Abstract

We demonstrated the plasmonic metallic nanostructure fabricated by direct nanoimprinting of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). This approach combines the patterning and lift-off processes into a simple one-step process without the need for expensive patterning lithographies and the stringent requirement of the lift-off process for nanostructures. Good imprinting integrity was accomplished with a negligible residual layer. The dynamic optical responses of the imprinted gold pillars from AuNPs to the bulk material during the annealing process were investigated. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of AuNPs or gold pillar arrays can be controlled and tuned during the annealing process. The sensitivity of the gold pillar array in terms of the wavelength shift per refractive index unit (RIU) reached 259 nm/RIU. The size of the imprinted gold pillars is highly scalable in our process. The corresponding resonance wavelengths can be widely tuned from the visible to infrared region by changing the size of the gold pillars, thus providing a wide range of sensing capability.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (4)

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ahn, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “Single-defect photonic crystal cavity laser fabricated by a combination of laser holography and focused ion beam lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Chang, Y. C. Lai, C. T. Li, C. K. Chen, and T. J. Yen, “A multi-functional plasmonic biosensor,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9561–9569 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-Y. Chen and C.-H. Lin, “A standing-wave interpretation of plasmon resonance excitation in split-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14280–14292 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

T. Karakouz, D. Holder, M. Goomanovsky, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Morphology and Refractive Index Sensitivity of Gold Island Films,” Chem. Mater. 21(24), 5875–5885 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, K. M. Mayer, and J. H. Hafner, “Improved localized surface plasmon resonance immunoassay with gold bipyramid substrates,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4450–4455 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wan, Z. Shu, S.-R. Deng, S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and X.-P. Qu, “Duplication of nanoimprint templates by a novel SU-8/SiO[sub 2]/PMMA trilayer technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 19–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Zhang, H. M. Liu, and S. F. Feng, “Solution-processible fabrication of large-area patterned and unpatterned gold nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 20(42), 425303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

I. Park, S. H. Ko, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, J. M. J. Frechet, E. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Nanoscale patterning and electronics on flexible substrate by direct nanoimprinting of metallic nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 489–496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Mayer, S. Lee, H. Liao, B. C. Rostro, A. Fuentes, P. T. Scully, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, “A label-free immunoassay based upon localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano 2(4), 687–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Langhammer, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, “Absorption and scattering of light by Pt, Pd, Ag, and Au nanodisks: absolute cross sections and branching ratios,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(19), 194702 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Ko, I. Park, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, C. K. Luscombe, and J. M. J. Fréchet, “Direct nanoimprinting of metal nanoparticles for nanoscale electronics fabrication,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1869–1877 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–Mask Colloidal Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: Methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

X. Zhang, B. Sun, R. H. Friend, H. Guo, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, “Metallic photonic crystals based on solution-processible gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 651–655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-Y. Jung, E. Johnston-Halperin, W. Wu, Z. Yu, S.-Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, Z. Li, J. E. Green, B. A. Sheriff, A. Boukai, Y. Bunimovich, J. R. Heath, and R. S. Williams, “Circuit fabrication at 17 nm half-pitch by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 351–354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lin, H.-L. Chen, W.-C. Chao, C.-I. Hsieh, and W.-H. Chang, “Optical characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystals based on spectroscopic ellipsometry with rigorous coupled-wave analysis,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1798–1804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. M. Jung, D. G. Choi, H. T. Jung, and S. M. Yang, “Patterned arrays of au rings for localized surface plasmon resonance,” Langmuir 22(17), 7109–7112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, “Fabrication of Crescent-Shaped Optical Antennas,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2131–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Lee, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Solvent compatibility of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(23), 6544–6554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Beck, M. Graczyk, I. Maximov, E. L. Sarwe, T. G. I. Ling, M. Keil, and L. Montelius, “Improving stamps for 10 nm level wafer scale nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1–3), 441–448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Improved pattern transfer in soft lithography using composite stamps,” Langmuir 18(13), 5314–5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: A Versatile Nanofabrication Tool for Studies of Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: Core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.

S. Ahn, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “Single-defect photonic crystal cavity laser fabricated by a combination of laser holography and focused ion beam lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alaverdyan, Y.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–Mask Colloidal Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. Beck, M. Graczyk, I. Maximov, E. L. Sarwe, T. G. I. Ling, M. Keil, and L. Montelius, “Improving stamps for 10 nm level wafer scale nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1–3), 441–448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boukai, A.

G.-Y. Jung, E. Johnston-Halperin, W. Wu, Z. Yu, S.-Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, Z. Li, J. E. Green, B. A. Sheriff, A. Boukai, Y. Bunimovich, J. R. Heath, and R. S. Williams, “Circuit fabrication at 17 nm half-pitch by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 351–354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunimovich, Y.

G.-Y. Jung, E. Johnston-Halperin, W. Wu, Z. Yu, S.-Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, Z. Li, J. E. Green, B. A. Sheriff, A. Boukai, Y. Bunimovich, J. R. Heath, and R. S. Williams, “Circuit fabrication at 17 nm half-pitch by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 351–354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerrina, F.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.-H.

C.-H. Lin, H.-L. Chen, W.-C. Chao, C.-I. Hsieh, and W.-H. Chang, “Optical characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystals based on spectroscopic ellipsometry with rigorous coupled-wave analysis,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1798–1804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. T.

Chao, W.-C.

C.-H. Lin, H.-L. Chen, W.-C. Chao, C.-I. Hsieh, and W.-H. Chang, “Optical characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystals based on spectroscopic ellipsometry with rigorous coupled-wave analysis,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1798–1804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-L.

C.-H. Lin, H.-L. Chen, W.-C. Chao, C.-I. Hsieh, and W.-H. Chang, “Optical characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystals based on spectroscopic ellipsometry with rigorous coupled-wave analysis,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1798–1804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-Y.

Chen, Y.

J. Wan, Z. Shu, S.-R. Deng, S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and X.-P. Qu, “Duplication of nanoimprint templates by a novel SU-8/SiO[sub 2]/PMMA trilayer technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 19–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. G.

S. Kim, J. M. Jung, D. G. Choi, H. T. Jung, and S. M. Yang, “Patterned arrays of au rings for localized surface plasmon resonance,” Langmuir 22(17), 7109–7112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clark, M. R.

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: Core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deng, S.-R.

J. Wan, Z. Shu, S.-R. Deng, S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and X.-P. Qu, “Duplication of nanoimprint templates by a novel SU-8/SiO[sub 2]/PMMA trilayer technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 19–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, A.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–Mask Colloidal Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, N. D.

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: Core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S. F.

X. P. Zhang, H. M. Liu, and S. F. Feng, “Solution-processible fabrication of large-area patterned and unpatterned gold nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 20(42), 425303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frechet, J. M. J.

I. Park, S. H. Ko, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, J. M. J. Frechet, E. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Nanoscale patterning and electronics on flexible substrate by direct nanoimprinting of metallic nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 489–496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fréchet, J. M. J.

S. H. Ko, I. Park, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, C. K. Luscombe, and J. M. J. Fréchet, “Direct nanoimprinting of metal nanoparticles for nanoscale electronics fabrication,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1869–1877 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fredriksson, H.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–Mask Colloidal Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

X. Zhang, B. Sun, R. H. Friend, H. Guo, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, “Metallic photonic crystals based on solution-processible gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 651–655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuentes, A.

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S. Lee, K. M. Mayer, and J. H. Hafner, “Improved localized surface plasmon resonance immunoassay with gold bipyramid substrates,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4450–4455 (2009).
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T. Karakouz, D. Holder, M. Goomanovsky, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Morphology and Refractive Index Sensitivity of Gold Island Films,” Chem. Mater. 21(24), 5875–5885 (2009).
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H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56–62 (2003).
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I. Park, S. H. Ko, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, J. M. J. Frechet, E. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Nanoscale patterning and electronics on flexible substrate by direct nanoimprinting of metallic nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 489–496 (2008).
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I. Park, S. H. Ko, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, J. M. J. Frechet, E. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Nanoscale patterning and electronics on flexible substrate by direct nanoimprinting of metallic nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 489–496 (2008).
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J. N. Lee, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Solvent compatibility of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(23), 6544–6554 (2003).
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J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
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S. Lee, K. M. Mayer, and J. H. Hafner, “Improved localized surface plasmon resonance immunoassay with gold bipyramid substrates,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4450–4455 (2009).
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Li, Z.

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M. Beck, M. Graczyk, I. Maximov, E. L. Sarwe, T. G. I. Ling, M. Keil, and L. Montelius, “Improving stamps for 10 nm level wafer scale nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1–3), 441–448 (2002).
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T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Improved pattern transfer in soft lithography using composite stamps,” Langmuir 18(13), 5314–5320 (2002).
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M. Beck, M. Graczyk, I. Maximov, E. L. Sarwe, T. G. I. Ling, M. Keil, and L. Montelius, “Improving stamps for 10 nm level wafer scale nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1–3), 441–448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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S. Lee, K. M. Mayer, and J. H. Hafner, “Improved localized surface plasmon resonance immunoassay with gold bipyramid substrates,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4450–4455 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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M. Beck, M. Graczyk, I. Maximov, E. L. Sarwe, T. G. I. Ling, M. Keil, and L. Montelius, “Improving stamps for 10 nm level wafer scale nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1–3), 441–448 (2002).
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M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: Core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998).
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X. Zhang, B. Sun, R. H. Friend, H. Guo, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, “Metallic photonic crystals based on solution-processible gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 651–655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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K. M. Mayer, S. Lee, H. Liao, B. C. Rostro, A. Fuentes, P. T. Scully, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, “A label-free immunoassay based upon localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano 2(4), 687–692 (2008).
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H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
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J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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I. Park, S. H. Ko, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, J. M. J. Frechet, E. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Nanoscale patterning and electronics on flexible substrate by direct nanoimprinting of metallic nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 489–496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Ko, I. Park, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, C. K. Luscombe, and J. M. J. Fréchet, “Direct nanoimprinting of metal nanoparticles for nanoscale electronics fabrication,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1869–1877 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. N. Lee, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Solvent compatibility of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(23), 6544–6554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, I.

I. Park, S. H. Ko, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, J. M. J. Frechet, E. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Nanoscale patterning and electronics on flexible substrate by direct nanoimprinting of metallic nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 489–496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Ko, I. Park, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, C. K. Luscombe, and J. M. J. Fréchet, “Direct nanoimprinting of metal nanoparticles for nanoscale electronics fabrication,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1869–1877 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, K. E.

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Improved pattern transfer in soft lithography using composite stamps,” Langmuir 18(13), 5314–5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pisano, A. P.

I. Park, S. H. Ko, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, J. M. J. Frechet, E. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Nanoscale patterning and electronics on flexible substrate by direct nanoimprinting of metallic nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 489–496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Ko, I. Park, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, C. K. Luscombe, and J. M. J. Fréchet, “Direct nanoimprinting of metal nanoparticles for nanoscale electronics fabrication,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1869–1877 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, M. D.

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: Core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qu, X.-P.

J. Wan, Z. Shu, S.-R. Deng, S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and X.-P. Qu, “Duplication of nanoimprint templates by a novel SU-8/SiO[sub 2]/PMMA trilayer technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 19–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rochholz, H.

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, “Fabrication of Crescent-Shaped Optical Antennas,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2131–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rostro, B. C.

K. M. Mayer, S. Lee, H. Liao, B. C. Rostro, A. Fuentes, P. T. Scully, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, “A label-free immunoassay based upon localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano 2(4), 687–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rubinstein, I.

T. Karakouz, D. Holder, M. Goomanovsky, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Morphology and Refractive Index Sensitivity of Gold Island Films,” Chem. Mater. 21(24), 5875–5885 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sarwe, E. L.

M. Beck, M. Graczyk, I. Maximov, E. L. Sarwe, T. G. I. Ling, M. Keil, and L. Montelius, “Improving stamps for 10 nm level wafer scale nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1–3), 441–448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scully, P. T.

K. M. Mayer, S. Lee, H. Liao, B. C. Rostro, A. Fuentes, P. T. Scully, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, “A label-free immunoassay based upon localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano 2(4), 687–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheriff, B. A.

G.-Y. Jung, E. Johnston-Halperin, W. Wu, Z. Yu, S.-Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, Z. Li, J. E. Green, B. A. Sheriff, A. Boukai, Y. Bunimovich, J. R. Heath, and R. S. Williams, “Circuit fabrication at 17 nm half-pitch by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 351–354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shu, Z.

J. Wan, Z. Shu, S.-R. Deng, S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and X.-P. Qu, “Duplication of nanoimprint templates by a novel SU-8/SiO[sub 2]/PMMA trilayer technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 19–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shumaker-Parry, J. S.

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, “Fabrication of Crescent-Shaped Optical Antennas,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2131–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solak, H. H.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, J. J.

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: Core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sultanova, N. G.

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

X. Zhang, B. Sun, R. H. Friend, H. Guo, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, “Metallic photonic crystals based on solution-processible gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 651–655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, D. S.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–Mask Colloidal Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, W. M.

G.-Y. Jung, E. Johnston-Halperin, W. Wu, Z. Yu, S.-Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, Z. Li, J. E. Green, B. A. Sheriff, A. Boukai, Y. Bunimovich, J. R. Heath, and R. S. Williams, “Circuit fabrication at 17 nm half-pitch by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 351–354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vachet, R. W.

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: Core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: A Versatile Nanofabrication Tool for Studies of Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaskevich, A.

T. Karakouz, D. Holder, M. Goomanovsky, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Morphology and Refractive Index Sensitivity of Gold Island Films,” Chem. Mater. 21(24), 5875–5885 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, J.

J. Wan, Z. Shu, S.-R. Deng, S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and X.-P. Qu, “Duplication of nanoimprint templates by a novel SU-8/SiO[sub 2]/PMMA trilayer technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 19–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.-Y.

G.-Y. Jung, E. Johnston-Halperin, W. Wu, Z. Yu, S.-Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, Z. Li, J. E. Green, B. A. Sheriff, A. Boukai, Y. Bunimovich, J. R. Heath, and R. S. Williams, “Circuit fabrication at 17 nm half-pitch by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 351–354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

J. N. Lee, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Solvent compatibility of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(23), 6544–6554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Improved pattern transfer in soft lithography using composite stamps,” Langmuir 18(13), 5314–5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wignall, G. D.

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: Core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. S.

G.-Y. Jung, E. Johnston-Halperin, W. Wu, Z. Yu, S.-Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, Z. Li, J. E. Green, B. A. Sheriff, A. Boukai, Y. Bunimovich, J. R. Heath, and R. S. Williams, “Circuit fabrication at 17 nm half-pitch by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 351–354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wingate, J. E.

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: Core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, D. B.

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Improved pattern transfer in soft lithography using composite stamps,” Langmuir 18(13), 5314–5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

G.-Y. Jung, E. Johnston-Halperin, W. Wu, Z. Yu, S.-Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, Z. Li, J. E. Green, B. A. Sheriff, A. Boukai, Y. Bunimovich, J. R. Heath, and R. S. Williams, “Circuit fabrication at 17 nm half-pitch by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 351–354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, S.-Q.

J. Wan, Z. Shu, S.-R. Deng, S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and X.-P. Qu, “Duplication of nanoimprint templates by a novel SU-8/SiO[sub 2]/PMMA trilayer technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 19–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. M.

S. Kim, J. M. Jung, D. G. Choi, H. T. Jung, and S. M. Yang, “Patterned arrays of au rings for localized surface plasmon resonance,” Langmuir 22(17), 7109–7112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

Yu, Z.

G.-Y. Jung, E. Johnston-Halperin, W. Wu, Z. Yu, S.-Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, Z. Li, J. E. Green, B. A. Sheriff, A. Boukai, Y. Bunimovich, J. R. Heath, and R. S. Williams, “Circuit fabrication at 17 nm half-pitch by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 351–354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zäch, M.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–Mask Colloidal Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, B. Sun, R. H. Friend, H. Guo, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, “Metallic photonic crystals based on solution-processible gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 651–655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. P.

X. P. Zhang, H. M. Liu, and S. F. Feng, “Solution-processible fabrication of large-area patterned and unpatterned gold nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 20(42), 425303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, C. J.

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: Core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zoric, I.

C. Langhammer, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, “Absorption and scattering of light by Pt, Pd, Ag, and Au nanodisks: absolute cross sections and branching ratios,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(19), 194702 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

K. M. Mayer, S. Lee, H. Liao, B. C. Rostro, A. Fuentes, P. T. Scully, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, “A label-free immunoassay based upon localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano 2(4), 687–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (5)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–Mask Colloidal Lithography,” Adv. Mater. 19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shumaker-Parry, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, “Fabrication of Crescent-Shaped Optical Antennas,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2131–2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Park, S. H. Ko, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, J. M. J. Frechet, E. S. Lee, and J. H. Jeong, “Nanoscale patterning and electronics on flexible substrate by direct nanoimprinting of metallic nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 489–496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: Methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

S. Lee, K. M. Mayer, and J. H. Hafner, “Improved localized surface plasmon resonance immunoassay with gold bipyramid substrates,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4450–4455 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Lee, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Solvent compatibility of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(23), 6544–6554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Ahn, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “Single-defect photonic crystal cavity laser fabricated by a combination of laser holography and focused ion beam lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

T. Karakouz, D. Holder, M. Goomanovsky, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Morphology and Refractive Index Sensitivity of Gold Island Films,” Chem. Mater. 21(24), 5875–5885 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Langhammer, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, “Absorption and scattering of light by Pt, Pd, Ag, and Au nanodisks: absolute cross sections and branching ratios,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(19), 194702 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: A Versatile Nanofabrication Tool for Studies of Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

J. Wan, Z. Shu, S.-R. Deng, S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and X.-P. Qu, “Duplication of nanoimprint templates by a novel SU-8/SiO[sub 2]/PMMA trilayer technique,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 19–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (4)

H. Chen, X. Kou, Z. Yang, W. Ni, and J. Wang, “Shape- and size-dependent refractive index sensitivity of gold nanoparticles,” Langmuir 24(10), 5233–5237 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, J. M. Jung, D. G. Choi, H. T. Jung, and S. M. Yang, “Patterned arrays of au rings for localized surface plasmon resonance,” Langmuir 22(17), 7109–7112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. B. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Improved pattern transfer in soft lithography using composite stamps,” Langmuir 18(13), 5314–5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: Core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (3)

C.-H. Lin, H.-L. Chen, W.-C. Chao, C.-I. Hsieh, and W.-H. Chang, “Optical characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystals based on spectroscopic ellipsometry with rigorous coupled-wave analysis,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1798–1804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, M. Graczyk, I. Maximov, E. L. Sarwe, T. G. I. Ling, M. Keil, and L. Montelius, “Improving stamps for 10 nm level wafer scale nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1–3), 441–448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, “Sub-50 nm period patterns with EUV interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56–62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

X. Zhang, B. Sun, R. H. Friend, H. Guo, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, “Metallic photonic crystals based on solution-processible gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 651–655 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-Y. Jung, E. Johnston-Halperin, W. Wu, Z. Yu, S.-Y. Wang, W. M. Tong, Z. Li, J. E. Green, B. A. Sheriff, A. Boukai, Y. Bunimovich, J. R. Heath, and R. S. Williams, “Circuit fabrication at 17 nm half-pitch by nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 351–354 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Ko, I. Park, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, C. K. Luscombe, and J. M. J. Fréchet, “Direct nanoimprinting of metal nanoparticles for nanoscale electronics fabrication,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1869–1877 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. P. Zhang, H. M. Liu, and S. F. Feng, “Solution-processible fabrication of large-area patterned and unpatterned gold nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 20(42), 425303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1–2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

C. F. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, “Absorption and Scattering by a Sphere,” in Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 82–129.

C. M. S. Torres, “Nanostructure Science and Technology,” in Alternative Lithography: Unleashing The Potentials Of Nanotechnology D. J. Lockwood, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Plenum Germany, 2003).

C.-H. Lin, H.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Chen, and T.-C. Cheng, “Direct imprinting on a polycarbonate substrate with a compressed air press for polarizer applications,” Microelectronic Engineering, ( http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mee.2010.1012.1089 ) (2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The scheme of the direct nanoimprinting process: (a) the imprint chamber; (b) preparation of hole array h/s-PDMS stamp; (c) spin coating of the 5% AuNPs solution on the substrate; (d) application of a pressure of 5 bar to the stamp and heating of the substrate at 70°C for 20 mins; (e) removal of the stamp and annealing of the imprinted AuNPs at 250°C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of the AuNPs imprinted on the silicon substrate at (a) 60°C, (b) 70°C, and (c) 80°C. The applied pressure was kept at 5 bar and the final annealing treatment was applied. The pattern of the stamp is a square hole array with a width of 400 nm and a pitch of 800 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of the AuNPs imprinted on the silicon substrate at pressures of (a) 3 bar, (b) 4 bar, (c) 5 bar, and (d) 6 bar. The imprinting temperature was kept at 70°C and the final annealing treatment was applied. The pattern of the stamp is a square hole array with a width of 800 nm and a pitch of 1.6 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental (top row) and simulated (bottom row) extinction spectra of the gold pillar arrays with (a) d = 290 nm, p = 600 nm; (b) d = 360 nm, p = 800 nm; and (c) d = 415 nm, p = 1000 nm. The geometrical parameters were the pillar’s diameter (d), pillar’s height (h), and array’s pitch (p). The black and red curves represent the spectra of the gold pillar arrays without and with a top PMMA layer, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured extinction spectra of the imprinted AuNP pillar arrays on a glass substrate with annealing time from 0 sec to 35 sec. The annealing temperature was 250°C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Simulated extinction spectra of the AuNPs with the Mie scattering analysis. The AuNPs were assumed to be ideal gold spheres with a diameter ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. The dielectric environment was assumed to be air. (b) The measured extinction spectrum of the spin-coated 5% AuNPs on a glass substrate with different annealing times from 0 sec to 45 sec. The annealing temperature was 250°C.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Extinction = - ln ( Transmission )
Sensitivity = Δ λ L S P R Δ n

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