), 1641-1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

A. Haglund, J. S. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, "Single fundamental-mode output power exceeding 6 mW from VCSELs with a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 368-370 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabherr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, and A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3901-3903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lehman, A. C.

A. C. Lehman, and K. D. Choquette, "One- and two-dimensional coherently coupled implant-defined vertical cavity laser arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1421-1423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leisher, P. O.

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. L. Harren, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, and K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 909-917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindsey, C.

E. Kapon, C. Lindsey, J. Katz, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, "Coupling mechanism of gain-guided integrated semiconductor-laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(4), 389-391 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. J.

A. J. Liu, W. Chen, M. X. Xing, W. J. Zhou, H. W. Qu, and W. H. Zheng, "Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lohner, M.

M. Arzberger, M. Lohner, G. Bohm, and M. C. Amann, "Low-resistivity p-side contacts for InP-based devices using buried InGaAs tunnel junction," Electron. Lett. 36(1), 87-88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Margalit, S.

E. Kapon, C. Lindsey, J. Katz, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, "Coupling mechanism of gain-guided integrated semiconductor-laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(4), 389-391 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Martinsson, H.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabherr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, and A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzono, A.

A. Furukawa, S. Sasaki, M. Hoshi, A. Matsuzono, K. Moritoh, and T. Baba, "High-power single-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with triangular holey structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5161-5163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mawst, L. J.

L. Bao, N. H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, "Singlemode emission from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with low-index defects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 239-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou, and L. J. Mawst, "Two-dimensional phase-locked antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2307-2309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mereuta, A.

Michalzik, R.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabherr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, and A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mircea, A.

A. Mircea, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, C. A. Berseth, P. Royo, A. Syrbu, and E. Kapon, "Cavity mode-gain peak tradeoff for 1320nm wafer-fused VCSELs with 3mW single-mode emission power and 10-Gb/s modulation speed up to 70 degrees C," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 121-123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Modh, P.

A. Haglund, J. S. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, "Single fundamental-mode output power exceeding 6 mW from VCSELs with a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 368-370 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R. A.

R. A. Morgan, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, M. T. Asom, K. Kojima, L. E. Rogers, and S. E. Callis, "Transverse-mode control of vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(4), 374-377 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moritoh, K.

A. Furukawa, S. Sasaki, M. Hoshi, A. Matsuzono, K. Moritoh, and T. Baba, "High-power single-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with triangular holey structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5161-5163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M.

A. Golshani, H. Pier, E. Kapon, and M. Moser, "Photon mode localization in disordered arrays of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 85(4), 2454-2456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mutter, L.

Napartovich, A. P.

L. Bao, N. H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, "Singlemode emission from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with low-index defects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 239-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, M.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, "2-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor-lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804-806 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. G.

D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3901-3903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pier, H.

A. Golshani, H. Pier, E. Kapon, and M. Moser, "Photon mode localization in disordered arrays of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 85(4), 2454-2456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qu, H. W.

A. J. Liu, W. Chen, M. X. Xing, W. J. Zhou, H. W. Qu, and W. H. Zheng, "Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raftery, J. J.

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. L. Harren, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, and K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 909-917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, L. E.

R. A. Morgan, G. D. Guth, M. W. Focht, M. T. Asom, K. Kojima, L. E. Rogers, and S. E. Callis, "Transverse-mode control of vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(4), 374-377 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Royo, P.

A. Mircea, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, C. A. Berseth, P. Royo, A. Syrbu, and E. Kapon, "Cavity mode-gain peak tradeoff for 1320nm wafer-fused VCSELs with 3mW single-mode emission power and 10-Gb/s modulation speed up to 70 degrees C," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 121-123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, S.

A. Furukawa, S. Sasaki, M. Hoshi, A. Matsuzono, K. Moritoh, and T. Baba, "High-power single-mode vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with triangular holey structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5161-5163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Serkland, D. K.

D. K. Serkland, K. D. Choquette, G. R. Hadley, K. M. Geib, and A. A. Allerman, "Two-element phased array of antiguided vertical-cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3754-3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J. W.

J. W. Shi, J. L. Yen, C. H. Jiang, K. M. Chen, T. J. Hung, and Y. J. Yang, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with high-power and single-spot far-field distributions at 850-nm wavelength by use of petal-shaped light-emitting apertures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1-4), 481-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shinada, S.

S. Shinada, and F. Koyama, "Single high-order transverse mode surface-emitting laser with controlled far-field pattern," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(12), 1641-1643 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sirbu, A.

Siriani, D. F.

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. L. Harren, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, and K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 909-917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, D. S.

D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3901-3903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stoffel, N. G.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, "2-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor-lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804-806 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sulkin, J. D.

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. L. Harren, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, and K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 909-917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suruceanu, G.

A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, V. Iacovlev, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, "10-Gb/s and 10-km error-free transmission up to 100 degrees C with 1.3-mu m wavelength wafer-fused VCSELs," Opt. Express 17(15), 12981-12986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mircea, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, C. A. Berseth, P. Royo, A. Syrbu, and E. Kapon, "Cavity mode-gain peak tradeoff for 1320nm wafer-fused VCSELs with 3mW single-mode emission power and 10-Gb/s modulation speed up to 70 degrees C," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 121-123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Syrbu, A.

A. Mircea, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, G. Suruceanu, C. A. Berseth, P. Royo, A. Syrbu, and E. Kapon, "Cavity mode-gain peak tradeoff for 1320nm wafer-fused VCSELs with 3mW single-mode emission power and 10-Gb/s modulation speed up to 70 degrees C," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 121-123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, M. P.

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. L. Harren, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, and K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 909-917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Troshchieva, V. N.

L. Bao, N. H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, "Singlemode emission from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with low-index defects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 239-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vukusic, J.

A. Haglund, J. S. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, "Single fundamental-mode output power exceeding 6 mW from VCSELs with a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 368-370 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vukusic, J. A.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabherr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, and A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vysotsky, D. V.

L. Bao, N. H. Kim, L. J. Mawst, N. N. Elkin, V. N. Troshchieva, D. V. Vysotsky, and A. P. Napartovich, "Singlemode emission from vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with low-index defects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(2-4), 239-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, M. B.

D. Debernardi, G. Bava, F. di Sopra, and M. B. Willemsen, "Features of vectorial modes in phase-coupled VCSEL arrays: experiment and theory," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 109-119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wullert, J.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, "2-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor-lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804-806 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xing, M. X.

A. J. Liu, W. Chen, M. X. Xing, W. J. Zhou, H. W. Qu, and W. H. Zheng, "Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. J.

J. W. Shi, J. L. Yen, C. H. Jiang, K. M. Chen, T. J. Hung, and Y. J. Yang, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with high-power and single-spot far-field distributions at 850-nm wavelength by use of petal-shaped light-emitting apertures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1-4), 481-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

E. Kapon, C. Lindsey, J. Katz, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, "Coupling mechanism of gain-guided integrated semiconductor-laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(4), 389-391 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yen, J. L.

J. W. Shi, J. L. Yen, C. H. Jiang, K. M. Chen, T. J. Hung, and Y. J. Yang, "Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with high-power and single-spot far-field distributions at 850-nm wavelength by use of petal-shaped light-emitting apertures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1-4), 481-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. W.

E. W. Young, K. D. Choquette, S. L. Chuang, K. M. Geib, A. J. Fischer, and A. A. Allerman, "Single-transverse mode vertical-cavity lasers under continuous and pulsed operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(9), 927-929 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W. H.

A. J. Liu, W. Chen, M. X. Xing, W. J. Zhou, H. W. Qu, and W. H. Zheng, "Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou, and L. J. Mawst, "Two-dimensional phase-locked antiguided vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2307-2309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. J.

A. J. Liu, W. Chen, M. X. Xing, W. J. Zhou, H. W. Qu, and W. H. Zheng, "Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Orenstein, E. Kapon, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and J. Wullert, "2-dimensional phase-locked arrays of vertical-cavity semiconductor-lasers by mirror reflectivity modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 804-806 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left panel: 2×2 VCSEL array structure with definition of gain (square tunnel aperture of side length sTJ = 10μm) and refractive index profile (pixel of side length sP = 5μm) on separate vertical layers. Right panel: Vertical refractive index profile and electric field distribution inside a plain not patterned cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Light-voltage versus current characteristic of a coupled 2x2 VCSEL array with a pixel separation of g = 250 nm. (b) Corresponding near field (left column), far field (middle column) and emission spectra (right column) for injection currents of 1, 3, 5, and 14 mW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra and near field intensity distributions of the oscillating modes for two nominally identical devices (a) and (b) from different locations on the wafer with a pixel separation of g = 250 nm at an injection current of 14 mA. The near field intensity distributions were plotted in linear scale, using the full colour range shown.

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